Countries are engaged in a worldwide competition for the limited resources available. As Anholt (2002) states, “Globalization is turning the world into a gigantic supermarket” (p. 234). Countries compete with each other in such areas as exports and attracting the limited pool of tourism, foreign direct investment (FDI) and human talent. Science, higher education and innovation are key determinants of national competitiveness (Schwab 2009, p. 4). The agility with which a country adopts existing science and technology can enhance the productivity of its industries and firms. Specifically, access to and usage of information and communication technologies (ICTs) have critical spillover effects to other industries in a given nation. Providing an environment that fosters science and technology is crucial for a nation’s competitiveness (Porter 1990). The same is true for higher education, where education increases the efficiency of workers. Education and training are crucial for economies that want to move up the value chain beyond simple production processes and products (Porter 1990). Innovation is also vital for a nation’s competitiveness as it approaches the frontiers of knowledge. Firms from developing countries can improve their productivity by adopting existing ICT. However, firms from developed countries need to improve their productivity through innovation in a supportive business environment (Porter 1990; Schwab 2009).
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