Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The effectiveness of unilateral action to curb carbon emissions has been dismissed because of possible “carbon leakages”, this referring to the rise of emissions in non-participating countries. This paper offers a general equilibrium (GE) exploration of the key mechanisms and factors underlying the size of carbon leakages. We developed a two-region, two-goods simplified GE framework, incorporating three types of fossil fuels (coal, oil and low-carbon energy), international trade and capital mobility. The model was designed to make tractable extensive multidimensional sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that the coal supply elasticity plays a critical role, while substitution elasticities between traded goods and international capital mobility appear relatively less influential. The shape of the production function also matters for the size of the leakages. Confirming the results obtained with large computable GE models, for a wide range of parameters’ values carbon leakages appear to be small. Therefore, the argument that unilateral carbon abatement action taken by a large group of countries (such as the Annex 1 group) is flawed by significant carbon leakages is not supported by our sensitivity analysis. The likelihood of small leakages favours in fact the formation of a worldwide coalition to stabilise climate change.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Babiker, M. (2001). Subglobal climate-change actions and carbon leakage: the implication of international capital flows. Energy Economics, 23, 121–139. CrossRef
Babiker, M. (2005). Climate change policy, market structure and carbon leakage. Journal of International Economics, 65(2).
Babiker, M., & Jacoby, H. D. (1999). Developing country effects of Kyoto-type emissions restrictions, mimeo, Joint program on the science and policy of global change. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Beck, T., Jolly L., & Loncar, T. (1991). Supply response in the Australian black coal industry, Technical Paper No. 91.1, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resources Economics (ABARE).
Bollen, J., Manders, T., & Timmer, H. (1999, May 27–28). Kyoto and carbon leakage: simulations with WorldScan, mimeo. Paper Presented at the IPCC Working Group III Expert Meeting. The Hague.
Botteon, M., & Carraro, C. (2001). Environmental coalitions with heterogeneous countries: burden sharing and carbon leakage. In A. Ulph (Ed.), Environmental policy, international agreements and international trade. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burniaux, J. -M., Nicoletti, G., & Oliveira Martins, J. (1992). GREEN: A global model for quantifying the costs of policies to curb CO2 emissions. OECD Economic Studies, 19 (Winter).
Burniaux, J. -M., (2001). International trade and investment leakage associated with climate change mitigation. Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, available on http://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu.
Burniaux, J. -M. & Chateau, J. (2008). An Overview of the OECD ENV-linkages model. OECD Economic Department Working Papers no. 658.
Carraro, C. (1998). Beyond Kyoto: A game theoretic perspective. In The Proceedings of the OECD Workshop on Climate Change and Economic Modelling: Background Analysis for the Kyoto Protocol. OECD, Paris.
Chichilnisky, G., & Heal, G. (1994). Who should abate carbon emission? an international perspective. Economics Letters, 44, 443–449. CrossRef
Di Maria, C., & Van der Werf, E. (2008). Carbon leakage revisited: unilateral climate policy with directed technical change. Environmental and Resource Economics, 39(2).
Dixon, P., Parmenter, B., Powell, A., & Wilcoxen, P. (1992). Notes and problems in applied general equilibrium economics. North-Holland.
Felder, S., & Rutherford, T. (1993). Unilateral CO2 reductions and carbon leakage: The consequences of international trade in oil and basic materials. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 25(2).
Hertel, T. (1997). Global trade analysis: Modelling and applications. Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2007). Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2001). Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Cambridge University Press.
Lecocq, F., & Hourcade, J. -C. (2016). Unspoken ethical issues in the climate affair insights from a theoretical analysis of negotiation mandates. Economic Theory (reprinted in this volume).
Light, M., Koldstad, C., & Rutherford, T. (1999, November). Coal markets and the Kyoto Protocol, mimeo.
Manne, A., & Richels, R. (1998). The Kyoto Protocol: A cost-effective strategy for meeting environmental objectives? In Economic Modelling of Climate Change, OECD Workshop Report, 17–18 September 1998, published in The Energy Journal (20), May 1999.
McKibbin, W., & Wilcoxen, P. (1995). The theoretical and empirical structure of the G-cubed model. Brookings discussion paper in international economics no. 118, The Brookings Institution. Washington DC.
McKibbin, W., & Wilcoxen, P. J. (2008, June 9). The economic and environmental effects of border tax adjustments for climate policy. Paper Prepared for the Brookings Conference on Climate Change, Trade and Competitiveness: Is a Collision Inevitable?. Washington.
McKibbin, W., Ross, M., Shackleton, R., & Wilcoxen, P. J. (1999, May 27–28). Emissions trading, capital flows and the Kyoto Protocol. Paper Presented at the IPCC Working Group III Expert Meeting. The Hague.
Mellish, M. (1998). Coal pricing methodology for the Annual Energy Outlook 1998, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting.
OECD (1999). Action against climate change: The Kyoto Protocol and beyond. Paris.
OECD (2009). The economics of climate change mitigation: Policies and options for global action beyond 2012. Paris.
Oliveira Martins, J. (1995). Unilateral emission control, energy-intensive industries and carbon leakages. In Global warming: Economic dimensions and policy responses. OECD, Paris.
Oliveira Martins, J., & Sturm, P. (2000). Efficiency and distribution in computable models of carbon emission abatement. In G. Chichilnisky & G. Heal (Eds.), Environmental markets: Equity and efficiency. New York: Columbia University Press.
Oliveira Martins, J., Burniaux, J. -M., & Martin, J. P. (1992). Trade and the effectiveness of unilateral CO2-abatement policies: Evidence from GREEN. OECD Economic Studies, 19 (Winter).
Rezai, A., Foley, D. K., & Taylor, L. (2016). Global warming and economic externalities. Economic Theory (reprinted in this volume).
Rutherford, T. (1992). The Welfare Effects of Fossil Fuel Carbon Restrictions: results from a recursively dynamic trade model. OECD Economics Department Working Paper, no. 112.
Wolfram, S. (2003). The mathematica© book. (5th ed.). Wolfram Media.
- Carbon Leakages: A General Equilibrium View
Joaquim Oliveira Martins
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta