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Über dieses Buch

The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive, multi-dimensional approach to research and practice in e-government 2.0 implementation. Contributions from an international panel of experts apply a variety of methodological approaches and illustrative case studies to present state-of-the-art analysis and perspectives.

Around the world, governments are employing technological advancements to revolutionize their ways of working, resulting in changing relationships among public organizations and their constituents. Important enablers are new uses of information and knowledge-sharing technologies that emerged with the advent of the Web 2.0 paradigm; initially used in the private arena, such user-friendly, participatory, intuitive and flexible Web 2.0 technologies (e.g., blogs, Wikis, RSS, social networking platforms, folksonomy, podcasting, mashups, virtual worlds, open linked data, etc.) are increasingly disseminated within the professional sphere, regardless of organization type or field of activities.

Current e-government environments have undergone considerable transformations in an attempt to satisfy the incessant demand for more advanced e-service delivery, better access to information and more efficient government management. Looking to the future, the emergence of Web 2.0, the rise of social networks and the wider dissemination of data and information are expected to generate many benefits, such as a better match between public services and citizens' expectations, greater adoption of online services by citizens and better control of costs and prevention of delays in the implementation of new services. Governments around the world are building frameworks and proposals for e-government 2.0, in the hopes of improving participation, transparency and integration, while speeding up the pace of innovation through collaboration and consultation.

This volume addresses a gap in the research literature, offering timely insights on the e-government 2.0 phenomenon and directions for future practice and policy.



1. E-Government 2.0: Back to Reality, a 2.0 Application to Vet

E-government 2.0 refers to the inclusions of features like social web, user-generated content, the delivery and use of open data, and network effects through more user engagement. Integrating Web 2.0 technologies into e-government is expected to create opportunities to improve online public services quality, change the relationship with citizens and businesses. The integration of web 2.0 in e-government can contribute to achieve new e-government strategic objectives and policies. Yet it provides many practical and theoretical challenges as research is limited in this field. The accomplishment of the benefits and strategic contribution might be more difficult than initially anticipated.
This chapter goes back to the origins of e-government 2.0 concept and compares to initial e-government concept with regard to characteristics, related issues and research questions. Then, this chapter provides an overview of the book content—a comprehensive collection of research works concerning e-government 2.0 implementations by showing cases and business models enabled by various technologies and developed in different countries across America, Europe, Africa and Asia. E-government 2.0 is approached from the view of theory and practice interaction in this book. Contributions are based on concrete practical studies or suggested new solutions to guide e-government 2.0 initiatives grounded on the reality of the context. Many examples are available and the goal is to learn from the examples rather than on the buzz of the term and sometimes the “theoretical” speculation with plenty unproven assumptions and promises (e.g. Gartner hype curve, IT magazines, even some research papers and reports, etc). Government 2.0 is out there and much can be learned from the existing experiences. In sum, the content of the book attempts to lift the veil on challenges facing e-government 2.0 wide-spread adoption and to contribute to e-government literature towards a theoretical and strategic framework for guiding new 2.0 initiatives.
Imed Boughzala, Marijn Janssen, Saïd Assar

2. Social Media-based Government Explained: Utilization Model, Implementation Scenarios, and Relationships

Due to the lack of understanding regarding social media-based government, many practitioners around the globe (particularly those in the developing world) are reluctant or unable to develop strategies and allocate resources to social media-based government. The main purpose of the research is to address this gap in knowledge and understanding by presenting and illustrating fundamental concepts of social media-based government. A web survey of 200 government website from 40 countries and 45 Web 2.0 initiatives across the globe was used to present and illustrate fundamental concept of the social media-based government: utilization model, implementation scenarios, and the relationships it can hold with the citizens.
Gohar Feroz Khan

3. Moving Toward Web 2.0-Enhanced E-Government in Small-Town Pennsylvania

This chapter on adoption and use of Web 2.0 technologies by local governments in Pennsylvania represents a part of an ongoing research project to investigate the nature and extent of collaborative initiatives between public and academic institutions in small college towns in support of e-government innovation. In this research, e-government is approached as a sociotechnical, dynamic system situated within a complex context (people, technology, and location). The case study was guided by a combination of socio-technical theory and grounded theory. A study of one municipality in Central Pennsylvania (USA) revealed the transformative potential of e-government through the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies. The municipal social media toolbox offered citizens a variety of complementary yet unique ways (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) to stay connected with their municipal government and its various departments. The study identified four major purposes of social media integration, including emergency notification, citizen participation, public safety, and promotion of the official municipal website. This case represents a continuum of e-government adoption and municipal transformation from addressing problems and challenges along the way to finding successful solutions.
Anna Levy, Eileen Trauth, John W. Bagby

