Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The article reports the findings of a study conducted among 387 consumers regarding their perceptions of the unethicality of business practices of firms and how these affect their response behavior, in terms of trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study confirmed that high levels of perceived corporate unethicality decrease consumer trust. This in turn reduces consumer satisfaction, which ultimately has negative effects on customer loyalty. It was also revealed that, although both consumer gender and urbanity have a moderating effect on the link between perceived unethicality and trust, the age group and level of education of the consumer did not exhibit such an effect. With regard to consumer cultural characteristics, both high uncertainty avoidance and low individualism were found to increase the negative impact of business unethicality on trust, as opposed to power distance and masculinity that did not have any moderating effect on this relationship. Implications for managers are extracted from the study findings, as well as directions for future research.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ahearne, M., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Gruen, T. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of customer-company identification: Expanding the role of relationship marketing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 574–585. CrossRef
Andaleeb, S. S. (1996). An experimental investigation of satisfaction and commitment in marketing channels: The role of trust and dependence. Journal of Retailing, 72(1), 77–93. CrossRef
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modelling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423. CrossRef
Anderson, J. C., & Narus, J. A. (1990). A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 42–58. CrossRef
Ang, S. H., Cheng, P. S., Lim, E. A. C., & Tambyah, S. K. (2001). Spot the difference: Consumer responses towards counterfeits. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(3), 219–235. CrossRef
Antón, C., Camarero, C., & Carrero, M. (2007). The mediating effect of satisfaction on consumers’ switching intention. Psychology and Marketing, 24(6), 511–538. CrossRef
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(Spring), 74–94.
Beatty, S. E., Mayer, M., Coleman, J. E., Reynolds, K. E., & Lee, J. (1996). Customer-sales associate retail relationships. Journal of Retailing, 72(3), 223–247. CrossRef
Bejou, D., Ennew, C. T., & Palmer, A. (1998). Trust, ethics, and relationship satisfaction. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(4), 170–175. CrossRef
Bentler, P. M. (2006). Structural equations program manual. Encino: Multivariate Software Inc.
Bird, F., & Gandz, J. (1991). Good management—Business ethics in action. Ontario: Prentice Hall.
Brunk, K. (2010). Exploring origins of ethical company/brand perceptions—A consumer perspective of corporate ethics. Journal of Business Research, 63(3), 255–262. CrossRef
Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modelling with EQS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carrigan, M., & Attalla, A. (2001). The myth of the ethical consumer—Do ethics matter in purchase behaviour? The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), 560–577. CrossRef
Castaldo, S., Perrini, F., Misani, N., & Tencati, A. (2009). The missing link between corporate social responsibility and consumer trust: The case of fair trade products. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(1), 1–15. CrossRef
Chang, K., & Ding, C. G. (1995). The influence of culture on industrial buying selection criteria in Taiwan and mainland China. Industrial Marketing Management, 24, 277–284. CrossRef
Chow, S., & Holden, R. (1997). Toward an understanding of loyalty: The moderating role of trust. Journal of Managerial Issues, 9(3), 275–298.
Chung, J., & Monroe, G. S. (2003). Exploring social desirability bias. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(4), 291–302. CrossRef
Clugston, M., Howell, J. P., & Dorfman, P. W. (2000). Does cultural socialization predict multiple bases and foci of commitment? Journal of Management, 26(1), 5–30.
Cohen, J. (2001). Appreciating, understanding and applying universal moral principles. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), 578–594. CrossRef
Cohen, J. R., Pant, L. W., & Sharp, D. J. (1992). Cultural and socioeconomic constraints on international codes of ethics: Lessons from accounting. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(9), 687–700. CrossRef
Connolly, J., & Prothero, A. (2003). Sustainable consumption: Consumption, communities and consumption discourse. Consumption Markets and Culture, 6(4), 275–291. CrossRef
Crane, A. (2005). Meeting the ethical gaze: Challenges for orienting to the ethical market. In R. Harrison, T. Newholm, & D. Shaw (Eds.), The ethical consumer (pp. 219–232). London: Sage. CrossRef
Creyer, E. H., & Ross, W. T. (1997). The influence of firm behavior on purchase intention: Do consumers really care about business ethics? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 14(6), 421–432. CrossRef
Dawson, L. (1995). Women and men, morality and ethics. Business Horizons, 38(4), 61–68. CrossRef
De Jong, M. G., Pieters, R., & Fox, J.-P. (2010). Reducing social desirability bias through item randomized response: An application to measure underreported desires’. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(1), 14–27. CrossRef
Dennis, I. (2007). Halo effects in grading student projects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 1169–1176. CrossRef
DePaulo, P. J. (1987). Ethical perceptions of deceptive bargaining tactics used by salespersons and consumers: A double standard. In J. G. Saegert (Ed.), Proceedings of the division of consumer psychology (pp. 201–203). Washington: American Psychological Association.
