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Über dieses Buch

All living things contain carbon in some form, as it is the primary component of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), and carbohydrates. As a matter of fact, it is the backbone of all organic (chemistry) compounds forming different kinds of bonds. Carbon: The Black, the Gray and the Transparent is not a complete scientific history of the material, but a book that describes key discoveries about this old faithful element while encouraging broader perspectives and approaches to its research due to its vast applications. All allotropes of carbon are described in this book, along with their properties, uses, and methods of procurement or manufacturing. Black carbon is represented by coal, gray carbon is represented by graphite, and transparent carbon is represented by diamond.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Carbon (C) the Nacre and Its Allotropes

Abstract
Carbon (identified by a symbol C in the periodic table of elements, Fig. 1.3) is an interesting element; you cannot see (C, pronounced as see) the C all the time, but the existence of the element (C) is almost everywhere. It is in your clothes, in your backpack, in your food, and in your body. It provides the framework for all tissues of plants and animals (rational and irrational). These tissues are built of elements grouped around chains or rings made of carbon atoms. Indeed, most of the structures that make up animals, plants, and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecules: amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids (often called fatty acids), and all of these materials contain carbon as their backbone [1, 2]. As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or breaking them down and using them as a source of energy during digestion [3]. As a matter of fact, carbon (C) occurs in nature as the sixth most abundant element in the universe and the 19th element in order of mass in the Earth’s crust.
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 2. Historical Production and Use of Carbon Materials: The Activated Carbon

Abstract
The use of carbon extends far back to 3750 BC, for the reduction of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and tin (Sn) ores in the manufacture of bronze by the Egyptians and Sumerians. In 157 AD, carbons of both vegetable and animal origin had been used for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. In the year 1773, Car Wilhelm, a chemist from Pomerania, a Baltic coast of Europe under Swedish control, recognized the absorptive power of carbon-derived materials from different sources. However, marketing of first industrially produced activated carbon, Eponit (trade name), was first reported in the year 1911 by the Fanto Works, Austria [1]. The largest market for activated carbon is currently in the municipal water purification industry.
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 3. Carbon Composites and Related Metal Matrix

Abstract
The history of carbon composites dates back to the late 1800s. Thomas Edison used carbon composite filament in light bulbs. A carbon composite is composed of two or more materials to create a superior and unique material. Edison’s carbon composite filaments were made out of cellulose-based materials, such as cotton or bamboo, unlike the petroleum-based precursors used today. It was not until late 1950s that high tensile strength carbon fibers were discovered [1–3]. However, the first truly modulus commercial grade carbon fibers were invented in 1964. The benefits of these high-strength carbon-based composites are that they weighed a fraction of the weight of steel, yet contained much greater tensile strength than steel [4].
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 4. Polymer Families and Their Extended Activities

Abstract
The term polymer (many monomers) is derived from the ancient Greek word πολύζ (polus, meaning many, much) and μέροζ (meros, meaning parts), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units of carbon, mostly hydrogen and/or nitrogen and oxygen (Figs. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.8). Indeed, the term polymer was first introduced in 1833 by the Swedish chemist, Jons Jakob Berzelius. He also introduced the term isomer (from the Greek isos meaning equal, and meros meaning part) to describe substances having identical compositions but differing properties. In 1922, the German chemist, Herman Staudinger, felt it necessary to coin the word macromolecule to describe large covalently bonded organic chain molecule containing more than 103 atoms. A macromolecule is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits, monomers. The most common macromolecule in biochemistry is biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, etc.). According to IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) definition, the term macromolecule as used in polymer science refers only to a single molecule.
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 5. Coal, the Black Carbon

Abstract
The first thing that we could think of about black carbon is coal. Coals are complex heterogeneous solids that consist of a large polymeric matrix of aromatic structures commonly called the coal macromolecules. These macromolecules may vary widely in their chemical and physical properties [1]. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen [2]. Indeed, coal (from old English term Col, meaning mineral of fossilized carbon) contains mainly carbon, the conversion of dead vegetation called carbonization [3]. Archeological evidence in China indicates surface mining of coal and household usage after approximately 3490 BC [4].
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 6. Graphite: Carbon the Gray

Abstract
The gray color graphite is an allotrope of carbon, known since antiquity and has been named from the Greek verb graphein. The name was given by Abraham Gottlob, in the year 1789. The old European name is plumbago, meaning black lead. The name lead (black lead) used to mean that graphite is being used in lead pencils and should not be mixed up with the metal lead (Pb, as we can see in the periodic table of the elements). These two are completely different materials, because lead (Pb) is a metal whereas graphite is a semimetal [1–3]. Indeed, the term graphite designates mineral planar sheets of carbon atoms, with each atom bound to three neighbors in a noncompact, honeycomb structure, stacked regularly, with three-dimensional order [4].
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 7. Graphene

Abstract
The nineteenth century saw many wondrous discoveries, elemental discoveries, reports of new materials, and electromagnetic phenomena. In the year 1859, Benjamin Collins Brodie recognized the highly layered structure of thermally reduced graphite oxide, and he reported the atomic weight of the material in the Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London. Later on, in the year 1916, the layered structure of graphite was established by X-ray diffraction [1–5]. Figure 7.1 shows an atomic scale honeycomb lattice of graphene made of carbon atoms.
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 8. Carbon Nanotube (CNT)

Abstract
Everything when miniaturized to the sub-100 nanometer scale, has new properties, regardless of what it is said Chad Mirkin, Professor of Chemistry (and materials science, engineering, medicine, biomedical engineering, and chemical and biological engineering) at Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Indeed, nanoscale materials are used from sunscreen to chemical catalysis to antibacterial agents from the mundane to life-saving. Researchers are developing nanoscale assays to screen cancer, and detect infections and genes [1–8].
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 9. The Transparent Carbon: the Diamond

Abstract
Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due its valency. Diamond is one of the well-known allotropes of carbon. The hardness and high dispersion of light of diamond make it useful for both industrial applications and jewelry. The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) classifies natural diamonds from D grade (colorless) to Z grade (light yellow). The blue diamonds fall under a different grading scale [1].
Tapan Gupta

Chapter 10. Fullerene

Abstract
The molecule buckminsterfullerene is beautiful physically and intellectually. Its qualities and even some of its properties can be appreciated instantly and intuitively by nonscientists. Its uniqueness is bound to lead to novel applications. Superconductivity is the leading consider at the moment. The commercial potential of buckminsterfullerene has heightened the excitement and controversy in recent years, while the exact nature of the discovery process in 1985 has been the subject of a heated feud between the British and American scientists involved [1].
Tapan Gupta
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