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This book presents a summary of the current use of carbon nanomaterials for water treatment, drug delivery, systems and nanosensors. The first chapter elucidates the adsorption process phenomenon. Also, the properties of different carbon nanomaterials for adsorption applications are covered. The third chapter presents the kinetic and equilibrium models of adsorption, processing of experimental data and adsorption process peculiarities. Environmental and biological applications of carbon nanomaterials are listed in the last chapter. This book is written from an application-oriented perspective and is useful for all those interested in nanoadsorbents.



Chapter 1. Introduction

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have the ability to produce materials with unusual functions and properties that are revolutionizing all segments of industrial. Among the different classes of nanomaterials, carbon nanomaterials such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and graphene stand out. These nanomaterials have several practical applications, especially those involving adsorption processes. Carbon nanomaterials show fascinating structures potentially interesting for the development of highly sensitive, selective, and efficient adsorbent devices for the removal of inorganic, organic and biological contaminants from water solutions, as well as for applications as nanosensors and drug delivery systems. In this chapter we demonstrated the number of articles reported in the literature in recent years involving carbon nanomaterials as adsorbents. In addition, this chapter addresses the fundamental aspects of adsorption, such as the distinction between physical adsorption and chemical adsorption.
Carlos P. Bergmann, Fernando Machado Machado, Éder Cláudio Lima

Chapter 2. Carbon Nanoadsorbents

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality can be solved or greatly ameliorated using the nanoscale adsorbents, called nanoadsorbents. Innovations in the development of novel carbon nanomaterials like fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene are among the most exciting and promising materials for water treatment—purification. This chapter gives detailed description of the structure, morphology, and adsorption properties of carbon nanoadsorbents. The textural properties of fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and graphene family are highlighted. A brief description of the effects of the electronic properties in the adsorption capability was inferred as well as how the adsorption of molecules may affect photoelectronic properties of carbon nanotubes.
Fernando Machado Machado, Solange Binotto Fagan, Ivana Zanella da Silva, Mônica Jung de Andrade

Chapter 3. Kinetic and Equilibrium Models of Adsorption

In adsorption study, isotherms and kinetics of adsorption process provide pieces of information underlying the mechanisms and dynamics of the process. Several equilibrium and kinetic models are usually employed for performing the experimental design of an adsorption system. In this chapter, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Liu, Redlich–Peterson nonlinear equations, as well as other unusual isotherm models (Hill, Khan, Radke–Prausnitz, Toth) are discussed. For the kinetics of adsorption, the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, general-order, Avrami fractionary order, and Elovich chemisorption models are explained. The importance of statistical parameters such as coefficient of determination (\(R^{2}\)), adjusted coefficient of determination (\(R_{\text{adj}}^{2}\)), and standard deviation (root of mean square error) are highlighted. The usage of linearized and nonlinearized equations are illustrated and explained. Some common mistakes commonly committed in the literature using linearized equilibrium and kinetic adsorption models as well as other polemic points in adsorption research are pointed out. Analytical techniques together with thermodynamical data of enthalpy and entropy changes are needed to ascertain if an adsorption process is a chemical or a physical process.
Éder Cláudio Lima, Matthew Ayorinde Adebayo, Fernando Machado Machado

Chapter 4. Experimental Adsorption

One of the major challenges of the technological driven society is the lingering environmental pollution as a result of toxic species. Adsorption is one of the versatile techniques employed for removal of toxic species from aqueous solutions. Several factors have been identified to influence adsorptive systems. Thus, it is pertinent to know the phenomena involved in the adsorption processes in order to improve the conditions for the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate. In this context, we present in this chapter several factors and experimental conditions that could have effect on the batch adsorption method. The role of the morphology and textural properties of the adsorbents such as pore size, total pore volume and superficial area are developed in the text. Moreover, the effects of the initial adsorbate concentration and dosage of adsorbent in the adsorption process are explained. We also evaluate the importance of the major experimental conditions in the adsorption process, these being the pH of adsorbate solution, agitation speed, the temperature at which the adsorption process is carried out and the contact time between the adsorbent and adsorbate.
Éder Cláudio Lima, Matthew Ayorinde Adebayo, Fernando Machado Machado

Chapter 5. Carbon Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications

The qualities of waters are constantly diminishing due to release of toxic components into the environment. It is very important to treat wastewater in order to remove pollutants and improve water quality. Generally, adsorption technology has proven to be one of the most effective techniques in the separation and removal of a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater. Recently, carbon nanomaterials such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene-family have become promising adsorbents for water treatment. This chapter compiles relevant knowledge about the experimental and theoretical adsorption activities of fullerene, CNT and graphene-family as nanoadsorbents for removal of organic and inorganic environmental pollutants.
Fernando Machado Machado, Éder Cláudio Lima, Iuri Medeiros Jauris, Matthew Ayorinde Adebayo

Chapter 6. Molecules with Biological Interest Adsorbed on Carbon Nanostructures

In the last decade, carbon nanostructures have been exhaustively studied mainly associated with their application in biosensors and drug delivery systems. In this context, the present chapter introduces several studies combining amino acids and pharmaceutical drugs with carbon nanostructures such as graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerene. More specifically, the biomolecules under focus are the amino acid cysteine and the pharmaceutical drugs nimesulide, meloxicam and zidovudine. These molecules can be considered models for different chemical interactions or adsorptions with carbon nanostructures. The adsorptions analysed suggest possible applications such as biosensors or drug delivery depending on the use of particular pristine or functionalised carbon nanomaterials.
Mariana Zancan Tonel, Vivian Machado de Menezes, Ivana Zanella, Solange Binotto Fagan
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