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2023 | Buch

Capacity Building in Local Authorities for Sustainable Transport Planning

herausgegeben von: Andree Woodcock, Janet Saunders, Keelan Fadden-Hopper, Eileen O’Connell

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies


Über dieses Buch

This book is conceptualized as being of interest to researchers in the field of sustainable transport, and also those who are working in the field. In the first case it will provide a reference on the state of the art of sustainable transport, and will also include insights into an EU project, how to go about delivering impact, how such projects effect local authorities, etc. Sustainable transport is an extreme growth area; it is highly innovative, with multi-million-pound investments transforming cities. The book will help and encourage resource poor small to medium local authorities catch up and meet their sustainability targets.


Chapter 1. Introduction
The H2020 CIVITAS SUITS project was conceived by Professor Andree Woodcock and colleagues in 2014/15. It was scheduled to run between 2016 and 2020 but owing to the COVID-19 pandemic was extended to spring 2021. The aim of the project was to support capacity building of small–medium local authorities developing sustainable transport measures. This volume provides an account of the outputs of the project, in the form of chapters and recommendations for local authorities and consultants who are entrusted in delivering transport services which are inclusive, fit for purpose and enable accessibility for all. Although larger authorities are relatively well equipped to make these changes, smaller, more traditional local authorities may lack the knowledge, capacity and capability to plan, finance and implement sustainable transport measures at a time of great socio economic, technological and cultural change. Such authorities are also required to adopt new ways of working at the same time as designing and planning multimillion-euro transport projects which will support smart city developments and significantly improve the mobility of their citizens. At the heart of H2020 CIVITAS SUITS is a socio-technical approach, which recognises that capacity building is more than just providing training, and it is about empowering members of an organisation to be innovative. This volume has been written to inform designed to inform the daily practices of transport departments and stakeholder groups engaged in commissioning sustainable transport measures of working on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans.
Andree Woodcock

Contextual Overview: Why is Capacity a Problem?

Chapter 2. Why is There a Need to Develop Capacity in Local Authorities
SUITS was developed in 2015 and conducted between 2016 and 2021. It was developed specifically to address the climate change crisis through providing resources for local authorities to develop and implement sustainable transport measures. Such measures could take the form of, for example, traffic regulations and enforcement, new lower pollutant vehicles, new transport systems and services, or support for active forms of transport—cycling and walking. The development of such measures may require a strategic, integrated master plan (SUMP), but such an ambitious plan may not be possible for smaller local authorities.
Andree Woodcock
Chapter 3. The Relationship of Capacity Building to SUMPS 2.0: Reflections on Learning Programmes
This chapter reflects on the ways in which Horizon 2020 capacity building programmes support the diffusion of the sustainable urban mobility planning (SUMP) concept among European cities. It explores the different knowledge requirements of local administrations and how they are addressed through capacity building activities. The chapter builds on the authors’ experience of organising, contributing to and evaluating learning events in SUMP-related European research and innovation actions (RIAs), including CIVITAS SUITS and CIVITAS SUMPs-Up. These projects support the spread of the SUMP concept, by providing the necessary capacity building material to help city and regional administrations design, develop and implement more integrated and inclusive transport plans. The chapter introduces the following learning experiences from the capacity building:
  • Provision of expert information about the SUMP process.
  • Broadening the view: Inspiration and transfer of experiences from other cities (peer-to-peer learning)
  • Consolidating the new mobility planning paradigm, internalising the SUMP approach and overcoming outdated planning paradigms
  • Motivation, community building and future cooperation
  • Development of business cases.
Stefan Werland, Frederic Rudolph

Delivering Capacity Change in Local Authorities

Chapter 4. Setting Targets for Local Authorities to Increase Their Capacity to Develop and Implement Sustainable Transport Measures
In order to assist cities implement their mobility plans, it is essential to analyse which factors might influence their capacity to plan, develop, and implement mobility measures. A four-step process was developed to help cities perform such an audit. In the first step, a comprehensive characterization and contextualisation survey was conducted to understand the context in which cities operated and their situation with respect to mobility planning. Then, each partner city assessed its own capacity to implement mobility plans according to a set of key capacity indicators related to organizational, legal, political, and societal aspects. The results indicated the areas in which each authority needed to focus in order to improve its capacity to implement general mobility plans. In the final step, each city considered their mobility plans and linked these to the capacity indicator. This provided each city with a bespoke set of specific capacity indicator targets which needed to be worked on to successfully apply their mobility plans. The four-step approach presented in this chapter is a transferable tool that can be applied by city authorities to understand and prioritize the capacity needs of transport departments.
S. Sofia Kalakou, M. Miriam Pirra, A. Ana Diaz, S. Sebastian Spundflasch
Chapter 5. Emergent Capacity Needs
Sustainable mobility planning is associated with a number of challenges for mobility planning actors and especially for mobility planners in local authorities. Understanding these challenges is of great importance, on the one hand for the work in the SUITS project, where the aim is to improve the capacity of local authorities with regard to sustainable mobility planning, and on the other hand for future support initiatives, which can thus be better tailored to the needs and requirements of cities, especially small and medium-sized ones. Through collaboration with the nine city partners in the SUITS project, 15 challenges were identified. Some of these can be attributed to internal and organisational aspects and may be considered to be basic prerequisites for sustainable and innovative planning, whereas other challenges relate to the implementation of concrete mobility projects. This chapter describes the challenges identified and helps to further understand requirements of the mobility planners in the local authorities. Subsequently, a survey was conducted, where actors in the field of transport were asked to assess the relevance of the identified challenges.
Sebastian Spundflasch, Heidi Krömker
Chapter 6. Behavioural Change in Local Authorities to Increase Organisational Capacity
Local authorities’ transport departments face extraordinary requirements regarding future mobility planning that affects and disrupts their internal business models and institutional logic in substantive ways. In this chapter, we highlight how organisational change can be implemented in local authorities to allow organisational capacity to increase and to enable employees to cope with the increasing expectations and requirements of future mobility planning. Our bottom-up approach is based on a socio-technical approach, taking into account both social (e.g., changing social behaviours or values) and technical aspects (e.g., new technologies). Applying Kotter’s Eight Stage Process, we outline the implementation process of organisational change followed in seven local authorities in Europe as part of the SUITS project. The multiple case study approach allows us to indicate the crucial points along the path towards organisational change and to provide a step-by-step guide for successful implementation of organisational change in local authorities. We provide best practice examples from our work that may help other European cities increase their organisational capacity and be prepared to cope with the extraordinary requirements in relation to future mobility planning.
Ann-Marie Nienaber, Sebastian Spundflasch, André Escórcio Soares
Chapter 7. Introduction to the Capacity Building Toolset and SUITS Capacity Outputs
This brief chapter serves as an introduction to the subsequent chapters in this section. It provides an introduction to the rationale behind the development of the SUITS capacity building toolbox, and how it was developed. The toolbox provides relevant, up to date information for LAs, in the latest developments in sustainable transport measures, closing a gap in information already available through ELTIS and CIVITAS web sites (see Chap. 2).
Anastasia Founta, Olympia Papadopoulou
Chapter 8. Implementation of Sustainable Mobility Measures for Passengers and Goods
This chapter focuses on the key elements and steps to follow for the implementation of sustainable urban mobility measures. It is based primarily on material included in the capacity building framework. It provides an overview of latest developments in different categories of sustainable measures and is addressed to stakeholders responsible for, or who have an interest in the implementation of integrated and sustainable urban mobility.
Anastasia Founta, Olympia Papadopoulou
Chapter 9. Integrating Transport Programmes for Sustainable Reduction in Urban Road Congestion—Best Practise Examples from Local Authorities Working with SUITS
This chapter highlights selected sustainable transport measures that were implemented in nine partner cities during the SUITS project and discusses outcomes and learnings. Mutual exchanges, either in workshops or focussed meetings between the cities, provided inspiration for planning and implementing sustainable transport measures. For the project team, such exchanges provided insights into challenges the cities faced on a day-to-day basis which were used to develop training material and further understand the organisational process. During the project, cities worked on transport measures in five broad topic areas: clean fuels and low emission vehicles, collective passenger transport, vulnerable road users, safety and security and intelligent transport systems and services. Here, we present a selection to illustrate the scope of the undertaking and, how the project was able to enhance the implementation of each initiative.
Janet Saunders, Sunil Budhdeo, Keelan Fadden-Hopper, Ann-Marie Nienaber, Sebastian Spundflasch, Marco Surace, Fabio Nussio, Miriam Pirra, Angel Navarro, Ieva Girdvainienė, Tudor Drambarean, Krinos Ioannis
Chapter 10. Local Authorities’ Perspectives on MaaS Implementation
Mobility as a service (MaaS) is being developed as a means of providing passengers with a convenient, on-demand, multimodal transport service. Pilot trials claim that MaaS can bring substantial benefits at individual and city level in terms of increases in efficiency, health and environmental factors. The SUITS project hosted a one-day conference in Coventry (UK) on the theme of “stimulating transport innovation through capacity building in small and medium local authorities.” The 60 delegates were comprised of transport consultants, academics, local authority representatives, transport stakeholders and representatives from EU transport projects. In a workshop, the challenges that LAs are faced with in setting up MaaS were discussed. The results presented here were collated from moderated roundtable discussions. They reveal considerable concern of local authorities, and the need for consultation and planning on a wider range of issues than those that have been considered so far.
Andree Woodcock, Sebastian Spundflasch, Frederic Rudolph, Kain Glensor, Keelan Fadden-Hopper, Katie Miller-Crolla
Chapter 11. Social Impact and Hard-To-Reach Groups
This chapter discusses the importance of conducting social impact assessments (SIAs) prior to, during and after the implementation of mobility measures. All transport measures have a direct impact on transport users, but they can also have an indirect impact on users, non-users, and those living further away from the proposed measure. These consequences should be considered as part of the wider cost–benefit/lifecycle of the planned measures. A key aspect of design and implementation of mobility measures is to consider the direct and indirect effects on citizens, in particular vulnerable groups, those who have difficulty accessing transport through lack of finances, poor mobility, ageing or those with dependents/looking after children, or because their needs are not met through current transport provision and are consequently excluded from the opportunities provided by city life. The steps taken to mitigate these effects should feed into planning new transport measures, at all stages from pre-planning through to post-evaluation. This chapter explains the importance of SIA, discusses methodologies, provides a set of factors to be considered in conducting SIAs and provides an overview of groups most vulnerable to negative social impacts, with some suggestions for improving practise.
Andree Woodcock, Janet Saunders
Chapter 12. Data Collection and Analysis Tools for Integrated Measures
Currently, several data collection tools exist to measure and monitor the daily traffic in urban areas. Such tools should also be used to provide data on passenger and freight movements to inform short-, medium- and long-term mobility plans. One of the objectives of this chapter is to provide an introduction to the current strategies available and used by medium-sized European cities for data collection, including traditional and more technological automated methods. It will provide information on where there are gaps and difficulties in data collection processes, analyse information relating to urban mobility data, draw conclusions and identify possible generic problems of cities by presenting current methods and solutions that have been developed in Europe for data collection. In addition, the results of two actions implemented in the cities of Turin and Kalamaria for the collection of data in a dynamic and innovative way will be shown, along with a tool developed to manage big data applications in the transport sector. As a conclusion, the main benefits of these tools and the traffic data gathering are highlighted.
Mireia Calvo Monteagudo, Miriam Pirra, Marco Diana, Fotis K. Liotopoulos, F. Tilesch
Chapter 13. Innovative Public Procurement Processes to Implement Sustainable Mobility Policies
Investment in goods, services and works is demanding for any local authority in both time and money. The new legislative framework related to procurement across the EU brings a major shift in terms of procedures and requires a reconsideration of public authorities’ organisation and capacities. The contracting authorities need to make more strategic decisions in relation to public procurement, to include environmental and social objectives and innovation potential in their selection. This paradigm shift requires changing the mentality and traditional ways of working of managers and professionals in LAs, to enable them to prepare long-term procurement strategies and action plans. Public procurement planning is an on-going process. New procurement procedures should build on the experience gained in the organisation by implementing similar projects, on the experience gained by the market and wider socio-economic changes. This chapter introduces innovative processes in procurement suitable for small–medium LAs wishing to finance sustainable transport measures. These include pre-commercial procurement, procurement of innovative solutions, joint procurement, whole life cycle costs-driven procurement, external transport costs. To further develop capacity in LAs to handle procurement issues, the SUITS Consortium has prepared online guidelines on innovative procurement, which were piloted prior to release in Alba Iulia. The integrated decision support tool is freely accessible from https://​www.​suits-project.​eu/​ids-tool/​ and provides more detailed information on the contents of this chapter.
Dan Caraman, Ștefan Roșeanu, Isolda Constantin, Cristiana Dâmboianu
Chapter 14. Innovative Ways for Financing Transport Infrastructure
Many cities encounter challenges caused by traffic and congestion. Encouraging effective and sustainable transport solutions can help to reduce these issues and to meet objectives in a wide range of policy frameworks, resulting in wider economic and social benefits and leading to better health and wellbeing for citizens. Financing is one of the issues that is faced by many cities and regions across Europe and worldwide. Traditionally, public transportation infrastructure has been financed by public funding via taxation, borrowing, operating profits, or a mixture of these. Following the reduced ability of governments to find funding for mobility and transportation schemes, innovative financing approaches have become increasingly important. This chapter discusses financing mechanisms for sustainable transport and mobility and measures to encourage local, regional, and national authorities to achieve their sustainable mobility objectives. More specifically, it focuses on new and innovative financing approaches which, for a variety of reasons, are not widely used at present. The outcomes of this research will help authorities with the decision-making process of identifying the most appropriate financing approaches to achieve sustainable urban mobility objectives.
Olga Feldman
Chapter 15. New Business Models and Partnerships for Sustainable Mobility and Transport Sector
Urban mobility is crucial to European societies in providing access to services for passengers and goods and supporting economic growth. Small and Medium (S-M) European cities are facing similar challenges to larger cities, such as congestion and pollution, and perceive similar trends, such as digitalization, the sharing economy, integrated mobility. To improve urban mobility and the related societal challenges, it requires a wide range of complementary mobility solutions and services adopting innovative user-centric, smart, multimodal, and intermodal approaches. Solving the mobility challenge requires coordinated actions from the private and public sectors. Technological advances and commercialization, funding, intelligent policies, and business model innovation are needed to improve urban mobility and create more sustainable environments in modern cities. The capacity to develop or reshape business models requires organizational know-how and tools. New business strategies enable transportation and mobility organizations to receive investments, whilst well-chosen partners will reinforce the chance of success. This chapter outlines the main results of SUITS’ research into developing business models and partnerships. It provides knowledge about innovative business models in urban mobility; addresses existing and new partnership schemes; identifies evolving commercially viable business strategies; introduces the main findings of the research and recommendations.
Iana Dulskaia, Francesco Bellini

Reflections and Impact

Chapter 16. Measuring the Impact of Capacity Development
The evaluation work package in SUITS focussed on capacity development in local authorities. It assessed how they adapted and improved their performance on key challenges linked to their sustainable mobility measures, through impact and process evaluation. The main focus of the impact evaluation was on the outputs and outcomes–the changes in performance and capacity in the local authorities in implement sustainable mobility measures. This was done through a self-assessment survey of organisation capacity in addressing key challenges, completed by personnel in each local authority. It was also necessary to link these changes in capacity to the ‘inputs’ of the project–the Capacity Building Programme and the Organisation Change Programme–and demonstrate the impact of the project, as it is not satisfactory to presume a causal link between the intervention and perceived outcomes. Process evaluation focussed on the change process undergone in the local authorities. The stages of change the organisations went through and, in particular, the barriers and drivers encountered during the capacity development process were assessed. The results of the evaluation programme showed increased capacity in ability to plan and implement sustainable mobility measures. This was directly attributable to the capacity building and organisation change programme of the project.
Eileen O’Connell
Chapter 17. Meeting the Covid Challenge–Agility and Resilience of SUITS Local Authorities
The Covid-19 pandemic has created immense social, economic, and political disruption around the world. It has shown the importance of agile, functional and resilient cities. In the fight against Covid-19, public life has been reduced to a minimum, but local authorities (LAs) have had to continue to satisfy existing and emergent citizens’ needs and implement, sometimes at very short notice, extreme measures to restrict movement, commerce, education and leisure activities. This poses significant challenges as they have had to not only enforce and communicate government plans but also be proactive and respond to local needs of their cities whilst learning to work in new ways and support the health and well-being of employees. The Covid-19 pandemic has forced organizational change. In many instances, this has accelerated the rate of change, proving that new ways of working are effective and has led to a (temporary) advancement of sustainable transport. This chapter focuses mainly on the experience of SUITS LAs in the final year of the project.
Ann-Marie Nienaber, Andree Woodcock, Kat Gut
Chapter 18. The Local Authority Perspective on EU–Funded Collaborative Projects
The EU, through various funding streams, continues to invest heavily on sustainable mobility to reduce congestion, carbon emissions, improve inclusivity, health and well-being, etc. This is leading to new methods, tools and processes, service propositions and technical innovations (in engineering and computing). Local authorities are responsible for the design and delivery of transport services in their cities. As such they may be regarded as one of the end users of the vast amount of material that is produced by projects such as SUITS. They can also receive funding to participate in some capacity, in many of the programmes, e.g. to run technology trials, to attend training events. This chapter takes a reflective approach to understanding the experience of local authority partners, what were their expectations, what were the costs and benefits, and what recommendations would they make for others to ensure they received maximum benefit if they were invited to participate in future projects. These insights are useful for the designers of research programmes, project managers and local authorities who might be invited into a consortium.
Andree Woodcock, Ann-Marie Nienaber, Janet Saunders, Sebastian Spundflasch, Sunil Budhdeo, Keelan Fadden Hopper, Guiseppe Estivio
Chapter 19. Conclusions
Andree Woodcock
Capacity Building in Local Authorities for Sustainable Transport Planning
herausgegeben von
Andree Woodcock
Janet Saunders
Keelan Fadden-Hopper
Eileen O’Connell
Springer Nature Singapore
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