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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the third workshop on Business Process Model and Notation, BPMN 2011, held in Lucerne, Switzerland, in November 2011. The 8 research papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 20 submissions. In addition, 10 short papers are included. The workshop applied a thorough reviewing process, during which each paper was reviewed by three Program Committee members. The BPMN workshop series provides a forum for academics and practitioners who share an interest in business process modeling using the business process modeling notation, which is seen by many as the de facto standard for business process modeling. This year, the workshop lasted two days and consisted of both a scientific and a practitioner event.



Full Papers

Towards a BPMN 2.0 Ontology

The Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is a widely used standard for business process modelling and maintained by the Object Management Group (OMG). However, the BPMN 2.0 specification is quite comprehensive and spans more than 500 pages. The definition of an element is distributed across different sections and sometimes conflicting. In addition, the structure of the elements and their relationships are described within the metamodel, however, further syntactical rules are defined within the natural text. Therefore, this paper defines an ontology that formally represents the BPMN specification. This ontology is called the BPMN 2.0 Ontology and can be used as a knowledge base. The description of an element is combined within the corresponding class and further explanations are provided in annotations. This allows a much faster understanding of BPMN. In addition, the ontology is used as a syntax checker to validate concrete BPMN models.
Christine Natschläger

On the Expressiveness of BPMN for Modeling Wireless Sensor Networks Applications

Business processes describe the transformations which add economic value to products and services. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are a pervasive means for business processes to interact in real time with the environment. In this paper, we analyze the business process model and notation (BPMN) standard with respect to its expressiveness for capturing the reactive, communication, and heterogeneous aspects of such WSN applications. Our analysis is based on a representative set of WSN applications for which we found the BPMN language adequate in capturing high-level specifications.
Alexandru Caracaş, Thorsten Kramp

Faster Or-Join Enactment for BPMN 2.0

We propose an efficient algorithm that enacts the control-flow of BPMN, in particular the inclusive Or-join gateway. The original algorithm for enacting Or-joins in BPMN 2.0 needs, upon each token move in the diagram, linear time in the number of edges of the diagram to find out whether a given Or-join is enabled, whereas our proposal essentially needs only constant time to do so.
Beat Gfeller, Hagen Völzer, Gunnar Wilmsmann

Towards Understanding Process Modeling – The Case of the BPM Academic Initiative

Business process models are typically graphs that communicate knowledge about the work performed in organizations. Collections of these models are gathered to analyze and improve the way an organization operates. From a research perspective, these collections tell about modeling styles, the relevance of modeling constructs, and common formal modeling mistakes.
With this paper, we outline a research agenda for investigating the act of process modeling using models of the BPM Academic Initiative. This collection comprises 1903 models, the majority captured in BPMN. The models were created by students from various universities as part of their process modeling education. As such, the collection is particularly suited to investigate modeling practice since it is probably unique in terms of modeling heterogeneity. As a first step, we characterize EPC and BPMN models of the collection using established process model metrics. Further, we investigate the usage of language constructs for these models. Our findings largely confirm the results obtained in prior, smaller studies on modeling in a professional context.
Matthias Kunze, Alexander Luebbe, Matthias Weidlich, Mathias Weske

Extending BPMN 2.0: Method and Tool Support

There are two major pitfalls in the development of extensions to the BPMN 2.0 metamodel. First, there is a lack of methodological guides considering the extensibility approach supported by the extension mechanism of the language. Second, BPMN does not provide any graphical notation for the representation of extensions. This work proposes a method based on Model-Driven Architecture for the development of extensions to the BPMN 2.0 metamodel. It enables the conceptual modeling of extensions by using UML, their graphical representation in terms of the BPMN extension mechanism, and their transformation into XML Schema documents that can be processed by BPMN tools. A tool supporting the proposed method is also presented.
Luis Jesús Ramón Stroppi, Omar Chiotti, Pablo David Villarreal


The Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style has seen substantial growth and adoption for the design of modern Resource-Oriented Architectures. However, the impact of fundamental constraints such as stateful resources, stateless interactions, and the uniform interface have had only limited uptake and impact in the Business Process Modeling (BPM) community in general, and in the standardization activities revolving around the BPMN notation. In this paper we propose a simple and minimal extension of the BPMN 2.0 notation to provide first-class support for the concept of resource. We show several examples of how the extended notation can be used to externalize the state of a process as a resource, as well as to describe process-driven composition of resources.
Cesare Pautasso

