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This book presents carbon nanotubes as a potential material for the development of new waste water treatment technologies. Reviews on adsorption, catalysis, membrane, filtration and desinfection methods are provided. A special chapter presents the use of carbon nanotubes to sense and monitor water pollutants. The text underlies each technology and process as well as the current commercialization efforts. Research gaps are highlighted at the end with links to further reading material in the field.




Water pollution has become one of the major twenty-first century problems. Therefore, pollutants in wastewater are necessary to attenuate through various processes. But classical wastewater treatment methods have been facing a range of limitations as they are operationally intensives and depend on large system which urges high capital costs cum engineering expertise. Very recently, carbon nanotube (CNT) has been introduced to improve classical wastewater treatment methods. This chapter summarizes the uses of CNT either as water purification material by themselves or along with other materials as nanocomposite for water treatment.
Rasel Das

Water Pollutants Classification and Its Effects on Environment

With increasing urbanization and advancement of science, researches in nanotechnology and nanomaterial development are experiencing unprecedented expansion. Nanoparticle pollution is considered to be the most difficult pollution being managed and controlled. This chapter briefly describes the different types of water pollutants with a more detailed discussion on nanoparticle pollution. The chapter also gives an effort to visualize the challenges associated with dealing with nanoparticle waste.
M. M. Ghangrekar, Pritha Chatterjee

Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis

Numerous interesting and useful physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have made them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials for decades. Although it was a fortuitous discovery at the beginning, many methods have been documented for its synthesis with arguments, criticisms, and appeals. Increasing applications of CNTs from tennis racket to space elevator has pressed its demands for industrial production and invention of novel methods for large-scale synthesis with desirable features. This chapter comprehensively describes major CNT synthetic schemes with highlighted features and growth mechanisms with reasonable illustrations in diagrams and tables, which made them understandable even to a non-professional reader. It also postulates latest developments in the field to understand the roles of carbon feedstock, catalysts, and temperature along with other minor parameters to tune the CNT synthesis procedures for yielding industrial grade CNTs with desired properties. To complement that, current kinetics and reaction engineering aspects are also discussed. This chapter would serve as a reference guide in the field to demonstrate novel synthetic methods and expand denovo CNT-based applications.
Rasel Das, Sayonthoni Das Tuhi


Removing of wastewater pollutants by novel adsorption techniques is urgent as they are continuously defiling the limited freshwater resources, seriously affecting the terrestrial, ecosystems, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Emerging carbon nanotube (CNT)-based adsorbent materials are effective for efficient handling of wastewater pollutants. This chapter describes the mechanisms of CNT, and its forces to host the wastewater pollutants. Such details would help to considerably improve the performance of classical adsorbent technologies. Additionally, the functionalization of CNT and adsorption isotherms are considered as they have been significantly used for achieving maximum adsorption capacity and disclosing the adsorption phenomena of CNT, respectively. Some multifunctional CNT-based adsorbent are also discussed with reusability phenomena which need to be addressed before large-scale implementation of CNTs for water purification. Some suggestions and research clues are given to inform investigators of potentially disruptive CNT technologies and/or optimize the CNT sorption performances that have to be investigated in more detail.
Rasel Das, Sayonthoni Das Tuhi, Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi


Water contamination is one of the major environmental issues due to a drastic increase in world population, industrialization, deforestations, geographical changes, etc. The high rates of water wastage in domestic, industrial and agriculture negatively impact the sustainability of water resources. Since its discovery, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting a broad range of scientific and industrial activity due to their fascinating physicochemical properties, which can serve as a platform for water remediation. In this chapter, the properties and strengths of CNTs as catalyst for water purification are discussed. Moreover, the current limitations and challenges of CNTs in catalytic water purification processes are also described for future developments.
Swe Jyan Teh, Tong Ling Tan, Chin Wei Lai, Kian Mun Lee

Membrane Technology

Almost one-third of the global population is presently threatened by water scarcity owing to unplanned civilization and industrialization. For addressing these challenges, membrane technology has been widely investigated for reclamation and reuse of different streams of wastewater. Other than removal of macro-, micro- and nanopollutants from effluents, significant focus has been placed upon desalination efficiency of membranes as well. In comparison to conventional membranes, carbon nanotube (CNT)-based membranes have been found to exhibit superior antifouling and self-cleaning properties with very low energy consumption. This chapter describes different types of CNT-based membranes reported in contemporary research for water purification. It also highlights the drawbacks and future challenges of using CNT membranes for wastewater treatment. The different aspects of CNT membrane-based water purification compiled in this chapter will help the potential readers including academicians, membrane technologists, environmentalists, and industrialists aiming to alleviate water scarcity issues.
Priya Banerjee, Rasel Das, Papita Das, Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay


The availability of clean, safe and healthy water is diminishing every day, which is projected to upsurge in future. To address this, numerous water decontamination methods and technologies being developed and adapted, and several new possibilities are in the way through extensive research.
Bey Fen Leo, Nurul Akmal Che Lah, Mahendran Samykano, Thiruchelvi Pulingam, Swee-Seong Tang, Sayonthoni Das Tuhi

Sensing and Monitoring

This chapter discusses sensing and monitoring water pollutants using carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrochemical methods. The classes of the electrochemical methods reported for monitoring water pollutants have been described in detail, and the role of CNTs in analytical sensors has been discussed. CNTs are commonly used for modifying electrochemical sensors for water pollutants due to their high surface area and good electrical conductivity.
Hassan Karimi-Maleh, Aliasghar Beheshti, Fatemeh Karimi, Mehdi Shabani-Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Morteza Rezapour
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