Up to now no simple and sensitive experimental test system is available to assess the carcinogenic properties of substances which are suspected to cause bladder cancer in humans. The usual animal model in this case is the oral application (IARC, 1987). The data show, however, that it is greatly a matter of chance to select a species which is sufficiently sensitive to a certain tested substance. Bladder carcinogens were detected in the past especially with dogs. High doses and long observation periods have to be used with this species. It can be deduced from some studies, that a total of more than one kilogram of benzidine or ß-naphthylamine had to be applied (Bonser et al., 1956; Walpole et al., 1954). Naturally this leads to many technical problems. Therefore, we started to investigate the applicability of two other test models which we expected to allow successful carcinogenicity testing with much smaller amounts of test substances.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Carcinogenicity Testing of Bladder Carcinogens and Other Organic Compounds by the Intraperitoneal and Intravesical Route
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg