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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces the various aspects of the emerging field of carbon dots. Their structural and physico-chemical properties as well as their current and future potential applications are covered. A special chapter on graphene quantum dots is provided. The reader will also find different synthesis routes for carbon quantum dots.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Since their discovery (or one might rather call “first synthesis”) approximately 10 years ago, carbon quantum dots (first identified as “carbon nanoparticles”, but later adopted the term “Carbon - Dots”, evoking similarities to the widely studied inorganic “quantum dots”) and their structurally related cousins graphene quantum dots (abbreviated “GQDs”) have attracted significant and growing interest in both scientific and technology circles.
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 2. Carbon-Dot Synthesis

Abstract
The first report on the production of Carbon-Dots, quite tellingly, featured an almost “accidental” discovery of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles through an unrelated synthetic pathway—a byproduct in arc-discharged soot generated for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (Hola et al., Nano Today 9:590–603, 2014 [1]). Intriguingly for the researchers who carried out the experiments, some of the “impurities” identified in the crude nanotube soot were fluorescent (Fig. 2.1), and furthermore different fractions yielded different fluorescence wavelengths (e.g., different colors).
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 3. Characterization and Physical Properties of Carbon-Dots

Abstract
As new members of the “nanoparticle universe,” Carbon-Dots have been extensively characterized using varied analytical methods. Moreover, since Carbon-Dots exhibit interesting optical properties, numerous studies have aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the photophysical phenomena associated with the carbon nanoparticles. Below I only briefly summarize experimental techniques applied to characterize Carbon-Dots and the structural/chemical information generated by the measurements. A detailed discussion is also presented focusing on physical features of Carbon-Dots, particularly the intriguing luminescence phenomena, and representative studies designed to probe the underlying factors responsible for these properties. Physical processes aimed at modulating Carbon-Dots’ luminescence are additionally outlined.
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 4. Biological Applications of Carbon-Dots

Abstract
As Carbon-Dots are biocompatible and readily functionalized nanoparticles, they have attracted significant interest as conduits for biologically oriented applications. The remarkable fluorescence properties of Carbon-Dots have naturally been primary targets for biological research, particularly focusing on bio-imaging applications (discussed in more detail in Chap. 5). Carbon-Dots have been employed, however, in biological applications other than imaging, mostly related to their nanoscale dimensionalities and the functional units displayed upon their surface. Several examples of such applications are discussed below. It should be emphasized that biological applications of Carbon-Dots still contain many “mechanistic unknowns,” somewhat related to the fact that Carbon-Dot research is still a young scientific discipline.
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 5. Bioimaging Applications of Carbon-Dots

Abstract
Similar to their inorganic nanoparticle relatives—semiconductor quantum dots (Q-dots)—Carbon-Dots have been recognized early on as conduits for biological imaging, particularly cell imaging. In this context, Carbon-Dots exhibit important fundamental and practical features that make them promising imaging materials. Specifically, Carbon-Dots can be engineered to possess bright luminescence (e.g., exhibit high quantum yield).
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 6. Carbon-Dots in Sensing Applications

Abstract
The photoluminescence (PL) properties of Carbon-Dots offer obvious avenues for sensing applications. In particular, well-known processes in fluorescent systems such as energy transfer, fluorescence quenching, and the sensitivity of fluorescent spectra to molecular environments, all point to broad applications of Carbon-Dots in bio- and chemosensing. Indeed, sensor applications of Carbon-Dots have been widely studied since the early days of this young field and diverse new sensing schemes have been reported in an ever-increasing rate.
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 7. Materials Science Applications of Carbon-Dots

Abstract
While numerous reports have described applications of Carbon-Dots in biological systems or their uses as luminescent sensors, there has been significant research activity towards exploiting Carbon-Dots in materials sciences in general, electro-optics, solar cells, and photonics, in particular.
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 8. Carbon-Dot-Containing Composite Materials

Abstract
The attractive chemical and photophysical properties of Carbon-Dots have provided impetus to research efforts aimed at creating mesoscale assemblies comprising Carbon-Dots as luminescent elements. Such materials also contain other chemical constituents having complementary roles, together producing multifunctional composite materials. This field of research has been aided by the chemical stability and resilience of Carbon-Dots to varied physical and chemical treatments.
Raz Jelinek

Chapter 9. Conclusions and Future Outlook

Abstract
For a young and emerging field, Carbon-Dots (and their close relatives graphene quantum dots) have already made a significant impact in diverse scientific disciplines. Carbon-Dots have opened new avenues in biological imaging, photonics, electro-optics, and others. In particular, the unique luminescence properties of Carbon-Dots, primarily the excitation-dependent emission phenomena, have been a prominent thread in this field, making possible diverse experiments and analytical applications developed in the past several years. The optical and spectroscopic properties of Carbon-Dots will likely continue to shape the future development of this field.
Raz Jelinek
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