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Über dieses Buch

This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.



Design and Development of a Low Cost Automation Injection Molding Machine of 250 g Capacity Using Microcontroller

This article will describe an innovative way of implementing the automation of an injection molding machine using microcontroller which in turn will reduce total automation cost to only a few thousands rupees. In the piston side, toggle mechanism is used instead of direct drive to get extra mechanical advantage and safety features. The whole design is being simplified by cutting out some features which in turn reduce the total cost of the system without affecting its effectiveness. The system can be operated in two modes. In primary mode, the operator can easily operate through on-board keypad by entering only time sequences with the help of the manual. In the second one, it can be remotely controlled though a PC based application software.

Soumya Kanti Manna, Saibal Kumar Pradhan, Dipak Kumar Mandal

Design, Development and Testing of a Three Component Lathe Tool Dynamometer Using Resistance Strain Gauges

In this paper, a lathe tool dynamometer that can evaluate fixed cutting forces by using level of resistance stress gauges has been designed and developed. These stress gauges insured to the cylindrical bar. The alignment of the cylindrical bar and stress gauge places has been identified to increase sensitivity and reduce cross-sensitivity. The designed dynamometer is capable of computing the forces acting on the workpiece in turning operation using any data acquisition system. The sensing system measures the deflection in stress gauges, and these signals are modified into other quantity and computed in the form of forces on the display system as well as on PC also. Tests finished at different machining factors revealed that the dynamometer could be utilized continually to evaluate cutting forces.

Rahul Jain, J. K. Rathore, V. K. Gorana

Study of Laser Transmission Welding Process Using a Volumetric Heat Source Model and Experimental Analysis

In this paper, the laser transmission welding of polycarbonate is studied via numerical modeling and experimental investigation. A 3-dimensional transient heat transfer model is developed and experimentally validated. The developed model is able to predict the transient temperature field and weld pool size. It is found from the sensitivity analysis of boundary conditions that the effect of heat conduction is predominant on temperature field distribution during laser transmission welding. Temperature results from the numerical model and the experimentally measured of weld strength results are used as responses for parametric analysis. It is seen that the peak temperature reaches when the laser power is maximum and welding speed and beam diameter are at minimum values. However, the maximum welding strength is obtained when the laser power and beam diameter are at maximum values and welding speed is minimum. It is further noticed that, the maximum value of welding strength corresponds to the peak temperature of 595 °C, which is just above the decomposition temperature of the parent material.

Bappa Acherjee, Arunanshu S. Kuar, Souren Mitra, Dipten Misra

Comparison of Grinding Performance Under Different Eco-Friendly Environment

High heat generation at the grinding zone may cause several grinding difficulties. To control these thermal problems, generally, grinding fluid is applied; however, it increases the chance of environmental pollution. In the present work, an attempt is made to control grinding zone temperature by using eco-friendly environment, such as compressed air and ice cooled compressed air. Grinding experiments are conducted on low alloy steel specimens using alumina wheel under dry, compressed air and ice cooled compressed air environment. From experimental results, it is found that tangential force and normal force reduce more under ice cooled compressed air. With the use of ice cooled compressed air, wheel loading is the least of all other conditions tested, and large quantity of shear type chips are observed indicating good grindability. Hence, it may be recommended to use ice cooled compressed air as an eco-friendly grinding fluid to control grinding zone temperature.

D. Dewanjee, P. Kundu, B. Sikder, D. Biswas, Bijoy Mandal, Santanu Das

Design of a Maintenance Optimisation Approach for Offshore Oil and Gas Production Systems

The expediency of production in the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry is dependent upon high asset integrity levels as a result of well organised maintenance practices. There arises a need for a structured approach to maintenance optimisation for such a complex system. This paper outlines a process for designing an approach for maintenance optimisation of an Offshore Oil and Gas Production System. A detailed literature research on maintenance optimisation is performed to highlight the key tools, techniques and strategies applicable to this industry. In addition, further research was conducted on past optimisation frameworks in the area. The findings highlighted several key stages which were used to design the proposed framework however some stages were modified to accommodate specific elements relating to the industry of interest. This would serve to guide users on achieving effective optimisation for a range of assets. Although the initial stages have been tested future work will attempt to validate the complete framework with a practical case and perhaps extend it to include multi-criteria optimisation techniques.

Chanan S. Syan, Geeta G. Ramsoobag

Investigating the Feasibility of BCI-Based Social Media Interaction

Brain-computer Interfaces (BCIs) use the inherent brain activity of subjects in order to communicate with external devices. BCIs have been utilised by disabled users to navigate and interact with their environments using a host of application platforms such as mouse cursor controllers, virtual keyboards and mobile wheelchairs. These platform highlight the wide assistive potential of BCIs. These applications however are restricted to the subjects local environment and do not readily present an opportunity to communicate over long distances or allow messaging to multiple recipients. Social media platforms allow long distance communication over the internet and messaging to multiple recipients which can be leveraged for BCI-based communication. However, the integration of BCIs with social media platforms for communication is limited. This paper investigates the integration of a BCI with Twitter for the communication of public posts and private messages. An online P300-based BCI was developed which allowed for communication to Twitter. Three subjects participated in a programme of experimentation using the developed BCI. The BCI yielded an average classification accuracy of 86 % for the identification of user messages. All user messages however were successfully communication to Twitter. This paper therefore highlighted social media as a viable communication platform which can further improve the assistive value of BCIs. Possible areas of future study include the investigation of other classification methodologies and the integration of the BCI with further social media platforms such as Facebook and LinkedIN.

Chanan S. Syan, Randy E. S. Harnarinesingh

Virtual Experiments for Integrated Teaching and Learning of Robot Mechanics Using RoboAnalyzer

Increasing number of universities are offering robotics courses at undergraduate and graduate level. Introductory courses on robot mechanics involve topics from matrix multiplication, coordinate transformations and multivariate equations. Often, the physical meaning of concepts in kinematics and dynamics are lost behind the complicated mathematics involved in them. Hence, it may be the case that some fundamental concepts in robot mechanics may not be very intuitive to teach or learn. In order to appreciate the same, robotics teaching/learning software can be integrated into the curriculum. In this paper, the use of RoboAnalyzer, a 3D model based software for teaching and learning a course in robot mechanics is discussed. An integrated coursework that involves virtual experiments and projects in robot mechanics using RoboAnalyzer is also proposed in the paper. The foreseen advantages of using RoboAnalyzer in classroom and laboratory sessions are also discussed.

Ratan Sadanand, Ravi Prakash Joshi, Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi, Subir Kumar Saha

Fuzzy Based Object Shape Recognition Using Translation, Rotation and Scale Invariant Parameters—An Automatic Approach

In this paper, an unsupervised (e.g. autonomous) shape recognition is performed in a structured environment with the help of rotation, translation and scale invariant parameters and fuzzy logic. In a practical scenario, it is undoubtedly difficult to apply a sharp cut-off for defining a particular object shape using an object parameter in crisp parameter based object recognition. To overcome this difficulty, we have proposed to use a well-known concept of fuzzy logic. Applying object’s shape parameters as fuzzy logic inputs, it was observed that oval-shaped, triangular, rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal objects are autonomously perceived with an overall recognition rate of 91.45 %. The proposed scheme has also been compared with two existing algorithms, presents better results. The detailed description of the results is provided towards the end of this paper.

Jeet Banerjee, Soma Banerji, Ranjit Ray, Sankar Nath Shome

Need of Agriculture Hand Tool Design Using Quality and Ergonomics Principles

Ergonomics contributes as a whole to formulate strategies and support the objectives of different functions for field work. To develop hand tools for farmers, needs and requirements of farmers must be brought to attention. By engaging the QFD (Quality Function Deployment) technique, the requirements are methodically checked with the product features, which can benefit to advance the quality of implements. Microscopic literature found in agriculture that is using QFD for designing the hand tools. In this study, the practice of QFD for developing the hand tools in the agriculture and various areas other than agriculture by using concepts of ergonomics principles were investigated. The findings of these works of literature will use for preparing a framework or strategy for designing the hand tools used by farmers in the agricultural sector of India.

Rahul Jain, M. L. Meena, G. S. Dangayach

Inverse Dynamics and Feet-Terrain Collision Model for Optimal Distribution of the Contact Forces During Crab Motion of a Hexapod Robot

The present study deals with the kinematics, dynamics and feet-ground contact modeling of a hexapedal robotic system. Feet-ground interaction generates contact forces, which play a very important role for locomotion on varying terrains. In this study, the constrained inverse dynamical model is formulated as a coupled dynamics problem using Newton-Euler approach with implicit constraints in Cartesian coordinates. The contact force distribution in the feet during interaction with the terrain is considered to be a constrained optimization problem. For a more realistic locomotion analysis, impact of feet-tip with the terrain is considered, which is assumed to be governed by a compliant normal contact force model. The paper also investigates the optimal feet forces’ distributions under body forces, total power consumption etc. without any external disturbance during the robot’s locomotion with wave-crab gait (duty factor = ½).