Dick, A., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99–113. CrossRef
Dickinson, R., & Carsky, M. (2005). The Consumer as economic voter. In R. Harrison, T. Newholm, & D. Shaw (Eds.), The ethical consumer (pp. 25–36). London: Sage. CrossRef
Doney, P. M., & Cannon, J. P. (1997). An examination of the nature of trust in buyer–seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 61(4), 35–51. CrossRef
Dwyer, F. R., Schurr, P., & Oh, S. (1987). Developing buyer–seller relationships in industrial product channels. Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 11–27. CrossRef
Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Ekin, M. G., & Tezölmez, S. (1999). Business ethics in Turkey: An empirical investigation with special emphasis on gender. Journal of Business Ethics, 18(1), 17–34. CrossRef
Erffmeyer, R., Keillor, B., & LeClair, D. T. (1999). An empirical investigation of Japanese consumer ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 18(1), 35–50. CrossRef
Ferrell, O. C. (2004). Business ethics and customer stakeholders. Academy of Management Executive, 18(2), 126–129.
Ferrell, O. C., & Gresham, L. G. (1985). A contingency framework for understanding ethical decision making in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 87–96. CrossRef
Ferrell, O. C., Gresham, L. G., & Fraedrich, J. (1989). A synthesis of ethical decision models for marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 9(2), 55–64. CrossRef
Folkes, V. S., & Kamins, M. A. (1999). Effects of information about firms ethical and unethical actions on consumers’ attitudes. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 8(3), 243–259. CrossRef
Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (1994). Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(3), 205–221. CrossRef
Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American consumer satisfaction index: Nature, purpose, and findings. Journal of Marketing, 60(4), 1–13. CrossRef
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–40. CrossRef
Foster, B. D., & Cadogan, J. W. (2000). Relationship selling and customer loyalty: An empirical investigation. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 18(4), 185–199. CrossRef
Franke, G., Crown, D., & Spake, D. (1997). Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 920–934. CrossRef
Fullerton, S., Kerch, K. B., & Dodge, H. R. (1996). Consumer ethics: An assessment of individual behavior in the market place. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(7), 805–814. CrossRef
Futrell, C. M. (2002). Fundamentals of selling: customers for life (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ganesan, S. (1994). Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer–seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 1–19. CrossRef
Gerbing, D. W., & Hamilton, J. G. (1996). Viability of exploratory factor analysis as a precursor to confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modelling, 3, 62–72. CrossRef
Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Kumar, N. (1998). Generalizations about trust in marketing channels relationships using meta-analysis. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(3), 223–248. CrossRef
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Goolsby, J. R., & Hunt, S. D. (1992). Cognitive moral development and marketing. Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 55–68. CrossRef
Grisaffe, D. B., & Jaramillo, F. (2007). Toward higher levels of ethics: Preliminary evidence of positive outcomes. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 27(4), 355–371. CrossRef
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Prentice-Hall: Pearson.
Hammann, E.-M., Habisch, A., & Pechlaner, H. (2009). Values that create value: Socially responsible business practices in SMEs—An empirical evidence from German companies. Business Ethics: A European Review, 18(1), 37–51. CrossRef
Harris, J. R. (1990). Ethical values of individuals at different levels in the organizational hierarchy of a single firm. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(9), 741–750. CrossRef
Hennig-Thurau, T. (2004). Customer orientation of service employees: Its impact on customer satisfaction, commitment, and retention. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), 460–478. CrossRef
Hoffman, J. (1998). Are women really more ethical than men? Maybe it depends on the situation. Journal of Managerial Issues, 10(1), 60–73.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw Hill.
Holbrook, A. L., Green, M. C., & Krosnick, J. A. (2003). Telephone versus face-to-face interviewing of national probability samples with long questionnaires. Public Opinion Quarterly, 67(1), 79–125. CrossRef
Hosmer, L. (1995). Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 379–403.
House, J. (1981). Social structure and personality. In M. Rosenberg & R. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 525–561). New York: Basic Books.
Huang, M.-H. (2008). The influence of selling behaviors on customer relationships in financial services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19(4), 458–473. CrossRef
Hunt, S. D., & Vitell, S. J. (1986). A general theory of marketing ethics. Journal of Macromarketing, 6(1), 5–16. CrossRef
Hunt, S. D. & Vitell, S. J. (1991). The general theory of marketing ethics: A retrospective and revision. In N. C. Smith & Quelch, J. A. (Eds.), Ethics in marketing (1993) (pp. 775–784). Honeywood: Irwin.
Ingram, R., Skinner, S. J., & Taylor, V. A. (2005). Consumers’ evaluation of unethical marketing behaviours: The role of customer commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(5), 237–252. CrossRef
Jackson, T. (2001). Cultural values and management ethics: A 10-nation study. Human Relations, 54(10), 1267–1303.
Johnson, M. D., Gustafsson, A., Andreassen, T. W., Lervik, L., & Cha, J. (2001). The evolution and future of national customer satisfaction index models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(2), 217–245. CrossRef
Jones, R. E., J. Fly, M. J., & Cordell, H. K. (1999). How green is my valley? Tracking rural and urban environmentalism in the southern Appalachian. Rural Sociology, 64(3), 482–499.
Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 366–395.
Joyner, B. E., & Payne, D. (2002). Evolution and implementation: A study of values, business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4), 297–311. CrossRef
Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: The role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(6), 346–351. CrossRef
Kay-Enders, B. (1996). Marketing und ethik: Grundlagen – determinanten – handlungsempfehlungen, Wiesbaden.
Kelley, S. W., Ferrell, O. C., & Skinner, S. J. (1990). Ethical behavior among marketing researchers: An assessment of selected demographic characteristics. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(8), 681–688. CrossRef
Kennedy, M. S., Ferrell, L. K., & LeClair, D. T. (2001). Consumers’ trust of salesperson and manufacturer: An empirical study. Journal of Business Research, 51(1), 73–86. CrossRef
Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development, vol. II: The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper and Row.
Lagace, R. R., Dahlstrom, R., & Gassenheimer, J. B. (1991). The relevance of ethical salesperson behavior on relationship quality: The pharmaceutical industry. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 11(4), 39–47.
Lane, J. C. (1995). Ethics of business students: Some marketing perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(7), 571–580. CrossRef
Lane, M. S., Schaupp, D., & Parsons, B. (1988). Pygmalion effect: An issue for business education and ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 7(3), 223–229. CrossRef
Lerner, M. (1980). The belief in a just world. New York: Plenum.
Macdonald, G. (2000). Cross-cultural methodological issues in ethical research. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(1/2), 89–104. CrossRef
Macintosh, G., Anglin, K. A., Szymanski, D. M., & Gentry, J. W. (1992). Relation development in selling: Cognitive analysis. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 12(4), 23–34.
Malinowski, C., & Berger, K. (1996). Undergraduate attitudes about hypothetical marketing dilemmas. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(5), 525–535. CrossRef
Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.
Mick, D. G. (1996). Are studies of dark side variables confounded by socially desirable responding? The case of materialism. Journal of Consumer Research, 23(2), 106–119. CrossRef
Mitchell, V. W., Balabanis, G., Schlegelmilch, B. B., & Cornwell, T. B. (2009). Measuring unethical consumer behavior across four countries. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(2), 395–412. CrossRef
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt S. D, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38. CrossRef
Mudrack, P. (1989). Age-related differences in Machiavellianism in adult sample. Psychology Report, 64(3, Pt 2), 1947–1950. CrossRef
Muncy, J. A., & Vitell, S. J. (1992). Consumer ethics: An investigation of the ethical beliefs of the final consumer. Journal of Business Research, 24(4), 297–311. CrossRef
Nebenzahl, I. D., Jaffe, E. D., & Kavak, B. (2001). Consumers’ punishment and rewarding process via purchasing behaviour. Teaching Business Ethics, 5(1), 238–305.
