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Über dieses Buch

In this book the author aims to describe the path from Information Technology to Information Management and Information Governance. This path allows organizations to identify IT Business Value and take advantage of it. The book synthesizes the main approaches that have emerged in recent years, compares these approaches along multiple variables, and finally proposes an advanced and new approach to Information Governance, based on the concept of Organizational Absorptive Capacity.

Furthermore, the book presents a new approach to Information Management: the SIGMA (Strategic Information Governance Modelling and Assessment) approach. The new approach is centered on information as a key factor allowing integration between IT applications, organizational capabilities and business strategy. In particular, the Absorptive Capacity concept is presented and discussed: this concept represents the ability of an organization to maintain and absorb the potential of information and IT investments. After having presented and discussed the model, we also provide the reader with a brief presentation of how the SIGMA approach should be applied in companies.

The book adopts a scientific approach to ensure methodological rigour; however, it is also concrete and describes problems from the viewpoints of managers, adopting a clear and easy-to-understand language in order to capture the interest of top managers and graduate students.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Part1

Chapter 1. The IT Business Value

Abstract
The role of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the area of Information Technology (IT) business value. IT business value refers to the impact of information technology on the organizational performance and on parameters such as cost reduction and increased productivity among others. In this chapter the role of technology as a critical source of competitive advantage is analyzed. The critical role of IT is investigated and issues related to when IT matters and when IT does not matter are presented. In addition to these, the sources and the impact of IT business value and the association between strategic performance and IT business value is explored too. The last part of the chapter introduces the concept of information management and the relation between information technology and information management. Emphasis and further analysis on Information management is taking place in the following chapters beginning from Chap. 2.
Vincenzo Morabito

Chapter 2. An Information Management Approach Emphasizing on the ‘I’ in IT

Abstract
In Chap. 1, issues related to Information Technology Business value were explored. In doing so, issues related to the impact of IT on organizational performance and competitive advantage were analyzed. Moreover, Chap. 1 introduced the relation between Information Technology and Information Management. Chapter 2 continues the discussion on information management and it pays attention to Information. Information and the mechanisms for delivering it are the glue that holds together the structure of businesses. This chapter explores also the evolution of information management as well as issues initially introduced in Chap. 1 and related to organizational performance. In an attempt to better analyze these issues, Chapter 2 reports three different approaches namely: (a) IT-centered approach, (b) Information-centered approach and (c) People-centered approach. In addition to these, Chapter 2 introduces Knowledge Management and knowledge management practices.
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Chapter 3. The Information Operation Approach

Abstract
The previous chapter paid attention to the first word of the term ‘Information Technology’ and explained the role of information as a resource. Moreover, it emphasized on the importance of information management and explained information management cycle and knowledge management and IT practices among others. It also explored relevant approaches such as the IT-centered approach, the Information-centered approach and the People-centered approach. The basic intent of Chap. 3 is to facilitate managers to understand how to use, manage and align information effectively. In doing so, improving business performance and achieving business results. As a result Chap. 3, moves a step forward and presents the Information Operation Approach and it commences the debate by focusing on why information is the responsibility of every manager and creating business value through information. In this regard, the Strategic Information Alignment Framework is presented and analyzed. Thereafter, contemplating on how information can be utilized by (a) adding value through customers, (b) creating new reality, (c) reducing costs, and (d) minimizing risks.
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Chapter 4. The Information Orientation Approach

Abstract
In the previous chapter, the Information Operation Approach and the Strategic Information Alignment (SIA) Framework was presented. The SIA framework deals with issues of information use to add value, manage risks, reduce costs, and create new reality. As a result, SIA supports the business strategy of an organization. This chapter is about perceiving information in an innovative way but with a different approach i.e. in a way that can assist in measuring the use of information and managing it to enhance the business performance – through the Information Orientation (IO) Approach. Information Orientation Approach refers to the capabilities and behaviours associated with effective and proficient use of information. It measures the extent to which senior managers perceive that their organizations possess the capabilities correlated with effective information use to improve business performance. This chapter analyses the establishment of orientation towards the effective use of information within a business by itself the: (a) information i.e. information management practices, (b) technology i.e. Information Technology (IT) practices, and (c) people i.e. promoting information behaviours and values in people.
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Chapter 5. The Information Evolution Approach

Abstract
This chapter moves our discussion a step forward by introducing a new approach entitled ‘Information Evolution Approach’. This approach is based on the information evolution model which separates information capabilities at five levels. The first one is called Operational level and it is characterized by individual data ownership and control. The second level, the Consolidation level, has an individual level perspective. The next level is called Integration level and it expands level 2 into an enterprise-wide view. The Optimisation level is the fourth in the row. During this level organizations are closely aligned with their markets and gain market leadership by applying predictive insights about customers, suppliers and business partners. The last level is entitled Innovation level and it focuses on sustainable growth and revenue potential by continuing creativity and renewal. The analysis at each level of the model is based on four parameters. These are presented and investigated in the following sections.
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Chapter 6. The Foundation for an Information Approach

Abstract
The previous chapters presented and analyzed various approaches on Information Management, Information Operation, Information Orientation and Information Evolution. This chapter discusses the foundation for an information approach. In doing so, Chap. 6 presents an approach for building a foundation for execution. This means an IT infrastructure with automated business processes that synchronize a company’s fundamental operational and technological capabilities. The chapter explains how to build a foundation for strategy execution and defines an organizational operating model. Thereafter, it goes though the types and dimensions of the operating model and explains how to implement an organizational operating model through enterprise architecture.
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Part2

Chapter 7. A Comparison of the Four Approaches

Abstract
In this chapter a concentrated view and analysis of the four different approaches presented in the previous chapters is provided. Starting with the first section, a quick view of the approaches under question is given. The second section presents characteristic advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches and analyzes them. Thereafter, the third section analyses the similarities and differences among these approaches, with the fourth section presenting a quick reference to the main characteristics of the four approaches. Finally, section “Example of Business Scenario” is an exemplar scenario that summarizes all four approaches.
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Chapter 8. Organizational Absorptive Capacity and the Use of Information

Abstract
A discussion that focuses on two key questions is carried out in this chapter. Questions like: (a) how does investment in Information Technology contribute towards enhanced business performance? (b) how can we relate IT and business performance with organizational absorptive capacity? In this chapter, the effect of IS integration on business performance through absorptive capacity is explored by theorising that absorptive capacity also has a mediation role between IS integration and business performance. The chapter proposes IS integration as a construct that measures a simultaneous change in IT and non-IT resources. The IS integration construct is considered as a general measure of a simultaneous change in IT and complementary organizational resources, leading to the first causal relationship of the integrated model.
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Chapter 9. Strategic Information Governance Modeling and Assessment

Abstract
In this chapter an analysis of the Strategic Information Governance Modeling and Assessment (SIGMA) model is provided. The chapter consists of three sections. Section “The Sigma Model” portrays the Sigma model, the factors affecting firm performance, the main elements of the model and proceeds explaining the concept of information governance and its parameters. Section “The Main Elements of the Model” analyzes the model’s check-up tool by clarifying concepts relating to the evaluation of: (a) performance, (b) capabilities and (c) business process of a firm, as well as analyzing the TO-BE state of a firm. The last Section refers to the SIMBA methodology which was used to develop the SIGMA model.
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Backmatter

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