Abhijit Mahapatra, Shibendu Shekhar Roy, Dilip Kumar Pratihar

Sensing Human Pulse Bit Using Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC)

In this work, we have developed a wrist band using Nafion based ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) for sensing the rhythm of human pulse bits. Each pulse bit produces dynamic deformation of IPMC band, and signals (voltage) are generated due to endo-ionic mobility inside the IPMC strip wrapped around the wrist. This work introduces the concept of a novel pulse bits rhythm sensing device. We show proof-of-principle of the mechano-electrical functions of the device, namely IPMC film prepared by surface platinization of the ionic-polymer film.

Debabrata Chatterjee, Adrish Bhaumik

Order Reduction of Interval SISO Systems Using Least Square Methods with a Linear Shift ‘a’ Obtained by Harmonic Mean

The least squares and time moment method has been extended for high order interval systems reduction. Systems with poles of magnitude less than unity can arise numerical problems. An approach is suggested to renew the technique more robust. Thus the denominator and numerator of the reduced interval model obtained by Least square methods and Time moment technique respectively.

K. Kiran Kumar, G. V. K. R. Sastry

Identifying and Updating the Kinematics of KUKA-iiwaR800 in CAD for Accurate Simulation

Kinematics and dynamics of the robot are affected by the addition of the link in the form of end-effector in the robots. An approach is presented for updating the CAD model kinematics as per customized installed robot KUKA-iiwaR800 with its gripper. KUKA-iiwaR800 is a light weight manipulator with seven degrees of freedom (DOF) which is popular in robotics research nowadays. We present a method to match the kinematic data of the installed robot with the CAD model in SimMechanics (SM) and in-house developed software RoboAnalyzer (RA). The CAD assembly of the customized robot was done in Autodesk Inventor and then imported to the Matlab environment for simulation. The validation of CAD model kinematics is done by matching the forward kinematics results from the installed robot using the log data of joint angles. After kinematic validation the model is updated in RA software with the kinematics of actual robot and the dynamic parameters as in SM. Again cycloidal trajectories were used to validate the kinematic model in RA with SM. Inverse and forward dynamics of the robot was carried out in RA using the mass and inertial properties listed in the paper.

Abdullah Aamir Hayat, Arun Dayal Udai, Subir Kumar Saha

Parametric Optimization of Link Lengths of a SCARA Robot for Deburring of Circular Paths

SCARA (Selective Compliant articulated robot arm) is a special manipulator used for high speed applications. SCARA is a 4-DOF manipulator with 3 revolute and 1 prismatic joint. It is well known that deburring is burr removal process after machining or casting processes. Circular components are very common in engineering applications. This paper aims at optimizing the power of the first two link lengths of a SCARA manipulator used for deburring of circular path. A circular path for deburring of 0.06 m diameter is considered and it is assumed that to complete one cycle of circular path it takes 10 s of time and the analysis is carried out in 12 steps in this time. The range of link lengths are provided as input along with distance between base of a SCARA robot and position of the deburring component as 0.35 m. Kinematic and dynamic equations of a SCARA robot are used to calculate the objective function for minimizing power. 12 steps are used to complete one cycle and to obtain the power at 12 steps and also there by obtain minimum power required in that operation for the combination of link lengths. A MATLAB program is generated which computes power at each set of link length combination which when plotted for all combinations yields information on the optimized set of link lengths.

P. V. S. Subhashini, N. V. S. Raju, G. Venkata Rao

Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Simulation for Controlling Steady Flow of Fixtures

Fixtures are one of the major problematic components in a manufacturing system because of their complicated design and management requirements. Fixture planning and management problems were not well addressed in the past publications as compared with the attention paid to the design issues. This paper is designed to address this problem using a decision-based fixture assignment and control method. A decision support framework is proposed to determine a steady state flow of fixtures for part orders planned in a specific production period. This framework integrates artificial intelligence technologies, simulations models and database management techniques in order to accommodate flexibility in a dynamic manufacturing situation. The artificial intelligence reveals how case-based and rule-based reasoning techniques work in synergy. The simulation models include discrete event and visual interactive approaches. A decision logic diagram is presented so as to depict the conditions and corresponding decision alternatives.

Fentahun Moges Kasie, Glen Bright, Anthony Walker

Predictions of Hip and Knee Power Consumptions of Patients Having Different Body Heights and Masses During Normal Walking

A range of body heights is assumed for human-beings and the corresponding body masses are calculated based on body mass index (BMI). Masses, moments of inertia, lengths and centers of masses of all body limbs are computed. Inverse kinematics is conducted to find out the required joint angles to achieve a suitable gait cycle. Based on these angles, forward kinematics and inverse dynamics are carried out in order to determine torques and subsequently, power consumptions at knee and hip joints for flexion/extension. By taking body heights and masses as inputs and power consumptions at knee and hip joints as the outputs, multilayer feed-forward neural network architecture is developed. The neural network is trained using back-propagation algorithm. After the training, an input-output relationship between body heights, body masses and power consumption at knee and hip joints, is established. From this data bank, it is possible to predict the required power consumptions at knee and hip joints for a variety of patients of different body heights and masses, on-line.

Abhishek Rudra Pal, Ankit Omprakash Mundada, Dilip Kumar Pratihar

CFX, Static Structural Analysis of Tractor Exhaust System Based on FEA

The main objective of this research work is to design and static analysis of exhaust manifold of Tractor. Exhaust manifold is subjected to high gas temperature and pressure. Present study deal with the behavior of exhaust manifold material under applied high gas temperature and pressure. The Solid Modeling of exhaust manifold has been done using Pro-E. ANSYS 14.5 has been used for analysis. The simulation parameter is exhaust gas temperature and pressure. A maximum exhaust gas temperature of 800 °C and pressure of 2 bars was applied to the exhaust manifold. Numerical simulation results were used to calculate the deformation, strain and stress induced in the exhaust system due to applied temperature and pressure. Present research work can effectively solve the problem of design optimization for different materials. The simulation results were validated with experimental results available in literature.

Faraz Ahmad, Ashwani Kumar, Karuna Kanwar, P. P. Patil

FEA Simulation Based Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Tractor Exhaust Manifold

The main objective of this research work is thermo-mechanical analysis of tractor exhaust manifold. Present study analysed the response of exhaust manifold under higher temperature. Thermal effect was considered to evaluate the FEA simulation results. Free vibration based modal analysis was performed to find the fundamental frequencies. The solid model of exhaust manifold was designed using Pro-E. Finite element analysis was performed using Ansys 14.5. The parameter used for the FEA simulation is constant exhaust gas temperature of 800 °C which was applied to the exhaust manifold. The natural frequency and vibration mode of the exhaust manifold was obtained in modal analysis and vibration characteristics of exhaust manifold was analysed. The analysis show that the natural frequency of vibration varies from 53.2 to 466.68 Hz.

Faraz Ahmad, Vipul Tomer, Ashwani Kumar, P. P. Patil

Stress Analysis of a Circuit Breaker Switchgear Mechanism by Using Multi Body Dynamics

Although a large number of mechanisms like valve opening mechanism, satellite deployment mechanisms have been analyzed by earlier investigators, the fast acting switchgear spring operated mechanisms do not appear to have been investigated using flexible multi body dynamic analysis methodology. This paper presents the analysis of switchgear mechanism used for 69 kV-SF6 circuit breaker. As time of operation of this mechanism is very short (0.07 s), the members of the mechanism are required to be considered as flexible for analyses. A scaled down 1:2 model of the switchgear mechanism to perform its open operation has been fabricated for the purpose of this analysis. The dynamic response of this spring operated switchgear mechanism during opening operation has been carried out by using equations of motion with the help of MATLAB. The stress analysis of this mechanism is carried out by using MBD analysis software (Adams). The results obtained by using the members of the mechanism as rigid in the theoretical equations method and the flexible multi body dynamic method in which the members are treated as flexible are compared and presented.

J. Anjaneyulu, G. Krishna Mohana Rao, G. Venkata Rao

Integration of Fuzzy Logic with Response Surface Methodology for Predicting the Effect of Process Parameters on Build Time and Model Material Volume in FDM Process

Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a promising additive manufacturing (AM) technique used for various prototyping requirements where relatively cheap yet robust models are required. To improve FDM process effectiveness, appropriate process parameters selection is required for high productivity and cost effectiveness. Build time (BT) and volume of Model material (MMV) required are important responses to measure cost effectiveness. In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) and fuzzy logic (FL) have been applied to reduce the build time and model material volume for experimentation. The process parameters namely contour width, air gap; raster angle and spatial orientation are considered. Also, build time and model material volume has been taken as responses for this study. Thirty experiments were conducted on AcrylobutadieneStyrene (ABS) P400 for conical primitives using full factorial central composite RSM design. The optimum process parameter conditions were obtained from FL. The results obtained provide useful information of the method to control responses and ensure minimal build time and model material volume for prototyping requirements. The assessment outcome provided a scientific reference to obtain minimal values of build time and model material volume utilized, and it was found out that these correspond to a contour width of 0.654 mm, air gap of 0.0254 mm, raster angle of 0° and orientation (rotation about x-axis keeping z height minimum) of 30°.

Manu Srivastava, Sachin Maheshwari, T. K. Kundra, Ramkrishna Yashaswi, Sandeep Rathee

A Study on State of the Art Technology of Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)

Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) process is one of rapid prototyping technology which is used to manufacture 3D dimensional solid object with sheet lamination process. The unique feature of this technology is its capacity to manufacture complicated geometrical parts with less cost of fabrication and operational time. Starting from 1980s, LOM process has been studied by many scholars and come up with promising outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the overall idea and general working principle of LOM process and to review the existing technology on paper, composite and metals. In addition to this, current project of 3D metal printer with its extended future research has been discussed.

Bewketu Gizachew Mekonnen, Glen Bright, Anthony Walker

Design Analysis and Manufacturing of Device for Rehabilitation of Hand Fingers Based on Illusionary Movements by Tendon Vibrations

This project is done in the field of rehabilitation of upper limb paresis on post stroke hemiplegic patients, and it aims at replacing the traditional rehabilitation methods with a more automated approach, currently concerning mainly on the rehabilitation of upper limbs of hands. The device applies linear mechanical vibrations on the tendons of the fingers at a particular frequency so as to result in the patient getting illusionary movements. The frequency of vibrations to generate illusions varies from person to person and so there should be a mechanism by which the user can change the frequency to suit him/her. Besides giving the vibrations, the project also focuses on developing a mechanism so that the patients can physically see the limbs moving in accordance with the vibrations perceived by them. This will speed up the treatment process.

Bonny Bernard, Preethika Immaculate Britto

Experimental Investigation of Process Parameters for Build Time Estimation in FDM Process Using RSM Technique

Effectiveness of any additive manufacturing process can be considerably enhanced by estimating optimal values of Build Time. Effect of contour width, raster width, raster angle, slice height, orientation and air gap on the BT requirements for the seven basic constructive solid geometry primitives is studied. Derivation, evaluation and validation of models is accomplished analytically and graphically using response surface methodology technique to deduce the effect of above parameters on the Build Time estimation for Fortus 250 mc modeler. This work establishes basic design principles for: (1) Estimation of Build Time estimation in given volume; (2) Different spatial orientations were evaluated for overall build-time optimization for Fused Deposition Modelling process using Fortus 250 mc modeler.

Manu Srivastava, Sachin Maheshwari, T. K. Kundra, Sandeep Rathee, Ramkrishna Yashaswi

Analysis of Prismatic Springs of Non-circular Coil Shape Using Finite Element Method

Common helical springs are of circular coil shape requiring equal space in all directions. But there are applications, such as firearms, where springs with non-circular coils are required. In this paper deflection and stress analysis of a spring with rectangular-semi circular coil is presented. Appropriate CAD model is developed in SolidWorks and Finite element analysis is performed in ANSYS Workbench environment. Results show that such springs undergo more deflection compared to a circular coil spring for same coil area, but with more stress developed. Deflections and von-Mises stresses are obtained for different aspect ratios of the said spring. The methodology presented may help the designer to select the right type of the non-circular coil spring for appropriate applications.

Arkadeep Narayan Chaudhury, Arnab Ghosh, Krishnendu Banerjee, Abhijit Mondal, Debasis Datta

TiC, W2C Reinforced Ti-W MMC Coating Developed on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate Through Laser Cladding

High specific strength, corrosion resistance and subzero to moderately elevated working temperature are the intrinsic properties of Ti-6Al-4V, which turn it one of the favourite aerospace engineering materials. Relatively soft and poor wear resistive properties restrict its further essential applications. In the present work, attempts were carried out to improve tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V surface by developing hard and bulk clad layers for longer service life of that product. A pre-placed powder mixture of tungsten, graphite and titanium over the substrate, was irradiated by a fibre laser in argon shroud. The laser clad layers developed with in situ TiC and W2C reinforced in Ti-W matrix that were confirmed by HR XRD phase analysis. Effects of laser scan speeds on coatings formation, microstructure, microhardness, and dry sliding wear performance were investigated. The microhardness of the coated surfaces was improved up to 700 HV0.05 on an average whereas microhardness value of the untreated Ti-6Al-4V substrate was 350 HV0.05. The dry sliding wear performances of the hard coatings significantly improved.

Parth Gattani, Barun Haldar, Adil Azeem, Partha Saha

Motion Programming of SCORBOT ER-4u Using Fusion of Robot Kinematics and Inertial Sensor

This paper addresses the framework of a novel approach for the real time robot motion control. The proposed approach amalgamates the kinematics of the human arm along with the Kinect based motion capture system and the inertial sensor to control the robot motion in a real time. The feasibility of the devised strategy is shown by the experimental results for hand path imitation problem. The performance of the approach is evaluated on the basis of geometrical similarity obtained during hand path imitation by the robot end effector in real time imitation scenario.

Abhishek Jha, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Veer Alakshendra

Trajectory Tracking Control of Three-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot: Adaptive Sliding Mode Approach

This paper proposes an adaptive and robust control for a three-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot (TWOMR) in presence of disturbance due to friction and bounded uncertainties. Kinematic and dynamic modeling of TWOMR is done to obtain the equation of motion under the action of frictional forces. Controller is designed to track the desired path. First to make the system robust, Integral sliding mode controller (ISMC) is designed and then for estimation of design parameter and to reduce the chattering effect an adaptive integral sliding mode controller (AISMC) is built. Simulations are conducted to show the effectiveness of proposed controller for TWOMR.

Veer Alakshendra, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Abhishek Jha

Point Mass Models for Dynamic Balancing of Industrial Manipulators Using Genetic Algorithm

The dynamic balancing of industrial manipulator is achieved in this paper by minimizing shaking moments and forces using octahedron and hexahedron point mass configuration with genetic algorithm (GA) as optimization tool. Comparison of seven/six point mass models in tetrahedron and hexahedron configurations respectively is also made. The minimization problem to minimize shaking moments and forces is formulated using seven and six equimomental point-masses in different configurations for each link such that positive values for all point masses and link’s inertias are ensured. To calculate the shaking moments and forces equations of motion for manipulator expressed in terms of the equimomental point masses are used. The population based genetic algorithm (GA) is used as it gives more than one solutions close to the most optimal solution and the designer can choose the one best suited for the use. Methodology is applied to a six-dof PUMA robot. Shaking moments and forces at joints are minimized by redistribution of point masses optimally that reduces the inertia of link which reduces the shaking moments and smoothens out the shaking forces at the joints of robot. It also reduces the driving torques. The optimized value of shaking moments and forces at different joints of Puma robot using seven point octahedron and six point mass hexahedron models are nearly same and does not differ significantly.

Devi Singh Kumani, Himanshu Chaudhary

Application of the Attractive Ellipsoid Methodology to Robust Control Design of a Class of Switched Systems

Our contribution is devoted to an application of the newly elaborated robust feedback-type control methodology to a class of industrial robotic systems. We consider a formal prototype of an automated Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the presence of bounded (operating) uncertainties and external disturbances. The nonlinear model of the CSTR has a switched nature and implies a sophisticated dynamical behaviour. Moreover, the resulting control design is supposed to be the defined only by the given system output. The robustness property of the closed-loop automated system is determined here in the sense of a “practical stability” concept and is based on the Attractive Ellipsoid (AE) approach. The implementable control design scheme we propose involves the Bilinear Matrix Inequalities (BMIs) techniques in combination with the Multiple Lyapunov functions analysis.

