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The limited supply of bone graft is a major problem in human organ transplantation costing lives of many worldwide. Calcium phosphate (CaP) material has been considered the most favorable and best substitute in tissue engineering and orthopedics, thanks to its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, one of disadvantages of this material is its limited clinical applications for non-load-bearing bone implant due to low strength and brittleness. The objective of this study was to develop high mechanical strength calcium phosphate ceramics mechanically suitable for load-bearing bone implant application. Chemical and physical approaches have been undertaken to solve the mechanical weakness of calcium phosphate ceramics by doping with zinc (Zn) and compositing with carbon nanotube (CNT), respectively. The starting powders have been synthesized via sol-gel method. After uniaxial pressing, the compacted samples were sintered using conventional pressureless sintering. The samples were studied in terms of the phase stability, relative density, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness as well as in vitro test in SBF solution. The results showed that hydroxyapatite is the main phase and β-tricalcium phosphate is the secondary phase of obtained powders. The composites have relative density 93.34 ± 0.50% with a Vickers hardness as high as 5.00 ± 0.02 GPa and 2.78 ± 0.01 MPa.m1/2 fracture toughness, which are in the range of human cortical bone’s mechanical properties. Bioactivity test in a simulated body fluid for 1, 7, 14 and 30 days showed that the samples were covered by apatite cell since the first day, and the density of apatite increased by immersion time. Thus, from mechanical and bioactivity characteristic viewpoint, this CNT reinforced Zn-doped calcium phosphate is mechanically and biologically suitable for load-bearing bone implant applications.
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- Calcium Phosphate-Carbon Nanotube Composites for Load—Bearing Bone Implant Application
- Springer Singapore