4. Government 2.0: A Change Towards Citizen Participation in Arab Countries

The rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) practices and applications have forced many governments to adopt new mechanisms to satisfy their citizens’ emerging need for participation. This participation can be achieved when government develops a communication channel that enables it to listen to citizens’ needs, opinions, proposals, and concerns making citizens closer to decision-makers, which contributes in creating a democratic environment. Narrowing the gap between citizens and governments would assist policy makers in overcoming some of the economic, social, and political problems. This paper discusses the role of one of the most influential ICT applications, Web 2.0 technology, in enhancing e-participation through providing a convenient communication channel between governments and citizens. In particular, it investigates e-participation of Arab countries -considered in their early path towards democracy, and whether their use of this technology would ensure a gradual transformation to democratic communities. The research starts by demonstrating Web 2.0 tools, their different stages of implementation, and their application in e-government stages. In addition, there will be an analysis as to the extent of use of Web 2.0 by Arab countries to assess their adoption of Web 2.0 for participation, better communication, and transparency with citizens. A number of issues are raised: Are Arab governments using Web 2.0 effectively? Do they recognize the value of Web 2.0 in citizens’ engagement in public policy making? Are they exploiting the specific features of each Web 2.0 tool? Does Web 2.0 use differ among traditional Arab regimes and Arab Spring countries? Preliminary findings will be discussed leading to suggestions for further research venues.
Nahed Azab, Ellias Farzali, Ola Zaher, Heba Sayed

5. Citizen-Driven Design: Leveraging Participatory Design of E-Government 2.0 Through Local and Global Collaborations

The goal of this paper is to present how citizen-driven design of e-government can be promoted through trans-local cooperation. Our case study consists of the Augment project, which focuses on the design of a mobile service for co-creation of local accessibility. Our approach is action research based in the Scandinavian tradition of Participatory design. Experiences from this project highlight issues concerning how to reconfigure the basis for design of public services. In order to cultivate spaces for citizen-driven design and local innovation, we made iterative use of global collaborations. In the initial phase, influences from R&D cooperation with India provided new spaces for participatory design practices. In the next phase, a proof-of-concept process allowed for broader local stake-holder involvement. In the third phase, the service concept was shared and expanded with partner regions in Europe through exchange of Best Practices. Currently, we are moving towards phase four, the commercialization process. Beyond the iterative design of the mobile service itself, and what trans-local collaboration contributed in this context, we also discuss reconceptualization of innovation as incremental change. We argue that transnational collaboration can be deliberately made use of for leveraging incremental change on a local level and strengthening regional innovation systems and practices.
Annelie Ekelin, Sara Eriksén

6. In the Quest of Opened-Up Governmental Policies in Greece: Challenges and Recommendations

The chapter describes the key elements of the innovative effort of the Greek public administration over the last 5 years to enable the transition to a new public administration model via opened-up governmental policies so as to improve public services provision, increase public integrity and ensure a more effective management of public resources After showcasing the most representative tools developed so far, the authors will discuss their level of maturity and their potential in light of open data policy requirements.
Evika Karamagioli, Dimitris Gouscos

7. Towards the Understanding of Success in E-Participatory Budgeting Projects

During the last years e-Participation initiatives have been launched by many countries and e-Participatory Budgeting (e-PB) is one of them. e-PB includes the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in democratic decision-making processes regarding the spending for a defined public budget where ICTs are used in order to enable more citizens to participate. In this study we investigate which the success factors (SFs) are for implementing e-PB projects and if they are actually used in practice. For that purpose a literature review identifying success factors was undertaken, followed by case studies at three Swedish municipalities that have implemented e-PB. Our findings show not only that the eleven SFs mentioned in previous research are met in practice in most cases, but also that additional factors arise in practice. The additional success factors relate to: size of budget, size and spectrum of target group participants, design of proposals, theme area of the budget, and civil society’s involvement. Our study also revealed that just the “e-dimension” by itself does not ensure success or increased participation.
Styliani Zafeiropoulou, Sven A. Carlsson, Annika Andersson

8. Brazil Towards Government 2.0: Strategies for Adopting Open Government Data in National and Subnational Governments

Open Government Data (OGD) is a stream in which raw data is published for manipulation by others. This chapter presents the State of Art of OGD in Brazilian National, State and Municipal governments, describing benefits that OGD have been promoted on governments and society such as transparency promotion, social control and citizen participation. In addition, strategies used by governments are outlined aimed at boosting usage and the creation of chain value of OGD usage. Exploratory research is conducted by investing websites in accordance with the eight principles of OGD and the five stars of open linked data. Brazilian initiatives adopt almost all the principles of OGD and are in the third stage of a completely open linked data (three stars). Further, the strategy used by governments is the usage of citizen’s participation on contests and hackathons improving usage of OGD available by governments and created several applications for social control, transparency and better provision of public policies (transport, health, education, etc.). This work also adds an element inexistent on the literature known: strategies of dissemination and incentive of open data usage. The results indicate the existence of virtuous cycle of information when using public policy of open data is aligned with the implementation of the collection, analysis and opening data for several branches of city hall, and even that little data, but organized, can offer the possibility of citizen conduct social control, suggest improvements of the public service through studies and applications connected to processes performed by the city and local economic development.
Ricardo Matheus, Manuella Maia Ribeiro, José Carlos Vaz