V. Azhmyakov, J. H. Carvajal Rojas

A Three Finger Tendon Driven Robotic Hand Design and Its Kinematics Model

Anatomy of human hand is very complex in nature. The structure of human hand consists of number of joints, bones, muscles and tendons, which creates a wide range of movements. It is very difficult to design a robotic hand and incorporate all the features of a normal human hand. In this paper, the model of a three finger robotic hand has been proposed. To replace the muscles and tendons of real human hand, it is proposed to use tendon wire and place the actuator at the palm. The advantage of using tendon and placing actuator at remote location is that it actually reduces the size of the hand. Pulling the tendon wire produces flexor motion in the hand finger. Currently torsional spring is considered at the joint for the extension motion of the finger. The purpose of design of such a hand is to grasp different kinds of object shapes. The paper further presents a kinematics model of the three finger hand and a mapping function to map the joint space coordinates to tendon space coordinates. Finally the hand model is simulated to validate the kinematics equations.

I. A. Sainul, Sankha Deb, A. K. Deb

An Intelligent Methodology for Assembly Tools Selection and Assembly Sequence Optimisation

In the present paper, an intelligent methodology has been used for assembly tool/gripper selection and determination of the optimal assembly sequence. Since it is well known that assembly sequence planning (ASP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, in particular, with increase in number of components in the assembly, the computational complexity involved in searching for the optimal assembly sequence in such a large solution space also increases. Furthermore, assembly process planning, tool/gripper selection is also an important decision making task and becomes tedious and time consuming for an assembly with large number of components. Keeping the above in mind, in the present work, a knowledge based system has been developed for selection of assembly tools and grippers for performing the assembly, while a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approach has been used to determine the feasible and optimal assembly sequences considering minimum number of tool changes and assembly direction changes.

Atul Mishra, Sankha Deb

Alignment Based Inspection Framework for Additive Manufactured Parts

Currently, Additive manufacturing (AM) processes do fabrication of parts having custom-made intricate profiles. It becomes an essential task to verify the accuracy of AM parts to meet customer’s need and requirement. Effective measurement and quick inspection of geometric data, performed by implementing reverse engineering in coalition with additive manufacturing. This paper proposes a novel framework for measurement and verification of overall accuracy of the additive manufactured parts. Present method integrates additive manufacturing along with 3D scanner and reverse engineering hierarchy for its implementation. For effective inspection, suitable alignment technique for individual features and GD & T attributes reported. With its simplicity, speedy inspection and accurate results this method will be helpful for manufacturers to increase their competitiveness in global market.

Vimal Kumar Pathak, Amit Kumar Singh

An Investigation on Slab Milling Operation to Find Out Optimum Cutting Parameters

Milling is a widely used machining operation. For generating a flat wide surface, slab milling is usually employed in industry. In this experimental work, slab milling operation has been performed on low alloy steel to obtain appropriate cutting parameters in order to get low surface roughness, low vibration and high material removal rate. Taguchi method and composite desirability function of response surface methodology have been used to get required cutting parameters. It has been observed from Taguchi’s methodology that surface roughness is affected mostly by variation of cutting velocity or speed; in case of material removal rate, effect of feed is quite high, and speed also has sufficient effect on it.

Spandan Guha, Tapas Banerjee, Asish Bandyopadhyay, Santanu Das

Recognition of Force Closed Point Grasp for 2D Object

Robotic grasping of an object requires positioning the fingers of the robotic hand around the object in such a manner that the forces applied by the fingers on the object can create a force as well as moment equilibrium (Realeaux 1876) and keep the object stable within the grasp. Research on robotic grasping is relevant too (Tovar and Suarez 2014). Recognizing a grasp of an object by a robotic gripper requires a definition of the grasp. In this paper we have compared different definitions of robotic grasp proposed by different researchers and we have proposed our definition of grasp and an algorithmic approach to execute the definition. The results obtained show the promising prospect of the approach.

Abhijit Das, Sankha Deb

Developing a GUI for Optimization of Acoustic Enclosure of a Compressor Chamber

Sound can be termed as NOISE when it is beyond the audible frequency. The source of most noise is mainly caused by stationary machines and transportation systems like automotive, aircraft, and trains etc. During the operation of a single compressor, noise is generated which is much above the Environmental Specification Standards. If in a place where more compressors mounted on one place for high pneumatic requirement the noise level is unbearable. Acoustic enclosures are a common solution for the noise reduction of air compressors chamber. The present work develops a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) using MATLAB for designing of acoustic chamber and muffler for a series of compressors chamber. The GUI developed by using the experimental data and acoustic standards. User enters the input values for the Design of Acoustic Enclosure and Muffler in GUI. The program generates two most Cost effective Enclosure and Muffler Configurations satisfying the user requirement of Noise attenuation as output from the GUI.

T. Ramamohan Rao, S. Kirthana

A Pilot Study of Sustainable Machining Process Design in Indian Process Industry

This paper aim to conduct a pilot study in India process industry for sustainable machining process design. A survey questionnaire was framed at five point likert type scale. Respondents were asked to five elements related to sustainable machining process design (SMPD) Fifty responses was collected from various process industries. Simple statistics mean, standard deviation, correlation and t test is applied for the analyse survey responses. It is evident that the Energy efficiency during the process, Vegetable based cutting fluid and machining process utilisation are more emphasised by the companies and the other factors like Waste minimization and cryogenic machining require more focused on it. One sample t test it is evident that Energy efficiency during the process (SMPD5) (t = 6.194) is the most important factor which is highly adopted by the process industry in practice.

Sumit Gupta, G. S. Dangayach, Amit Kumar Singh, P. N. Rao

Sagittal Position Analysis of Gait Cycle for a Five Link Biped Robot

It is difficult to comprehend the humanoid walking trajectory due to large number of degrees of freedom during walking. This paper treats the trajectory planning for steady walking of planar 5 link biped robot on a leveled ground for single support phase and double support phase. To obtain smooth and continuous walking trajectory polynomial interpolation has been used for hip and swing limb, and polynomial coefficients are determined through constraint equations. A Double support phase (DSP) is generally neglected in gait synthesis at high walking speeds but for stable biped model with moderate walking speeds DSP must be considered. In this article geometric approach of inverse kinematic is used for generation of joint trajectories in single and double support phase. Effects of the proposed method (inverse kinematic for double support phase) are illustrated by computer simulations.

Ramanpreet Singh, Himanshu Chaudhary, Amit Kumar Singh

A Note on Mechanical Feasibility Predicate for Robotic Assembly Sequence Generation

Assembly sequence generation at early stages of product design leads to minimal production time. In order to generate valid practically possible assembly sequence, several assembly predicates must be considered during the assembly sequence generation process. Mechanical feasibility predicate is one of the essential predicate, which ensures the geometric feasibility of physical connectors. In the current paper, representation of mechanical feasibility data is described for different types of connectors used in mechanical assemblies. The proposed representation method reduces the complexity of the assembly sequence generation problem compared to the traditional formulation. Method to extract the mechanical feasibility matrix is proposed and illustrated with an example through algorithms.

M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, Manish Kumar, B. B. V. L. Deepak

Weld Seam Tracking and Simulation of 3-Axis Robotic Arm for Performing Welding Operation in CAD Environment

In this paper, a 3-axis robotic arm has been modelled using CAD tool for performing welding operations. For the developed robotic arm, forward and inverse kinematic analyses have been performed to move the weld torch in the desired trajectory. A new seam tracking methodology, named sewing technique has been introduced for the welded joints available in Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment. This methodology, gives the seam path by drawing a line through the adjacent centroids of curve fitted in the weld joint volume. Obtained geometric path and kinematic constraints are given as input to the modelled robot for performing welding operation followed by desired trajectory. Validation of the developed methodology has been done through simulation results while performing welding operations for different weld profiles.

B. B. V. L. Deepak, C. A. Rao, B. M. V. A. Raju

A Comparative Performance Analysis of Discrete Wavelet Transforms for Denoising of Medical Images

In general, during image acquisition and transmission, digital images are corrupted by noises due to various effect. The complex type of additive noises disturbs images, depending on the storage and capture devices. These medical imaging devices are not noise free. The medical images used for diagnosis are acquired from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), and X-ray Instruments. Reduction of visual quality due to addition of noise complicates the treatment and diagnosis. Removal of additive noise in images can easily be possible using simple threshold methods. In this paper we proposed an algorithm for denoising using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Numerical results shows the performance (based on parameters like: PSNR, MSE, MAE) of algorithm using various wavelet transforms for different Medical Images corrupted by random noise.