Nederhof, A. J. (1985). Methods of coping with social desirability bias: A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15(3), 263–280. CrossRef
O’Fallon, M. J., & Butterfield, K. D. (2005). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 1996–2003. Journal of Business Ethics, 59(4), 375–413. CrossRef
Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 63(Special Issue), 33–44. CrossRef
Olsen, S. O. (2007). Repurchase loyalty: The role of involvement and satisfaction. Psychology and Marketing, 24(4), 315–341. CrossRef
Olsen, S. O., Wilcox, J., & Olsson, U. (2005). Consequences of ambivalence on satisfaction and loyalty. Psychology and Marketing, 22(3), 247–269. CrossRef
Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403–441. CrossRef
Palmatier, R. W., Dant, R. P., Grewal, D., & Evans, K. R. (2006). Factors influencing the effectiveness of relationship marketing: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 136–153. CrossRef
Pelsmacker, P. D., & Janssens, W. (2007). A model for fair trade buying behaviour: The role of perceived quantity and quality of information and of product-specific attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4), 361–380. CrossRef
Pelton, L. E., Chowdhury, J., & Vitell, S. J. (1999). A framework for the examination of relational ethics: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(3), 241–253. CrossRef
Podsakoff, M. P., MacKenzie, B. S., Jeong-Yeon, L., & Podsakoff, P. N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. CrossRef
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(1), 531–544. CrossRef
Post, J. E., Lawrence, A. T., & Weber, J. (2002). Business and society. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Ralston, D. A., Giacalone, R. A., & Terpstra, R. H. (1994). Ethical perceptions of organizational politics: A comparative evaluation of American and Hong Kong managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(12), 989–999. CrossRef
Ramsey, R., Marshall, G., Johnston, M., & Deeter-Schmelz, D. (2007). Ethical ideologies and older consumer perceptions of unethical sales tactics. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(2), 191–207. CrossRef
Ramsey, R. P., & Sohi, R. S. (1997). Listening to your customers: The impact of perceived salesperson listening behavior on relationship outcomes. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(2), 127–137. CrossRef
Randall, D. M., & Fernandes, M. F. (1991). The social desirability response bias in ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 10(11), 805–817. CrossRef
Randall, D. M., & Gibson, A. M. (1990). Methodology in business ethics research: A review and critical assessment. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(6), 457–471. CrossRef
Rawwas, M. Y. A. (1996). Consumer ethics: An empirical investigation of the ethical beliefs of Austrian consumers. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(9), 1009–1019. CrossRef
Rawwas, M. Y. A., Patzer, G., & Vitell, S. J. (1998). A cross cultural investigation of the ethical values of consumers: The potential effect of war and civil disruption. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(4), 435–448. CrossRef
Reichheld, F., & Aspinall, K. (1993). Building high-loyalty business system. Journal of Retail Banking, 15(4), 21–29.
Reiss, M., & Mitra, K. (1998). The effects of individual difference factors on the acceptability of ethical and unethical workplace behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(14), 1581–1593. CrossRef
Robin, D., & Babin, L. (1997). Making sense of the research on gender and ethics in business: A critical analysis and extension. Business Ethics Quarterly, 7(4), 61–90.
Román, S., & Ruiz, S. (2005). Relationship outcomes of perceived ethical sales behavior: The customer’s perspective. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 439–445. CrossRef
Roxas, M., & Stoneback, J. (2004). The importance of gender across cultures in ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(2), 149–165. CrossRef
Rubbens, C., & Wessels, C. (2004). The business case for CSR: In what way does CSR contribute to competitiveness?. Washington: The World Bank.
Schlegelmilch, B. B., & Öberseder, M. (2010). Half a century of marketing ethics: Shifting perspectives and emerging trends. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(1), 1–19. CrossRef
Schlegelmilch, B. B., & Roberston, D. (1995). The influence of country and industry on ethical perceptions of senior executives in the US and Europe. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(4), 852–881. CrossRef
Serwinek, P. (1992). Demographic and related differences in ethical views among small businesses. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(7), 555–566. CrossRef
Sharma, D., Borna, S., & Stearns, J. M. (2009). An investigation of the effects of corporate ethical values on employee commitment and performance: Examining the moderating role of perceived fairness. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(2), 251–260. CrossRef
Shaw, D., & Newholm, T. (2002). Voluntary simplicity and the ethics of consumption. Psychology and Marketing, 19(2), 167–185. CrossRef
Singh, J., & Sirdeshmukh, D. (2000). Agency and trust mechanisms in consumer satisfaction and loyalty judgments. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 150–167. CrossRef
Singhapakdi, A., Rawwas, M. Y. A., Marta, J., & Ahmed, M. I. (1999). A cross-cultural study of consumer perceptions about marketing ethics. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 16(3), 257–272. CrossRef
Singhapakdi, A., & Vitell, S. J. (1990). Marketing ethics: Factors influencing perceptions of ethical problems and alternatives. Journal of Macromarketing, 10(1), 4–18. CrossRef
Spekman, R. E. (1988). Strategic supplier selection: Understanding long-term relationships. Business Horizons, 31(4), 75–81. CrossRef
Srnka, K. J. (2004). Culture’s role in marketers’ ethical decision making. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1, 1–32.