9. Twitter and 2013 Pakistan General Election: The Case of David 2.0 Against Goliaths

This study followed the online activity on Twitter during Pakistan’s landmark 2013 General Election, also hailed as Pakistan’s first Twitter election, which marked the first ever transfer of power between two elected civilian governments. This election saw the unexpected emergence of Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf (PTI), the political underdog which followed close at the heels of well-established dynastic parties to grab the third-largest number of seats in the National Assembly. The rise of this party and its leader is attributed to the estimated 30 million young Pakistanis who voted for the first time and the advent of social media, as well as the leadership of Imran Khan, the most famous sports celebrity in the country. This study focused on the Twitter campaigns of Pakistan’s political parties with the aim to investigate how the medium was used by political parties for information dissemination, interaction, mobilization and engagement of voters. Our investigation was related and discussed in the context of the actual success achieved by each party. The approach followed was systematic automatic and manual content analyses and a social network analysis of the tweets (n = 10,140) posted by the top four political parties and their leaders in the month leading up to Pakistan’s general election. Our findings identify that every party used Twitter for different purposes. PTI used Twitter in the most diverse ways—they interacted with voters, provided real time detailed campaign updates, discussed specific social and political issues and called for a greater mobilization of citizens to vote. Through triangulation of our findings with the publically available election data provided by the Election Commission of Pakistan we further conclude that the success story of PTI, especially at the provincial level, was a blend of the party riding on personality politics paradigm with a combination of an increase in voter turnout and strategized online-offline campaigning targeted at the youth.
Saifuddin Ahmed, Marko Skoric

10. The Decalogue of Policy Making 2.0: Results from Analysis of Case Studies on the Impact of ICT for Governance and Policy Modelling

Despite the availability of a myriad of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based tools and methodologies for supporting governance and the formulation of policies, including modelling expected impacts, these have proved to be unable to cope with the dire challenges of the contemporary society. In this chapter we present the results of the analysis of a set of promising cases researched in order to understand the possible impact of what we define ‘Policy Making 2.0’, which refers to ‘a set of methodologies and technological solutions aimed at enabling better, timely and participative policy-making’. Based on the analysis of these cases we suggest a bouquet of (mostly ICT-related) practical and research recommendations that are relevant to researchers, practitioners and policy makers in order to guide the introduction and implementation of Policy Making 2.0 initiatives. We argue that this ‘decalogue’ of Policy Making 2.0 could be an operational checklist for future research and policy to further explore the potential of ICT tools for governance and policy modelling, so to make next generation policy making more ‘intelligent’ and hopefully able to solve or anticipate the societal challenges we are (and will be) confronted today and in the future.
Sotirios Koussouris, Fenareti Lampathaki, Gianluca Misuraca, Panagiotis Kokkinakos, Dimitrios Askounis

11. A Community-driven Open Data Lifecycle Model Based on Literature and Practice

Government organizations around the world have developed open data strategies to increase transparency and enable re-use of their data. However, in practice, many organizations find the process of opening up their data cumbersome and they do not know which steps to take. Lifecycle models can guide the process of opening up data. Therefore, this paper develops an open data lifecycle model based on literature and practice. First, using existing open data lifecycle models this paper identifies generic phases of opening up data. Then, investigating the process of opening up data in a semi-public organization in the Netherlands, the lifecycle model is refined. While existing open data lifecycle models focus mainly on technical aspects of opening up data to ensure publication, our case study shows that involving stakeholders within the organization as well as building an engaged community of stakeholders outside the organization—also in an early stage, is crucial to the success of open data. This stimulates re-use and allows for open data to be embedded into the organizational strategy and work processes.
Anne Fleur van Veenstra, Tijs van den Broek

12. Social Web Ontology for Public Services

In the Social Web, a large number of individuals stores and shares private data in social networks like Facebook and Twitter. By agreeing with their license agreements that support a revenue model, which is mostly advertising, occasionally combined with (premium) subscription and transactions, these individuals transfer data ownership to these social networks. As individuals, citizens store a lot of data in social networks that is also relevant to government. This chapter proposes an open peer-to-peer social network architecture, based on data ownership by each individual and a Social Web Ontology for interoperability between the peers. Security mechanisms are an important feature of such a network. By extending the Social Web Ontology with concepts and properties for e-Government Services and applying open data principles, the architecture can also be used by authorities. The proposed architecture includes an advertising revenue model that can be offered by intermediaries storing user owned data. All will prosper by sharing as much data as they are willing, thus interoperability amongst providers is required. An architecture in which a citizen not only can own its data, maintain its social network and sells its data to advertisers, but also provides data to authorities to apply for particular government services, addresses both dat but in some occasions also on subscriptions a privacy challenges and eGovernment services. Authorities can play an important role by stimulating the implementation of a Social Web Ontology, initiate the development of data privacy monitoring modules warning users of potential privacy issues when selling data, and base public services on the Social Web Ontology. It will also allow users to present themselves differently in different contexts based on access control settings, e.g. private, professional, and citizen.
Mark Krijgsman, Wout Hofman, Geert-Jan Houben
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