Yogesh S. Bahendwar, G. R. Sinha

Deterministic Model for RF Hot Spots Location and Probability Within Empty Rectangular Structures

This paper introduces a theoretical model for determining the number of hot spots (high intensity electric fields) and their locations within an enclosed empty rectangular space that acts as a waveguide for electromagnetic waves in the radio frequency range of the spectrum. The model combines ray and geometrical optics for wave direction and interference patterns after multiple reflections have taken place within the guide. The location of the hot zones and hot spots due to intersecting rays are determined using trigonometry and vector analysis. Once these locations are identified, the varying and non-varying patterns of the waves are contained in fixed triangular areas occurring on both sides of the waveguide. Within these fixed triangles (zones) lie the high probabilities of hot spots and dead spots for electromagnetic propagation, both of which have their importance in health and safety and communication. The probability of hot spots is calculated for each hot zone.

Ricardo Rodriguez, Winston G. Lewis

Heat Stress in the Workplace: A Case Study of a Cement Manufacturing Facility in Trinidad

Heat stress is a well-known occupational health disorder and since Trinidad is a tropical island in the Caribbean, there is a serious risk to heat stress illness occurring when workers operate in adverse thermal working environments. This paper aims at illustrating the prevalence of work-related heat stress within a cement manufacturing facility in Trinidad. Using the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Standard, it was found that 10 out of 11 work stations exceeded the recommended time to perform the given task. The study of heat stress experienced by workers was linked to the subjective heat related symptoms as identified using a questionnaire. On average, kiln workers experienced a greater number of symptoms than mill workers with the most common symptoms to both groups being dehydration, fatigue and headaches. The study showed that symptoms increased with the age and body mass index (BMI) of the participants.

Winston G. Lewis, Ricardo Rodriguez

Modeling and Simulation of a Near Omni-Directional Hexapod Robot

The present paper describes design and modelling aspects of a near omni-directional legged-wheel robot. While discussing the importance of twin frame legged robots with wheels in mobile robotic research, the basic geometrical configuration of the system was presented. The kinematic and dynamic analysis of the system facilitated improved overall design of the robot. Results of virtual simulation of the movement of this hybrid legged wheel system are also presented. An experimental lab-scale prototype has been developed and simulation results are compared with the test results to ascertain the technical feasibility of geometric model with respect to the mobility on different terrains.

D. Mahata, Ranjit Ray, Sankar Nath Shome

Optimization of Vibration of Collecting Plates of Electrostatic Precipitator Through FEA

Electrostatic Precipitator is air pollution control equipment which separates the dust particles from flue gases. It is basically used for boiler applications. Dust is collected on collecting electrodes and gets separated by of excitation of collecting plates. The excitation is nothing but the vibrating collecting electrodes from its mean position by means of rapping system. Time is another major constraint for checking of such continuous improvements. So analysis and further actual measurement is more practical method. This paper presents FEA concept of modeling using CATIA V5 and analysis of collecting electrodes of ESP by Modal analysis for getting natural frequency and Harmonic analysis for getting acceleration of plates.

Harshal Shinde, Akshata Sangle, Sumit Shendkar, Omkar Kulkarni, Ninad Kulkarni, G. M. Kakandikar, V. M. Nandedkar

Full Aperture Optical Polishing Process: Overview and Challenges

The aim of advanced optical fabrication is to produce highly accurate optical surface with better reproducibility. It demands a good control and systematic understanding of the process and its parameters. Optical polishing process defines the final surface figure and finish of the component. Controlled amount of finishing forces and material removal rate are necessary for polishing of brittle materials. However, the conventional or full aperture polishing process still depends on the operator’s skills to achieve the desired surface figure and finish. The process may be well optimized at individual manufacturing setups but there appears to be a little prediction about polishing outputs. Thus, it is essential to study the fundamental mechanisms of material removal during polishing in order to achieve the accurate prediction of process outputs. This paper reviews the work carried out in the area of full aperture optical polishing.

Raj Kumar Pal, Harry Garg, Vinod Karar

Stability Analysis of Haptic Virtual Environment Systems for Active Interactions in Surgical Robot Simulators

A haptic interface is a link between a human operator and a virtual environment and conveys a kinesthetic sense of presence in the virtual environment to the operator. The combined system includes a virtual environment simulated in a digital computer, a human operator and a haptic display that are actual physical systems. Such interfaces are commonly used in tele-surgical simulators and other systems to get a better feel for the user. For this system, stability is a prime concern because it may be affected by three major factors that are communication delay, controller discretization, and active operator intervention. In this paper, the stability of these systems is analysed and a framework which allows operator to interact actively with the virtual environment is proposed for telesurgical applications using surgical robots. Study of the simultaneous effect of all three de-stabilizing factors are carried out via the proposed framework. The well-known Colgate’s stability condition for a 1-user haptic system with a passive operator is reproduced and then extended to the case which allows each operator to behave actively. Another extension to Colgate’s condition comes by allowing communication delays to exist in the system. Simulations confirm the validity of the proposed conditions for stability of sampled-data Haptic Virtual Environment (HVE) systems.

Rishika Khandelwal, Asokan Thondiyath

Synchronized Optimization of Injection Moulding Parameters for Higher Acceptance of Polypropylene Products

The present exploration focuses on synchronized optimization of injection moulding parameters to adjudge the suitability of the polypropylene products in view of higher acceptance. A full factorial experimental layout was framed for the moulding parameters like injection temperature, pressure and speed, all at three levels. Before launching into the market, polypropylene products need to qualify the strength test (ASTM-D638-03), density test (ASTM-D 792), and Vicat Softening Point test (ASTM-D 1525). Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) was adopted to convert the multiple objectives into a single objective. Specimens were prepared at all the parametric combinations through injection moulding in compliance with ASTM-D 638-03-TYPE-I. The above mentioned tests have been carried for every specimen and the responses were obtained. It has been observed that products manufactured at 200 °C Injection Temperature, 70 bar Injection Pressure and 80 rpm Injection speed are poised with higher level of suitability from acceptance point of view. Grey analysis reveals injection temperature is the most dictating factor followed by injection velocity and injection pressure.

Bikash Bepari, Tanumoy Kolay, Kamal Nayan, Subham Mishra

Use of Visual Analytics and Durometer in Risk Reduction of Foot Problems in Diabetes

Foot Problems are a leading cause of hospitalization for patients having diabetes in India. Fifteen percent of all patients of diabetes develop foot ulcer during their life time. The cost of treatment increases significantly in people with diabetes and treatment may result in lower extremities amputations (LEAs). The Visual Analytics, Correction in Foot Care Hardness can help in early detection of people at risk of Foot Ulcer. The paper finds out the average hardness of male and female foot wears in Indian population. With help of visual analytics paper tries to find out the prevalence of people at risk of foot ulcer in diabetes. The paper also explores whether the risk of foot ulcer is significantly higher for a specific gender. The methods used for analysis is t-test and Chi-Square test.

Vinaytosh Mishra, Anubha Rautela, B. Manjunatha, Cherian Samuel, S. K. Sharma, A. Mishra

On the Complexities in Machining Titanium Alloys

Good corrosion resistance, high specific strength, superior high-temperature performance and good fatigue resistance makes titanium and its alloys excellent candidate for biomedical, automobile, marine and aerospace component manufacturers. However, higher machining cost due to excessive tool wear and low material removal rate restricts its share in current engineering market. High hardness and ability to retain it at extreme temperatures, strong chemical affinity, low modulus of elasticity and poor thermal conductivity are the main reasons for poor machinability of titanium alloys. In this paper, based on available literature, machining difficulties such as variable width and thickness of chips, thermal stresses, severe pressure on cutting tool, tool wear, springback effect and residual stress are reviewed and underlying mechanisms behind these difficulties are presented. At the end, potential research issues are highlighted.

Paramjit Singh, Harish Pungotra, Nirmal S. Kalsi

Modeling, Analysis and Trajectory Planning of a 5 Degree of Freedom Robotic Arm for a Transmission Line Crossing Robot

Robots are used to provide help in unsafe, repetitive and dreary situations. This paper concentrates on a robotic arm which can be utilized for crossing of the dead wire structure to the jumper cable of an electrical transmission line. In order to achieve a good positional accuracy of the end-effector, the robotic arm is modeled and analyzed. Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) representation is used for the kinematic modeling and Lagrangian-Euler (LE) method for the dynamic modeling. Since the kinematic and dynamic modeling of robotic arm is highly nonlinear in nature, the optimum trajectory planning is a challenging issue in almost all obstacle avoidance problems. In trajectory planning, the desired trajectory needs to be followed for end-effector positioning. This paper presents kinematic modeling, dynamic modeling, workspace analysis and trajectory planning of a 5 Degree of freedom (DOF) robotic arm. The robotic arm is designed using SolidWorks 2014 software. The complete analysis of the proposed manipulator is simulated using MATLAB Software.