A Notation for Supporting Social Business Process Modeling

Social networking is more and more considered as crucial for helping organizations harness the value of informal relationships and weak ties, without compromising the consolidated business practices embedded in conventional BPM solutions. However, no appropriate notation has been devised for specifying social aspects within business process models. In this paper we propose a first attempt towards the extension of business process notations with social features. In particular, we devise an extension of the BPMN notation for capturing social requirements. Such extension does not alter the semantics of the language: it includes a set of new event types and task types, together with some annotation for the pool/lane levels. This notation enables the description of social behaviours within BPMN diagrams. To demonstrate the applicability of the notation, we implement it within the WebRatio BPM editor and we provide a code generation framework that automatically produces a process enactment Web application connected with mainstream social platforms.
Marco Brambilla, Piero Fraternali, Carmen Vaca

Evaluating Choreographies in BPMN 2.0 Using an Extended Quality Framework

The notion of choreography has emerged over the past years as a foundational concept for capturing and managing collaborative business processes. This concept has been adopted as a first-class citizen in the latest version of the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN 2.0). However, it remains an open question whether or not BPMN 2.0 is actually appropriate for capturing choreographies. In this paper, we shed light into this question by extending an existing language evaluation framework in order to cover the specificities of choreographies, and applying the extended evaluation framework to BPMN 2.0. Among others, the evaluation identifies a number of issues in BPMN 2.0 that affect the perceptual discriminability of certain choreography modelling constructs. These deficiencies could potentially affect the comprehensibility of models and lead to confusion, particularly among novice users. Recommendations for addressing these deficiencies are put forward.
Mario Cortes-Cornax, Sophie Dupuy-Chessa, Dominique Rieu, Marlon Dumas

Short Papers

A Lightweight Approach for Designing Enterprise Architectures Using BPMN: An Application in Hospitals

An Enterprise Architecture (EA) comprises different models at different levels of abstraction. Since existing EA design approaches, e.g. MDA, use UML for modeling, the design of the architecture becomes complex and time consuming. In this paper, we present an integrated and lightweight design approach for EA that uses a generic architecture and patterns, expressed in BPMN. The approach facilitates the modeling between the different levels. This has been applied in real cases in hospitals and other domains, demonstrating its feasibility and usability, reducing complexity and time for modeling.
Oscar Barros, Ricardo Seguel, Alejandro Quezada

Implementing the Semantics of BPMN through Model-Driven Web Application Generation

We describe a pragmatic approach based on Model Driven Engineering (MDE) principles for implmenting the execution semantics of BPMN. The approach is based on a two-step model transformation that transforms BPMN models into Web application models specified according to the WebML notation and then into running Web applications. Thanks to the proposed chain of model transformations it is also possible to fine tune the final application in several ways by refining the intermediate WebML application models.
Marco Brambilla, Piero Fraternali

Layout Patterns with BPMN Semantics

BPMN is a notation language that provides visual elements for modeling business processes. The resulting BPMN diagrams that represent BPMN models follow rules concerning their layout for creating a common understanding among all BPMN designers. A subset of the rules is determined by the BPMN standard. Other rules evolved when the BPMN community gained experience in the usage of its notation language. From a layout algorithmic perspective, the rules are formalized as so-called aesthetics. Until today, aesthetics for BPMN are mostly limited to the underlying graph structure of a BPMN process model diagram.
In this work, we present new layout patterns that can be applied in layout applications of BPMN and its modeling tools. The new layout patterns support BPMN semantics and address layout issues that are not covered by aesthetics so far. The patterns can be combined to achieve positive effects on multiple a) layout issues and b) BPMN semantics at a time. We also give detailed algorithmic descriptions for our patterns.
Philip Effinger

Integration of BPM and BRM

The Business process modelling notation (BPMN) is used for modelling and automating business processes. The resulting process models contain all details that define the process flows from the high level scope up to technological aspects. Often, the readability decreases due to complex flow decisions and computations. While the models could be simplified from the business perspective they must be precise enough when they are executed later on. This paper proposes to use business rule management (BRM) in addition to business process management (BPM) to overcome these drawbacks. It shows best practices for a proper integration of BPM and BRM with regard to modelling and a seamless system integration.
Jörg Hohwiller, Diethelm Schlegel, Gunter Grieser, Yvette Hoekstra

Extending the BPMN Syntax for Requirements Management

Regulations and laws are a very determining factor in every business domain. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to consider these legal constraints already in the early design phase of business processes in order to create process descriptions which are legally valid. The business process modeling notation (BPMN) has become the method of choice when it comes to business process modeling. We extended the syntax by specific artifacts in order to explicitly represent legal constraints directly in the BPMN models. Legal constraints can be considered as necessary requirements for business processes. Therefore it is important to track whether all requirements respectively legal constraints have been represented within the process models. As a consequence we extended our BPMN editor by an export functionality to be able to transfer the legal constraints as requirements into a requirements management tool.
Sascha Goldner, Alf Papproth

Integrating Business Process Models and Business Logic: BPMN and The Decision Model

Multiple views on an enterprise are needed to model and design business processes systematically. The flow of a process is often the primary model developed. The explicit presentation of the business logic and their use in the business process is another essential artifact.
The article discusses the connection between business process modeling with BPMN and the presentation of business logic with “The Decision Model” framework. The framework includes a visual notation, presentation of rule sets, normal forms, presentation principles and the connection to the process model.
Jürgen Pitschke

Building a Business Graph System and Network Integration Model Based on BPMN

Business Network Management (BNM) provides companies with techniques for managing their trading partner networks by making technical integration, business and social aspects visible within a network view and set them into context to each other. This allows various personas, from the business specialist to the technical integration expert, to monitor, enrich and setup business processes by collaborating on the different contexts. In this paper, we propose a BNM concept, which features inter-connected business and technical perspectives showing the company network. The Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a well-established standard for describing business process semantics and particularly aims for understandability by technical and business stakeholders. Hence we apply BPMN to BNM, for which we use BPMN as graphical notation on UI and as basis for our Network Integration Model (NIM) by extending a subset of BPMN (mainly conversation diagram) to cover both business and technical integration aspects. We present a novel approach on applying BPMN to our domain and reports on our experiences with it.
Daniel Ritter, Jörg Ackermann, Ankur Bhatt, Frank Oliver Hoffmann

Requirements Engineering for SOA Services with BPMN 2.0 – From Analysis to Specification

This paper presents experiences in requirements engineering analysis, service identification, and service specification that were gained during a service development project in a public government organization. These experiences resulted in a method comprising techniques relying on a combination of BPMN 2.0 and UML. This method shows that using a combination of these notations and model generation of IT artifacts leads to fewer documents for different stakeholders, alignment of service specifications to original requirements, and semantic unambiguousness for service specifications.
Gregor Scheithauer, Björn Hardegen

Introducing Entity-Based Concepts to Business Process Modeling

The so-called Internet of Things (IoT) that comprises interconnected physical devices such as sensor networks and its technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is increasingly adopted in many industries and thus becomes highly relevant for process modeling and execution. As BPMN 2.0 does not yet consider the idiosyncrasies of real-world entities we suggest new modeling concepts for a physical entity as well as a sensing task and an actuation task to make BPMN IoT-aware.
Klaus Sperner, Sonja Meyer, Carsten Magerkurth

On the Capabilities of BPMN for Workflow Activity Patterns Representation

This paper provides a complete version of the Workflow Activity Patterns (WAP) in the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) as well as an extended evaluation of the capabilities of BPMN and their strengths and weaknesses when being utilizing for representing WAPs. When implementing the activity patterns in existing Business Process Modeling tools, it is fundamental to represent them in BPMN. This representation may facilitate the adoption of the WAPs by BPMN tools as well as the use of the WAPs in process design.
Lucinéia Heloisa Thom, Ivanna M. Lazarte, Cirano Iochpe, Luz-Maria Priego, Christine Verdier, Omar Chiotti, Pablo David Villarreal


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