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This book brings together two major developments of the past decade: the collapse of the Soviet Union on the political side and "globalization" on the economic side. It shows that both of these drastic changes resulted in an increasing demand for regulation and guidance by international organizations, which on their side feel an increasing pressure for adjustment to the changed international agenda.



Involvement and Detachment: Looking Back (and Forward) on Klaus Hüfner’s Peculiar Mix of Experiences, Dispositions and Activities

Involvement and Detachment: Looking Back (and Forward) on Klaus Hüfner’s Peculiar Mix of Experiences, Dispositions and Activities

A cursory look at Klaus’ list of publications reveals that it is rather long, rather continuous over the years and disparate in the sense that shorter and longer texts of a social-scientific character (including voluminous bibliographies) are interspersed with popular contributions deliberately aimed at a general public. The publications form two large topical clusters and some distinct, partly overlapping subclusters.
Jens Naumann

Changing Economic Environment — Persistent Questions on Development


Some Reflections on Trade Expansion as a Measure of Globalization

‘Globalization’ is a vague and general term, rather like ‘development’ or ‘poverty’. Globalization includes increases in trade (exchange of goods and services across international borders), but also increase in international investment (flows of capital across international borders) in its various forms (foreign direct investment, portfolio investment, short-term finance, speculation on foreign exchange markets etc.). It also includes an intensified transfer of technology, greater ease and rapidity of communication, due to new information technology, more tourism and travel and, to a more limited extent, migration of labor. All these different aspects of globalization are interwoven with each other and are often mutually reinforcing. They are also connected and interwoven with domestic deregulation, privatization and other reforms in line with the Washington Consensus. In this brief note we rather arbitrarily pick out one single element, i.e. the increase in international trade which is often taken as the flagship measure of globalization.
H. W. Singer

With a Little Help from NTBs: Why Reducing Tariffs Does not Lead to Free Trade

‘If economists ruled the world, there would be no need for a World Trade Organization.’1 What Paul Krugman illustrates here in his characteristic pictorial way is the simple facts that, from an economic point of view, trade is mutually beneficial for the countries involved and there is no need for negotiations about reciprocal trade agreements as is the case with the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) now part of the World Trade Organization (WTO). For an economist free trade is essentially a unilateral matter; a country pursues its own interests best by creating free trade no matter what other countries do. There are exceptions to the argument for free trade, such as the ‘infant industries’ argument, the ‘optimal tariff’ argument and more recently ‘the new trade theory’.2 Nonetheless, in theory at least, a country should not have to demand reciprocal trade liberalization from a trading partner — an essential point in the GATT treaty — before lowering its own trade barriers. In pure economics terms it is hard to explain the existence of tariffs and the principle of reciprocity as enshrined in the GATT treaty. But fortunately — or unfortunately! — the world is not ruled by economists and those responsible for trade policy do not attach too much importance to the scientific findings of international trade theorists.
Birgit Reichenstein

Regional Integration Among Less Developed Economies: Discordant Variations on an Evergreen

Contributing to a festschrift is an occasion to take stock of debates relating to the person and work being honored. Klaus Hüfner has dealt with the relationship between institution building and development time and again in his academic writings which were closely related to his extensive extra-academic activities (e.g. Hüfner 1989, 1992). Thus, regional integration among developing countries belongs to a set of topics that have been of life-long interest to him. And regional integration is definitely an issue in need of stock-taking since it is a subject of long-standing debate and one which has been given a new lease of life by novel political and theoretical cases in favor of South-South-integration.
Waltraud Schelkle

25 Years After the Collapse of the Bretton Woods System: Still not Having Found What We Were Looking for

Klaus Hüfner was finishing his Ph.D. when the International Labor Organization launched the World Employment Program as a major initiative for the second United Nations World Development Decade. The 1970s were a decade in which the reduction of worldwide poverty and the establishment of social justice were goals that at last seemed within reach. The increasing demand for a New Economic World Order in the General Assembly and the forum of developing countries, UNCTAD, together with the emergence of the OPEC cartel seemed to mark the beginning of a radical change in international economic relations between North and South. Change was indeed reached, though not in the expected way, nor with the intended results. With the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system the international monetary order switched from fixed to flexible exchange rates. Now as exchange rates are a reflection of both the quality of the domestic currency and the ability to sell domestic goods on world markets, they are crucial in determining to what extent a country may participate in the world economy and how big its share of world income might be.
Martina Metzger

Asia and the International Monetary Fund: Reflections on the Present World Currency Crisis

Business as usual: if we look at attempts to explain the financial crisis which swept over Asian economies in South-Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines in fall 1997 and which is now surprisingly spilling over to Japan, one thing soon becomes apparent — that they are all grounded in mainstream economic thinking1 which attributes the root of the crisis to regional political failures. Such a position is reassuringly comfortable for a number of reasons.
Hajo Riese

Current Economic and Financial Policies and their Social Consequences

It gives me great pleasure to write these pages for my friend and colleague Klaus Hüfner on the occasion of his 60th birthday. We worked together in the OECD during the second half of the 1960s, concentrating on the economics of education and educational policies in general. During the 1970s, when I was the Director of the ILO World Employment Program, we discussed the future of the United Nations system. I traveled to Berlin to present my program before an interested and vast public brought together by the UN Association of which Klaus was then one of the leading forces.
Louis Emmerij

The Coffers Are Not Empty: Financing for Sustainable Development and the Role of the United Nations

Financial issues have been at the center of the North-South debate since the 1960s. During intergovernmental negotiations in recent decades, especially the world conferences from Rio 1992 to Rome 1996, the sharpest controversies between North and South were over ‘means of implementation’ — that is, money to finance the agreed programs of action. The conferences failed to accomplish their goals largely because governments of the North were unwilling to provide the essential financial means.
Jens Martens, James A. Paul

National Culture — International Links


New Concepts of the UN in Maintaining Peace: A Discourse Analysis About a Producer of Texts

The UN (or, to be more exact, the Secretariat) has attempted, after the sea-change in world politics after 1989, to conceptualize its principal commitment to the maintenance of peace and development in fresh, innovative ways. During the early nineties, the Secretariat used mandates issued by the Security Council and the General Assembly to submit far-reaching reform proposals.2 What follows will not attempt to portray these well-known documents again, or to assess their utility for the solution of the problems they address. Instead, using the tool of discourse analysis, the aim is to discern the thrust of these documents, and to gain a fresh understanding of the contexts in which these texts have been produced. This approach should add to our understanding of the UN — as a superficial structure.
Ulrich Albrecht

Science and Global Governance: The Story of United Nations University

The United Nations University occupied its new permanent headquarters in a strange pyramid-like building in one of the busiest and most elegant districts of Tokyo in 1993, almost 20 years after its establishment. The physical visibility of its existence in Japan has been achieved with some delay. The path to a much greater global academic visibility will probably take much longer.
Mihály Simai

Global Culture versus Golden Cages: New Options for Cultural Policies

Culture is going global at the end of the 20th century. Nearly all millennium prophets, and there are a lot of them, add a strong cultural flavor to their visions and scenarios. The optimists among them draw up a global village, centered around a huge melting pot with food served for free and cooks from all over the world poring over their recipes. Most optimists describe the culinary actors as members of peacefully coexisting communities, eager to learn from each other and dedicated to the preservation of collective identities. However, pessimists conjure up a vision of a global melting pot with handles as grotesque as Mickey Mouse’s ears, frothing with soap that kills off the look and taste of the individual ingredients, whilst ethnocentric pessimists seem haunted by a nightmare scenario of five or six different melting pots contending in a clash of civilizations, with huge uniformed Muslim or Confucian armies and Christian post-modern and orthodox divisions.
Traugott Schöfthaler


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