Stodder, G. S. (1998). Goodwill hunting. Entrepreneur, 26(July), 118–121.
Strong, C. (1996). Features contributing to the growth of ethical consumerism: A preliminary investigation. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 14(5), 5–13. CrossRef
Stump, R. L., & Heide, J. B. (1996). Controlling supplier opportunism in industrial relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 33(4), 431–441. CrossRef
Sun, T., & Wu, G. (2004). Consumption patterns of Chinese urban and rural consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(4), 245–253. CrossRef
Swaidan, Z., Vitell, S. J., & Rawwas, M. Y. A. (2003). Consumer ethics: Determinants of ethical beliefs of African Americans. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(2), 175–186. CrossRef
Swaidan, Z., Vitell, S. J., Rose, G. M., & Gilbert, F. W. (2006). Consumer ethics: The role of acculturation in U.S. immigrant populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(1), 1–16. CrossRef
Tax, S., Brown, S., & Chandrashekaran, M. (1998). Customer evaluations of service complaint experiences: Implications for relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 62(2), 60–76. CrossRef
Thorne, L., & Saunders, S. B. (2002). The socio-cultural embeddedness of individuals’ ethical reasoning in organizations (cross-cultural ethics). Journal of Business Ethics, 35(1), 1–14. CrossRef
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview.
Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464–476. CrossRef
Tsalikis, J., & Seaton, B. (2008). Business ethics index: Measuring consumer sentiments toward business ethical practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(4), 919–928. CrossRef
Urban, G. L., Sultan, F., & Quails, W. J. (2000). Placing trust at the centre of your internet strategy. Sloan Management Review, 42(1), 39–49.
Valenzuela, L., Mulki, J., & Jaramillo, J. (2010). Impact of customer orientation, inducements and ethics on loyalty to the firm: Customers’ perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 277–291. CrossRef
Velasquez, M. G. (2006). Business ethics. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
Vitell, S. J. (2003). Consumer ethics research: Review synthesis and suggestions for the future. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(1–2), 33–47. CrossRef
Vitell, S. J., Festervand, T., Lumpkin, J. R., & Rawwas, M. Y. A. (1991). Consumer ethics: An investigation of the ethical beliefs of elderly consumers. Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 365–375. CrossRef
Vitell, S. J., Nwachukwu, S. L., & Barnes, J. H. (1993). The effects of culture on ethical decision-making: An application of Hofstede’s typology. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(10), 753–760. CrossRef
Vitell, S. J., Paolillo, J. G. P., & Thomas, J. L. (2003). The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: A study of marketing professionals. Business Ethics Quarterly, 13(1), 63–86. CrossRef
Wang, C.-Y. (2010). Service quality, perceived value, corporate image, and customer loyalty in the context of varying levels of switching costs. Psychology and Marketing, 27(3), 252–262. CrossRef
Wang, Y.-S., Tang, T.-I., & Tang, J. E. (2001). An instrument for measuring satisfaction toward websites that market digital products and services. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 2(3), 89–102.
Weaver, G. R. (2001). Ethics programs in global businesses: Culture’s role in managing ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(1), 3–15. CrossRef
Whipple, T. W., & Swords, D. F. (1992). Business ethics judgments: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(9), 671–678. CrossRef
Wimbush, J. C., Shepard, J. M., & Markham, S. E. (1997). An empirical examination of the relationship between ethical climate and ethical behavior from multiple levels of analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(16), 1705–1716. CrossRef
Yang, Z., & Peterson, R. T. (2004). Customer perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: The role of switching costs. Psychology and Marketing, 21(10), 799–822. CrossRef
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2002). The effects of marketing education and individual cultural values on marketing ethics of students. Journal of Marketing Education, 24(2), 92–103.
- Business Unethicality as an Impediment to Consumer Trust: The Moderating Role of Demographic and Cultural Characteristics
Leonidas C. Leonidou
Constantinos N. Leonidou
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta