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Über dieses Buch

This research book is the first of its kind to conduct an interdisciplinary research on the recent and dramatic developments in China’s music industries with a particular focus on business models, copyright protection, and artist compensation. The monograph explores and discusses proper business models through which revenue can be generated and maintained in a changing copyright climate and transforming business environment. It also discusses how musicians can be fairly compensated in the online platform economy informed by social entrepreneurship. This book is distinctive in the sense that it explores the intersection of cultural and creative industries, legal studies, business studies, and new media. It uses a qualitative and mixed-method approach to study business innovations and institutions in the making in the second largest economy which is also gaining cultural and political significance around the world.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Copyright Law and Social Entrepreneurship in an Online Platform Economy

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Setting the Stage

Abstract
This chapter introduces the rationale and inception of the ‘Chinese music industry unplugged’ book. It first starts with introducing a paradox the Chinese music industry is facing, namely rampant piracy issue with increased gross income in the digital music sector. It also situates the music industries in China’s grand platform ecosystem with regard to the popular discourse of cultural and creative industries. Recent developments in the music sector, policy and major players in the past five years will be explained to set the stage for further investigation. This will be done by problematising artists’ fair compensation and remuneration in the digital economy. Research questions will follow with the structure of the book explained.
Zhen Troy Chen

Chapter 2. Music Industries, Platform Economy and Social Entrepreneurship

Abstract
This chapter introduces the theoretical framework employed in this book. I first lay out the macro-skeleton of the digital creative industry and platform economy discourses to analyse the unique features of the new economy. To be specific, I address the issue of the technology shift, demographic shift of fans and users, and the changes of consumption modes. This chapter follows a problem-and-tension-driven logic in order to better guide the analysis, reviewing literature from the supply side, namely the ‘production-of-culture’ perspective and the ‘social network market’ model from the demand side developed by QUT scholars. This demand–supply pair is then investigated in the platform ecosystem to look for possible models for further development of the music industry informed by social entrepreneurship theories.
Zhen Troy Chen

Chapter 3. Doing Music Industry Research in China

Abstract
This chapter is a methodology chapter with reflections on local knowledge and insights. I aim to contextualise the music industry, its operation and research in an emerging market. Understanding and doing business in China is often a full semester module in world top business schools, which makes China a unique market for both doing business and research. This chapter also prepares the policy and legal discussions in Chapter 4.
Zhen Troy Chen

Chapter 4. China’s Copyright Law and the Music Industry: A Social-Legal Analysis

Abstract
This chapter conducts a socio-legal analysis of the development of Chinese copyright law in the music industry. Taking a historical approach, it provides much neglected evidence about the autonomous development of Chinese copyright law. So far, the book has addressed the paradox between the weak copyright regime in China and its recent seemingly positive development in the music industry, particularly in the online digital sector. This chapter will lay the bedrock for the discussion of policy implications and specific recommendations facing the third amendment of Chinese copyright law. It also generates relevant themes that guide the analyses in the rest of the book to address the research questions on potential business models, strategies and tactics with an aim to get artists and creators fairly compensated.
Zhen Troy Chen

Evolving Business Models, Strategies and Tactics

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. The Traditional Proprietary Model

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the traditional proprietary model in the music industries, which is to treat music as copyrightable goods and artefacts. The music industry is a concept derived from the cultural industry concept coined by Adorno and scholars of the Frankfurt School. It views popular music as mass produced industrial goods. To put it into a nutshell, it focuses on the creation of music and the value exchange and realisation of it through market mechanisms with an end for consumption. This chapter will start by analysing the exploitation of music with diversified income streams constituting an established value chain. However, the primary focus of this chapter is the traditional proprietary model with music fixed in physical format as a control mechanism in a pre-digital age.
Zhen Troy Chen

Chapter 6. The Renegade Model

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the renegade model when the Internet emerged and began to play an important role in the Chinese music industry in the late 1990s. The Internet and its relevant digital technologies are regarded as a new opportunity for the music industry to go digital at first, celebrating the decentralised and utopian endowment of the Internet. However, the unauthorised sharing of music (piracy) has also gained momentum accordingly. I first outline the developments and players in a chronological order, and then provide a conceptual analysis on the renegade model in the formation of a barter economy. However, the renegades are not monolithic either. I finally divide my analysis into three categories, namely the economic, the political and the cultural domains for an in-depth analysis.
Zhen Troy Chen

Chapter 7. The Platform Ecosystem Model

Abstract
This chapter investigates the third emerging business model of the music industry during the past ten years when China entered the social media era, embracing an unprecedented online platform economy. A significant change in the music industry is manifested by the business model shift from music as artefact and information to music as services. This chapter continues to address the research question on business model innovation in a shifting industry landscape and changing policy environment. It first sets the stage for the discussion of the platform ecosystem model in the Chinese music industry by outlining the theories used and copyright law developments in previous chapters before moving on to detailed analyses of recent case studies.
Zhen Troy Chen

Chapter 8. Conclusion

Abstract
This concluding chapter provides a synthesis and a review of the business models discussed in previous chapters. It will also address the policy implications with a particular focus on copyright law. Following the third copyright amendment in China, I provide detailed recommendations based on the analyses put forward in previous chapters. This book started from the review of literature on the development of the music industry in China in the context of globalisation, technological shift and the changing policy environment under the condition where the cultural and creative industry discourse is gaining momentum in China. This final chapter reviews different accounts on the way people produce, consume and prosume music, and at the same time, socialise, exchange ideas and express themselves through music.
Zhen Troy Chen

Backmatter

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