C. M. Shruthi, A. P. Sudheer, M. L. Joy

Design and Modelling of Dual Faceplate Centrifugal Casting Equipment for Manufacturing of Turbine Bearing

Rise in the productivity can be achieved by automation or special purpose machine (SPM). The paper is focused on the design of a SPM for manufacturing of turbine bearing having with 3000 kg mass, 700 mm length and 1200 mm diameter. Centrifugal casting is the only process through which such dimensioned bearing is manufactured. As this machine is working on the concept of centrifugal forces the rotational speed plays a vital role, so provision is made to vary it from 10 to 350 rpm. According to length to diameter ratio, vertical machine is preferred, but the tendency of getting parabolic shape by material during rotating keeps us away from selecting this design. In the horizontal machine, there is a tendency that the molten metal might not match the synchronous speed i.e. rotational speed of mould, which keeps us away from selection. Hence dual faceplate centrifugal casting machine has been selected.

Saumil Desai, Saurin Sheth, Purvi Chauhan

Design and Control of Tendon Driven Robotic Hand for Prosthesis Applications

The paper reports the development of an underactuated tendon driven prosthetic hand. The cost of commercially available prosthetic hands is prohibitive for developing countries. There is need for indigenous low cost design and manufacturing. The computer model of the hand is prepared in SolidWorksTM and manufactured using 3D printing technology in ABS plastic material. Five servo motors are used to actuate the hand and the hand is controlled using a MATLAB® interface. The MATLAB interface shows the hand movements in simulation and the same motion is imparted to the robotic hand by actuating the motors.

Roshan Kumar Hota, Arvind Ahirwar, Cheruvu Shiv Kumar

Stabilization of Posture of Humanoid Using PID Controller in Gazebo Simulator Using Robot Operating System (ROS)

This paper presents an ongoing work for developing a simulation setup for testing gait algorithm for a humanoid robot. An open source simulator GAZEBO has been chosen for easy adoption by researchers. A model of humanoid robot has been built in Gazebo. A PID controller has been implemented using Ziegler Nichols tuning technique on the humanoid model for stabilizing the posture on the behalf of implementation of Reinforcement Learning based gait algorithm. The PID controller is written in Robot Operating System (ROS) and has been interfaced with the GAZEBO simulator.

V. Madhu Babu, G. V. V. Surya Kiran, S. K. Sameer, Roshan Kumar Hota, Cheruvu Shiv Kumar

Robotic Picking of Cylindrical Fuel Pellets from a Boat Using 3D Range Sensor

Fabrication of nuclear fuels comprises many intricate tasks that are difficult to automate. One such task is picking of cylindrical pellets from a container, called a boat. In the boat, pellets can be randomly oriented, touching and partly or wholly occluded. They have poor contrast with respect to each other and the boat. Hence, vision based techniques with either monocular or stereo camera configurations are not suitable for identification of pellet poses. This paper describes a novel technique in which 3D point cloud data is acquired by a 3D range sensor, and processed with optimized RANSAC (O-RANSAC) algorithm for estimating pellet poses for the robot to pick. First, cylinders are identified from point cloud data, and thereafter scores indicating the extent of matching is computed. We also present the improvement in processing time for O-RANSAC algorithm as compared to RANSAC. We demonstrate that O-RANSAC algorithm is robust even in presence of outliers and noise by testing in simulation with synthetic data. Proposed method was tested in an experimental setup consisting of an articulated robot, a 3D range sensor and dummy densely packed pellets in multilayer.

Rahul Jain, Abhishek Jaju, Namita Singh, Sanjeev Sharma, Prabir K. Pal

Swachh-Bharat Bot: A Sweeping Robot

The Swachh Bharat Mission was launched by the Government of India on 2nd October, 2014 aiming towards a clean and trash-free India. Many cities and places in India are suffering with trash and litter lying on the roads, railway platforms, etc. Generally, manual sweepers and laborers are deployed for collecting trash at such places. In this paper, we present a sweeper robot that is capable of sweeping trash. There are various such sweeping robots and machines available in the market, but they focus mainly on dust and small-sized trash. The sweeper robot presented here is designed mainly for sweeping large-sized trash like one-liter bottles (empty as well as filled), metallic-cans, etc. The design and fabrication of such a sweeping mechanism is discussed in this paper.

Swapnil Jogal, Kamal Sharma

Force Sensitive Robotic Gripper

Industrial robotic application of gripping unknown objects with two-finger gripper is a challenging task. A traditional grasp model does not fit the requirement of gripping unknown objects, as application of too much gripping force damages and deform the object; while small force results in slipping of the object. In this paper we propose the design, control and implementation of the two finger robotic gripper, its sensory and hardware interface and a programming solution to overcome the gripping problem. The approach adopted is to acquire force information acting on the object before and prevent the object’s slip by increasing the gripping force even before the slip occurs.

Meher Tabassum, D. D. Ray

Electron Beam Melting of Steel Plates: Temperature Measurement Using Thermocouples and Prediction Through Finite Element Analysis

The present study deals with electron beam melting of steel plates, where temperatures at four different locations situated away from the heat source have been measured using thermocouples. Finite element (FE) analysis is carried out to determine the temperature distributions during the heating and cooling of the plate. The results of this analysis have been validated through experiments carried out using thermo-couples. The micro-structures of the parent metal and fusion zone have also been studied.

Debasish Das, Dilip Kumar Pratihar, Gour Gopal Roy

Design and Analysis Towards Successful Development of a Tele-Operated Mobile Robot for Underground Coal Mines

The demand of coal is increasing day-by-day with the growth of civilization. In spite of enhancement of coal production, a huge amount of foreign currency has to be spent to import coal from outside to meet the demand-supply gap. The existing coal reserve cannot be extracted fully due to unavailability of proper technology in Indian coal mines. Suitable remote operation technology can be introduced either for extraction of coal from deeper seams or monitoring the mine environment for safety. A robotic system has been developed to remotely monitor the environment of a hazardous mine tunnel from the mine manager’s desk before starting any extraction. The system is equipped with a set of navigational sensors (IR sensors, compass, laser range finder and camera) and operational sensors (CO, CO2, CH4, temperature and humidity sensor). The robot can be controlled either manually or autonomously based on the need. In both the cases, the data can be transferred to the over ground station for monitoring. Approximate mathematical modeling of the system has been performed and its working has been analysed through simulation in MSC ADAMS. Some of the critical components have been evaluated for stress-deflection behavior in static condition before manufacturing. The performance of the system has been demonstrated in laboratory successfully.

Dip N. Ray, Riddhi Das, Bijo Sebastian, Biplob Roy, Somajyoti Majumder

Design-of-Experiments (DOE) to Compute the Effect of Chromium Abrasives in Kerosene Oil as Dielectric of EDM of OHNS Die Steel

Experimentation is a valuable way to expresses casual claims in pragmatic manner at certain minimum confidence level. DOE popularly known as technique of metamodels is adopted as useful statistical experiments design method for process optimization. In the targeted research, authors used powerful DOE technique (Taguchi methodology) to compute the material removal rate performance of chromium abrasives suspended kerosene oil as dielectric during electro discharge machining of oil hardened non shrinking steel. Besides concentration of chromium abrasives in kerosene oil, other five input control variables namely electrode polarity, peak current, pulse on time, pulse of time and gap voltage are chosen for designing the experimental plan. Genichi Taguchi methodology’ recommended mixed orthogonal array L18 with signal to noise ratio idea is used to optimize the output performance characteristic. Fisher’s recommended F-test alongwith analysis of variance tool is used to identify the significant control variables and their contribution as process input.

Kamal Sabharwal, Paramjit Singh

CFD Modeling for Slurry Flow Through Bends and Straight Pipe Line

In slurry pipeline, bends are important integral part and these are also prone to wear rapidly. The basic knowledge of the slurry flow through pipe and bends accomplish us to find the causes of wear in pipeline. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations by using Eulerian–Eulerian model is employed to simulate the slurry flow in pipeline. Standard k-epsilon model is used to find turbulence in both liquid and solid phases. Volumetric concentrations of silica sand slurry were taken 3.9 % of 448 μm mono size silica sand particles. The flow velocity was 1.8 and 2.7 m/s, in the pipe line. The CFD results have been validated against experimental data for pressure drop and concentration distribution. It is observed that CFD modeling gives fairly good results for almost all the data considered in this study. The finding of the present study that pressure drop increases with flow velocity around bend and pressure values be maximum at outer surface and minimum at the inner surface across the pipe bend.

Arvind Kumar

Role and Significance of Visualisation in Product Design at Prototyping Stage

Before the arrival of Computer aided technologies in rapid prototyping, nature of industrial design demanded a methodology that remained virtually unaffected since origins of the profession. While being effective, this methodology favoured working practices whereby industrial designer was almost detached from overall New Product Development Process. In this paper, an attempt is made first to understand the Principles of Visualization and as to how the aesthetics of a product can be experimented without affecting the functionality of the product. The stages of the Conventional Designing process are discussed in detail with the help of case studies. The generation of a 3D-computer model, to make use of rapid prototyping, opens up a variety of benefits within the process of New Product Development. These benefits have been translated into reality by engineering and manufacturing disciplines to reduce time to market.

Sawankumar Naik, Ravi Terkar

Positional Analysis of a DC Brushed Encoder Motor Using Ziegler-Nichols Algorithm

In the present era, use of Automated Guided vehicles (AGV) has emerged for automation in material handling applications. AGVs are equipped with DC brushed/brushless motors with encoders. The encoders help AGV to move accurately on the track as encoders keep on monitoring the actual shaft position of DC motor. This is called a positional analysis of DC motor. The analysis will be helpful in track following as well as to prevent collision (Between two AGVs or between object and AGV). In the first phase of paper, the details of AGV, Interfacing of Arduino with DC encoder motor and Interfacing of Arduino with MATLAB are shown. In the second phase, the transfer function of the system, type of the system, order of the system, steady state and transient analysis are shown. In the final phase of the paper, system’s response with P, PI and PID controllers are shown with the help of Ziegler-Nicholas (Z-N algorithm) algorithm (Real time and simulation both) with respect to step input.

Priyam Anilkumar Parikh, Saurin Sheth, Trupal Patel

A Hybrid Approach to Motion Planning for Stepping over and Obstacle Avoidance in Humanoids

Obstacle avoidance and path planning of biped are challenging issues addressed by researchers across the globe. Tackling with obstacles in mobile robots generally involves obstacle avoidance by choosing via points away from the obstacle. In addition to this, legged robots particularly humanoids, have the potential to step over or step up on obstacles to cross them. This approach can be more effective in case of certain category of obstacles which are not stretched along the lateral direction and there by not hindering the stance foot placement. This necessitates a separate study of these category of obstacles to tap the full potential of humanoids to step over them where ever possible and thereby reducing the necessity of a path modification. The approach involves per-determining the optimum step length of the robot by energy optimization and dynamic analysis, followed by the selection of best trajectory for stepping over obstacles that are fitted into basic 3-D shapes for easiness of real time computation. A fuzzy based trajectory planning for these basic shapes are studied in detail and the intelligent fuzzy based planer selects the best trajectory, after cross checking the stability of the choice.

Hari Prasanth, A. P. Sudheer

Web Based Simulation and Remote Triggered Laboratory for Robots

This paper describes a web based virtual laboratory developed to facilitate learning robot kinematics and control through simulation and online control of some well-known robots in real-time with vision feedback system. The web based self-learning content and tools can be used in engineering education for both graduates and research scholars. Using Java Server Pages (JSPs), WAMP and Python, we provide a standard and robust platform for client environment. The website primarily addresses the delivery of basic concepts in robot kinematics.

A. T. Navaraja, Neha Jain, Debashree Sengupta, C. S. Kumar

Modular Robotic Assistance in Cluttered Environments: A Broad-Spectrum of Industrial Applications

A broad perspective is presented for the utilization of modular robotic arms in various industrial tasks, particularly for cluttered environments. Parameters-based modules are proposed to develop reconfigurable manipulators according to the robotic parameters, resulting out of the design procedure. A brief description of the modules divisions and the optimal assembly planning is presented. Focus of the paper is the multi-layered approach for modules inventory, which can be referred as base for the further additions in the types of modules required in the library. A case study on a realistic problem of challenging welding sites is presented as one example of the upper layer of multi-layered spectrum. The results present the designed configurations and corresponding modular assembly.

Satwinder Singh, Akshit Kaplish, Ekta Singla

A Benchmarking Model for Indian Service Industries

Benchmarking is the most important tool for improvement which is proficient over comparison through other organizations known as the best within precise extent. This study marines the service industries to focus its modest edge such as customer service, function ability, policy, adequacy and many more though conveying other processes through opposition and highlights different types of Benchmarking process used in industries, that gives effective used of factors for their implementation. Thus, an attempt is made by authors to give a model for the evaluation of Benchmarking by using MADM (ANP) approach. A benchmarking model is proposed which can be implemented in service industries of developing countries like India as the industries are showing huge interest for improving their competitiveness in global scenario.

Bhupender Singh, Sandeep Grover, Vikram Singh

Optimal Design of a Production System

The main objective of the manufacturing is to find a compromise between productivity and high efficiency. To achieve the goal, Industry have to solve many number of problems at the manufacturing floor. The author has conducted number of experiments on different manufacturing industries and collected processing time of each part in the cell and total time of completion and weekly production of the Firms and the same are considered by author for this research work to establish the objectivity of this work Three objectives function namely, minimizing the mean flow time; maximization of throughput; Combination of minimization of mean flow time and maximization of throughput has been developed. Mean flow time and throughput were calculated from conventional techniques as well as optimization techniques namely Genetic Algorithm and simulating annealing techniques. Results from both the optimization techniques were compared. From the results obtained by the execution of all the primitive and deterministic approaches on the sample problems with varying complexities.

P. K. Arora, Abid Haleem, M. K. Singh, Harish Kumar, D. P. Singh

Modelling and Analysis of a Novel Ancillary Braking System for All Terrain Vehicle

A concept of ancillary braking system was incorporated in vehicle to enhance performance parameters such as yaw moment control and off road abilities. In this additional braking system, we have controlled these parameters by applying brakes at the time of requirement. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis were performed on the ancillary braking system. Real world tests were done on vehicle to caliber the improvements. It includes graphical representation of various design parameters. Area of improvement includes better off road abilities and yaw movement control which helps vehicle maneuverability and reduction of turning radius.

Amitansu Pattanaik, Nirbhay Jain

Nonlinear Tracking Control of Parallel Manipulator Dynamics with Intelligent Gain Tuning Scheme

This paper presents modelling and control of highly nonlinear dynamics parallel manipulator system using neural network-based gain tuning technique in a model-based feedback linearization controller. Adaptive gain tuning approach is implemented for conventional computed torque control scheme. The proposed controller has very simple structure and takes little computational time while tracking a trajectory. A feed forward model is implemented to achieve the gains corresponding to the errors and their derivatives. The results are illustrated for a circular trajectory. Simulation results for a 3-RRR planar parallel manipulator show that the intelligent gain tuning technique has better performance than conventional computed torque control in terms of controllability and stability. An experimental analysis is presented for straight line trajectory.

K. V. Varalakshmi, J. Srinivas

Study of Joining Different Types of Polymers by Friction Stir Welding

Friction stir welding has been successfully employed for various types of polymers. The application of external heat source is beneficial in joining different types of polymers and fiber reinforced polymers by FSW. External heating elements such as heated shoe, viblade, hot air gun have been used to assist the Friction Stir Welding Process. Polymers with low melting point temperatures were easily joined while those with higher melting point temperatures either formed weaker joints or posed difficulty while welding. The Friction stir welding process also applies well to reinforced plastics. Joints of good tensile strength quality factor, flexural strength and shear strength are obtained. This paper reviews the work done with respect to joining of different types of polymers and fiber reinforced polymers and concludes by suggesting further scope for research in friction stir welding of polymers and polymer-hybrid composite materials.

Nitin Panaskar, Ravi Terkar

Single Point Incremental Forming Using Flexible Die

Incremental sheet forming is an innovative process having ability to fulfill demands for customized sheet metal parts without using costly dies unlike traditional forming processes. However, shape deviation of formed parts is one of the drawbacks which need technological developments to use ISF on shop floor. Backdrawing, use of half dies and customized toolpaths are some of the techniques being worked out for reducing shape deviation but have some limitations. The present work investigates the flexible die developed to reduce shape deviation of the non-axisymmetric parts formed through SPIF. Experiments were carried out with different geometries to check the effectiveness of flexible die. Results show a significant improvement in the parts formed using flexible die over those formed without using it. This work gives another method for forming components with reduced bending. Also it proposes a new method of using bolts as flexible die which doesn’t needs to be changed with the part geometry.

