Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Water supply and sanitation services in developing countries face a number of challenges which make it difficult for them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The world population has increased by an average annual rate of 1.3 % since 1990 and currently stands at about 7 billion. Urbanisation around the world has increased from 43 % in 1990 to 51 % in 2010 and the rising trend is expected to continue. This urbanisation, which is highest in developing countries, has led to the mushrooming of informal settlements where water supply and sanitation services are virtually non-existent and waterborne diseases are prevalent. This chapter looks at the challenges for water supply and sanitation in developing countries and uses case studies and examples from Zimbabwe to illustrate typical problems. The problems include lack of investment in the water and sanitation sector, inappropriate technologies, ill-defined institutional frameworks, capacity limitations, and neglect of rural areas. Poor water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe is typified by the cholera outbreak of 2008/09 which killed nearly 4,300 out of the 99,000 that were affected. The general conclusion of this chapter is that the problem of water supply and sanitation in developing countries requires innovative thinking as it impacts on other areas such as the food and energy sectors. The emphasis should be on appropriate technologies, particularly waterless toilets and natural sewage treatment systems. For water supply, focus should be on demand management and reduction of unaccounted-for water and innovative methods of enhancing revenue collection.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
AMCOW. (2010). Water supply and sanitation in Zimbabwe: Turning finance into services for 2015 and beyond. Nairobi: World Bank.
BCC (Bulawayo City Council). (2002). Study on water use, water conservation and affordability, May 2002. Bulawayo: Department of Works.
British Medical Journal. (2007). Sanitation is greatest medical milestone since 1840. Press release, 18 January 2007. http://group.bmj.com/group/media/press-release-archive-files/BMJ/bmj-2007/BMJ-18Jan-2007.pdf. Accessed 23 Feb 2014.
Chaplin, S. (1998). Water efficiency: The next generation. Draft report 5–9, Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado. http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/W98-07_WaterEfficiencyNextGeneration. Accessed 23 Feb 2014.
Chisango, H. (2012). Investigating opportunities for improving service through water demand management in Harare. MSc Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Chuhan-Pole, P., Korman, V., Angwafo, M., & Buitano, M. (2011). Africa’s pulse: An analysis of issues shaping Africa’s economic future (Vol. 3). Nairobi: World Bank.
Dlamini, S. (2012). Evaluation of the water quality status in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe. MSc Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Franceys, R., Pickford, J., & Reed, R. (1992). A guide to the development of on-site sanitation. Geneva: WHO.
GoZ (Government of Zimbabwe). (1998a). ZINWA Act (Chapter 20:25). Harare: Government Printers.
GoZ (Government of Zimbabwe). (1998b). Water Act (Chapter 20:24). Harare: Government Printers.
GoZ (Government of Zimbabwe). (2008). Urban Councils Act (Chapter 29:15, amended). Harare: Government Printers.
GoZ (Government of Zimbabwe) & World Health Organization. (2011). Intersectoral actions in response to cholera in Zimbabwe: From emergency response to institution building. Paper presented at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, 19–21 Oct 2011, Rio de Janeiro.
Gwinji, G. (2010). The key rural water, sanitation and hygiene issues in Zimbabwe. Paper presented at the Inter-ministerial Conference on Water, Nyanga, 10–11 Feb 2010.
IWSD (Institute for Water and Sanitation Development). (2009). Evaluation of the WASH response to the 2008–2009 Zimbabwe cholera epidemic and preparedness planning for future outbreaks. Zimbabwe WASH Cluster Report. Harare: Institute for Water and Sanitation Development.
JICA. (1997). The study of water pollution control in Upper Manyame river basin in the Republic of Zimbabwe. Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Kibena, J., Nhapi, I., & Gumindoga, W. (2013). Assessing the relationship between water quality parameters and changes in landuse patterns in the Upper Manyame River, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2013.09.017.
Kumwenda, V. (2012). Evaluating the impacts of WASH interventions on the 2008–09 cholera outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe. MSc Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Lopez, A. D., & Mathers, C. D. (2006). Measuring the global burden of disease and epidemiological transitions: 2002–2030. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 100(5/6), 481–499. CrossRef
Manzungu, E., & Chioreso, R. (2012). Internalising a crisis? Household level resistance to water scarcity in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development, 17(1), 111–136.
Masst, M. (1996). The harvest of independence: Commodity boom and socio-economic differentiation among peasants in Zimbabwe. PhD Dissertation, Roskilde University, Roskilde.
Mokitimi, L. (2012). Linking institutional and legal framework with accountability and possible implications on urban water sub-sector performance in Zimbabwe. MSc Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Ndebele, P. (2012). Assessment of water revenue collection strategies in selected urban local authorities in Zimbabwe. MSc Thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Nhapi, I. (2004). Options for wastewater management in Harare, Zimbabwe. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Taylor and Francis, London, UK (ISBN 9058096971). http://edepot.wur.nl/193572. Accessed 23 Feb 2014.
Nhapi, I., & Gijzen, H. J. (2004). Wastewater management in Zimbabwe in the context of sustainability. IWA Water Policy Journal, 6(6), 115–120.
Nhapi, I., Siebel, M., & Gijzen, H. J. (2002). Options for the decentralised management of wastewater in Harare Zimbabwe. IWA Water and Environmental Management Series , Dec. 2002, pp. 955–964.
Red Cross. (2010). Final report, MDRZW004 – Zimbabwe cholera. Harare, Zimbabwe: International federation of red cross and red crescent societies.
Rees, N., Chai, J., & Anthony, D. (2012). Right in principle and in practice: A review of the social and economic returns to investing in children. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
Scoones, I., Marongwe, N., Mavedzenge, B., Murimbarimba, F., Mahenehene, J., & Sukume, C. (2011). Zimbabwe’s land reform: A summary of findings. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
UNDP. (2013). Human development report 2013. The rise of the south: Human progress in a diverse world. New York: United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf. Accessed 23 Feb 2014.
UNEP. (2010). Assessing the environmental impacts of consumption and production: Priority products and materials. Report of the Working Group on the Environmental Impacts of Products and Materials to the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management. http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx1262xPA-PriorityProductsAndMaterials_Report.pdf. Accessed 31 Dec 2012.
UN-HABITAT. (2012). State of the world’s cities 2010/2011: Bridging the urban divide. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT).
UNICEF. (2010). The 2008–2009 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe. United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund, unpublished report, Harare.
UNPD (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division). (2013). World population prospects: The 2012 revision, key findings and advance tables. Working paper No. ESA/P/WP.227, New York.
van den Berg, C., & Danilenko, A. (2011). IBNET water supply and sanitation performance Blue Book: The international benchmarking network for water and sanitation utilities data book (p. 176). Washington DC: World Bank.
WHO. (2004). Assessing the outbreak response and improving preparedness. Geneva: World Health Organization.
WHO/UNICEF. (2012). Progress on drinking water and sanitation: 2012 update. New York: UNICEF/World Health Organization.
WHO/UNICEF. (2013). Progress on sanitation and drinking-water, 2013 update. Geneva: WHO.
World Bank. (2011). Zimbabwe urban water tariff study: Final report. Report prepared for the World Bank and the Government of Zimbabwe. Harare: World Bank.
Zulu, E. M., Dodoo, F. N., & Chika-Ezee, A. (2002). Sexual risk-taking in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya, 1993–8. Population Studies, 56, 311–323. CrossRef
- Challenges for Water Supply and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Case Studies from Zimbabwe
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 4