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Über dieses Buch

This book addresses vital issues, such as the evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and their production. Topics include the cased-hole logging environment, reservoir fluid properties; flow regimes; temperature, noise, cement bond, and pulsed neutron logging; and casing inspection. Production logging charts and tables are included in the appendices. The work serves as a comprehensive reference for production engineers with upstream E&P companies, well logging service company employees, university students, and petroleum industry training professionals.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
The objectives of production logging can be categorized as follows:
Richard M. Bateman

2. Cased-Hole Logging Environment

Abstract
Planning is an important part of a production logging job. Frequently these jobs can only be done in safety during daylight. Thus, the correct type of equipment must be available for the expected well conditions. Before attempting any production logging job the following checklist should be consulted:
Richard M. Bateman

3. Reservoir Fluid Properties

Abstract
For a complete understanding of the behavior of producing wells, it is necessary to keep in mind the fundamental principles that govern the properties of hydrocarbon liquids and gases. Only then can downhole flow rates be accurately found from surface flow rates. The correct choice of a flowmeter tool depends on the expected flow rate and whether or not free gas is present will influence the choice of a fluid-typing tool. In order to keep clear the different sets of conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature, subscripts will be used in this text as follows:
Richard M. Bateman

4. Flow Regimes

Abstract
In this chapter, types of fluid flow will be discussed. In particular, three important concepts will be covered:
Richard M. Bateman

5. Flowmeters

Abstract
Tools that measure flow rate or trace where fluids have gone have applications in both producing and injecting wells. Specifically, these types of tools may be used for:
Richard M. Bateman

6. Radioactive Tracer Logs

Abstract
Radioactive tracers have three main applications:
Richard M. Bateman

7. Fluid Identification

Abstract
Production logging tools that can differentiate between oil, gas, and water in a producing well allow diagnosis of completion and production problems. They offer the operator assistance in planning remedial work and in monitoring reservoir performance. In particular, these tools help:
Richard M. Bateman

8. Temperature Logging

Abstract
Among the reasons for using temperature logs are:
Richard M. Bateman

9. Noise Logging

Abstract
Noise logging is applicable whenever fluid flow, either in the borehole or in the casing formation annulus, produces a detectable noise. Detection is by means of a microphone suspended in the well. Experience teaches that analysis of noise is a refined technique for deducing the source of the noise. Student life in the low-rent district is enough to turn even the untrained ear into a veritable Sherlock Holmes, distinguishing the characteristic sounds of flushing toilets from draining bath tubs. The human ear and brain perform this function well by making an amplitude-frequency analysis of the total audible spectrum. Tools for well-flow analysis have to perform a similar function in order to earn their keep. Only by this kind of frequency analysis can the hiss of gas be distinguished from the gurgle of liquids.
Richard M. Bateman

10. Interpretation

Abstract
The basics of biphasic flow have been covered in Chap. 4. In this chapter, the practical applications of the holdup equation will be covered. The purpose is to equip the analyst with a practical tool with which to analyze a combination of a flowmeter log and a holdup log (whether this be from a gradiomanometer or other tool). The methods described will allow the analyst to calculate the flow rate for each phase of a biphasic mixture at each point in the well and hence to deduce the production of each phase from each perforated interval. This is an essential step in quantitative analysis without which remedial action cannot be planned properly.
Richard M. Bateman

11. Formation Evaluation Through Casing

Abstract
A number of tools are available for formation evaluation through tubing and casing. They include:
Richard M. Bateman

12. Cement Bond Logging

Abstract
Cement bond logging (CBL) is an important part of a well-completion program and is also recommended for most workover programs. Most of the cementing-related problems encountered can be diagnosed by use of the CBL. However, successful interpretation of a CBL depends on certain minimum requirements:
Richard M. Bateman

13. Casing Inspection

Abstract
Inspection of the mechanical state of the completion string is an important aspect of production logging. Many production (or injection) problems can be traced back to mechanical damage to, or corrosion of, the completion string. A number of inspection methods are available, including:
Richard M. Bateman

14. Well and Field Monitoring

Abstract
It is now common to complete wells with permanent gauges that permit continuous or semi-continuous monitoring of the movement of fluids in the injection or production string. These gauges can come as wired or via the use of fiber optics, or both. Of these the fiber optics variety offers superior data gathering potential but at a higher cost.
Richard M. Bateman

ERRATUM TO

Without Abstract
Richard M. Bateman

Backmatter

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