Deepesh Panjwani, Prashant K. Jain, M. K. Samal, J. J. Roy, Debanik Roy, Puneet Tandon

Hilbert Curve Based Toolpath for FDM Process

Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is one of the most widespread additive manufacturing technique used for fabricating 3D objects without any design constraints. It is a solid-based process in which polymers material in the form of semi molten state is extruded from the nozzle to fabricate the 3D objects. In the present work, a new tool path strategy for FDM process has been developed based on Hilbert curve. Hilbert curve is a space filling fractal curve and its hausdorff dimension is two. This curve is surjective and continuous in nature. The proposed tool path from developed program are validated though simulation and experimental results. The new approach has been simulated using MATLAB computing platform. Boolean operators like intersection and subtraction are utilized for finding the intersection points for the tool path generation. A self-developed extruder system based on screw extrusion is used for the real time application of the algorithm developed. The extruder head is reconfigured to an existing CNC milling machine for printing and production purpose. Case study for different types of prototypes are also presented to demonstrate the capabilities of developed tool path algorithm.

Saquib Shaikh, Narendra Kumar, Prashant K. Jain, Puneet Tandon

Development of Edge Processing and Drawing Algorithms for a 6 Axis Industrial Robot

The development of edge processing algorithm and drawing algorithm of an industrial robot is presented in this paper. This programming was developed with an industrial robot (ABB IRB 1410) using RAPID programming language and Robot studio simulator. Drawing is considered as task of skilled humans for obtaining precise layout. Almost all draftsmen use their hands and fingers to draw that are replaced by manipulator and gripper in case of the robot. It is tedious to transform the Images to Car Bodies, Glasses; this process of capturing the image and reproducing it by programming the ABB Industrial robot will provide a solution.

G. Kalaiarasan, A. Tony Thomas, C. Kirubha, B. Saravanan

Experimental Investigation and Fuzzy Modelling of Flatness and Surface Roughness for WCB Material Using Face Milling Operation

Optimum selection of process parameters may help to achieve the best dimensional and geometric tolerances during machining. This can be achieved by developing a model using the experimental data, which in turn helps in prediction of the responses in context of input variables. The present paper deals with the investigation of WCB material, a base material for valve. 23 full factorial design with four centre points is selected to perform the reliable experiments. Here the input variables are spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. While the output parameters are surface roughness and flatness. The soft computing technique Fuzzy Logic is applied to predict the responses. The values predicted from the model and experimental values are very close, with more than 95 % accuracy. Further four more experiments are performed at various combinations for validation of developed model. The error in the predicted and measured values are less than 8 %, shows the validity of model for further use.

Saurin Sheth, P. M. George

A Retrospective Investigation of Different Uncertainty of Measurement Estimation Approaches

The general method which has been widely used for computation of Uncertainty of measurement is law of propagation of uncertainty (LPU) method as discussed in Guide for Uncertainty of Measurement (GUM). Numbers of other new methods, with the time, have been evolved for the assessment of Uncertainty of measurement in metrological and measurement related applications. Monte Carlo Method (MCM), has been given the most emphasis and has been recommended by JCGM wide its supplement for Uncertainty of measurement vide JCGM supplement 101: 2008. This paper is an attempt to discuss briefly, the procedure and role of Monte Carlo Method technique in Uncertainty of measurement.

Harish Kumar, P. K. Arora, Girija Moona, D. P. Singh, Jasveer Singh, Anil Kumar

Design of Automatic Fuel Filling System Using a Mechatronics Approach

With the rapid growth of life, usage of automobile is increasing day by day, leading to an increase of fuel filling stations. In the present scenario, these filling stations are totally manually operated which consumes time & requires man power. Wherein sparsely populated areas, the labour cost is more, due to less population density. Due to less availability of labour, and climatic conditions some of these filling stations wouldn’t be open for 24*7. Keeping these factors in mind, a mechatronics approach is made to design an automatic fuel filling system, which would be cost effective, open 24*7, minimum labour required and optimum time taken to fill fuel. The car has to be parked in a specific region, wherein using image processing a close loop system will be generated which guides the robotic arm to align itself to the fuel tank. Once the arm has aligned itself, the consumer has to enter the amount for the quantity of petrol to be filled in the car by swiping his card in the machine. The pump gets actuated and the tank starts getting filled with fuel. Once the entered volume of fuel had been filled in the car, the pump stops the supply of fuel and the arm returns to its initial position. Using this approach even the owner could monitor the pump online from any corner of the world and also overcome the idea of petrol theft.

Saurin Sheth, Kavit H. Patel, Harsh Patel

A Framework for Evaluation of Environmental Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Industry

The term sustainability is generating much interest both among organizations and as a research topic. This article focuses on the environmental aspect of sustainability in pharmaceutical industry. The main objective of this paper is to present a framework for evaluation of environmental sustainability of formulated products (dosage forms) in pharmaceutical industry. Indicators used in pharmaceutical industry to evaluate environmental sustainability are also presented. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies undertaken in pharmaceutical sector are explored and a list of these studies is presented in this paper. As part of framework building, each phase of LCA viz. goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation was taken into account. For each of the above-mentioned phases, methods that may be undertaken to quantify the environmental burden caused by formulated pharmaceutical products were prepared based on literature review.

Geo Raju, Harpreet Singh, Prabir Sarkar, Ekta Singla

Aero-Structure Interaction for Mechanical Integration of HP Compressor Blades in a Gas Engine Rotor

Aero-structure interaction during turbomachinery blade design has become an important area of research due to its critical applications in aero engines, land based gas turbines. Studies reveal that a small mistuning leads to stress build up through mode localization under operating conditions. This paper deals with a case study of Aero-structure interaction for a free standing HP blade of a gas turbine. Assuming 100 % fixity at blade root, the study involves critical parametric evaluations involved in achieving Mechanical Integrity in airfoil design and blade platform design. Mechanical Integrity involves stress checks, frequency margins, Campbell diagram, gross yield stress and so on, for design and off-design conditions for a given stage efficiency of 72 % in an Ideal HP compressor of a gas turbine engine.

N. Vinayaka, Nilotpal Banerjee, B. S. Ajay Kumar, Kumar K. Gowda

Appraisement of Mass Customization Capability Level Using Multi-grade Fuzzy Approach

The manufacturing organizations around the globe have been observing a paradigm shifting from mass production to mass customization (MC). Mass customization capability (MCC) is the ability of a firm to produce varieties of customized products quickly, on a large scale and at a cost comparable to mass-production through flexible production processes and responsive supply chain. The goal of this paper to report a existing mass customization capability level (MCCL) appraisement of Indian bicycle manufacturing firm using multi-grade fuzzy approach. Through this study, a MCCL measurement model integrated with multi-grade fuzzy approach was designed. After the computation of MCCL index, the areas for improvement have been identified to adopt and implement mass customization strategy in the case firm. The approach contributed in this paper could be employed as appraisement equipment for estimating an organization’s capability to turn out to be a mass customizer.

Jayant K. Purohit, M. L. Mittal, Milind Kumar Sharma, Sameer Mittal

Analysis of Solar Ejector–Jet Refrigeration System Using Eco-Friendly Material R1234yf

Air-conditioning of living spaces is indispensable for human beings in the modern life. Ejector cycles are very reliable and simple but their energy efficiency is very low and, therefore, its affect after combining with solar energy can facilitate better system performance. Currently, the vapor compression air-conditioning system uses R134a in the air-conditioning system that is one of the cause of the global warming. In present work, a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant material R1234yf is used in the solar ejector-jet refrigeration cycle instead of R134a and its affect on coefficient of performance, refrigerating effect is investigated. Refrigerant R1234yf working fluids provides good energy efficiency and environmental option for solar ejector-jet compression systems and its cycle simulation showed that the proposed ejector-jet cycle can provide energy savings if it is supplied with solar energy.

Gaurav, Raj Kumar

Numerical Investigation of Thermohydraulics Performance in Elliptical Twisted Duct Heat Exchanger

Heat transfer behaviour in twisted elliptical duct swirl generator is investigated numerically. Twisted geometry is a widely used technique for heat transfer enhancement. This work presents the investigation of a elliptical twisted duct (ETD) for turbulent heat transfer in air using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. In the present paper, transition—SST model which can predict the change of flow regime from laminar through intermittent to turbulent has been used for numerical simulations. While the aspect ratio of major and minor axes of the elliptical duct is 0.5, the pitch length (Y) is varied between 0.5 and 1.0. The results indicate that the smaller pitch length yields a higher heat transfer value with relatively lower performance penalty. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is observed between Reynolds numbers of 1000–3500 for all cases. For all investigated cases, heat transfer enhancement (η) tends to increase with the increase of Reynolds number. This result is useful for the design of solar thermal heaters and heat exchangers.

Suvanjan Bhattacharyya, Himadri Chattopadhyay, Tarun Kanti Pal, Anirban Roy

Erratum to: TiC, W2C Reinforced Ti-W MMC Coating Developed on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate Through Laser Cladding

Parth Gattani, Barun Haldar, Adil Azeem, Partha Saha


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