Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter explores the cultural roots of the People’s Republic of China and their influence on managerial issues. China has progressively opened its market to the international competition and Western companies would like to gain access to its potential. However, differences between Chinese and Western cultures and business practices may influence the effective profitability of the investment in China. The chapter focuses on the key principles of the Chinese cultural environment, by taking into consideration the variety of contexts in which managerial issues are embedded, historical, geographical, socio-cultural, theoretical, to mention but a few. In China, a country where business relations are highly socially embedded, these aspects play a pivotal role in the shaping and advancement of daily business operations. In order to analyze the main features of the Chinese wisdom and culture, the chapter examines a set of key principles and their origins within Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Mohism, and Yin-Yang thinking: guanxi, jiating, renqing, ganqing, lian and mianzi, lijie and keqi, and feng su xi guan. The chapter also provides practical examples to embrace the paradox of different views in management and support foreign practitioners in managing cultural issues in the Chinese business environment.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adler, N. J. (2002). International dimension of organizational behavior. Cincinnati: South-Western.
Adler, N. J., & Graham, J. L. (1989). Cross-cultural interaction: The international comparison fallacy? Journal of International Business Studies, 20(3), 515–537.
Ahlstrom, D., Bruton, G. D., & Yeh, K. S. (2008). Private firms in China: Building legitimacy in an emerging economy. Journal of World Business,43(4), 385–399. CrossRef
Alston, J. P. (1989). Wa, Guanxi, and Inwa: Managerial principles in Japan, China, and Korea. Business Horizons,32(2), 26–31. CrossRef
Ambler, T. (1994). Marketing’s third paradigm: Guanxi. Business Strategy Review,5(4), 69–80. CrossRef
Baumann, C., Hamin, H., & Yang, S. J. (2016). Work ethic formed by pedagogical approach: Evolution of institutional approach to education and competitiveness. Asia Pacific Business Review,22(3), 374–396. CrossRef
Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1999). Organizations as adaptive systems in complex environments: The case of China. Organization Science,10(3), 237–252. CrossRef
Boisot, M. H., & Child, J. (1996). From fiefs to clans and network capitalism: Explaining China’s emerging economic order. Administrative Science Quarterly,41(4), 600–628. CrossRef
Bond, M. H. (Ed.). (1996). The handbook of Chinese psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Bond, M. H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,55, 1009–1015. CrossRef
Brunner, J. A., & Taoka, G. M. (1977). Marketing and negotiating in the People’s Republic of China: Perception of American businessmen who attended the 1975 Canton fair. Journal of International Business Studies,8(2), 69–82. CrossRef
Butterfield, F. (1983). China: Alive in Bitter Sea. New York: Coronet Books.
Buttery, A. E., & Leung, T. K. P. (1998). The difference between Chinese and Western negotiation. European Journal of Marketing, 32(3/4), 374–389.
Cannon, T., & Jenkins, A. (Eds.). (1990). The geography of contemporary China. London: Routledge.
Capra, F. (1975). The Tao of physics: An exploration of the parallels between modern physics and eastern mysticism. Berkeley: Shambhala.
Carlsson, J., Nordegren, A., & Sjöholm, F. (2005). International experience and the performance of Scandinavian firms in China. International Business Review,14(1), 21–40. CrossRef
Chee, H., & West, C. (2007). Myths about doing business in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Chen, M. (1995). Asian management systems. London: Routledge.
Chen, M.-J., & Miller, D. (2010). West meets East: Toward an ambicultural approach to management. Academy of Management Perspectives,24(4), 17–24. CrossRef
Chen, P., & Partington, D. (2004). An interpretive comparison of Chinese and Western conceptions of relationships in construction project management work. International Journal of Project Management,22, 397–406. CrossRef
Chia, R. (2010). Rediscovering becoming: Insights from an oriental perspective on organization studies. In T. Hernes & S. Maitlis (Eds.), Process, sensemaking, and organizing (pp. 112–139). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chieng, A. (2007). La Pratica della Cina. Cultura e Modi del Negoziare. Milan: O barra O edizioni.
Child, J. (1994). Management in China during the age of reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Child, J., & Tse, D. K. (2001). China’s transition and its implications for international business. Journal of International Business Studies,32(1), 5–21. CrossRef
Child, J., & Warner, M. (2003). Culture and management in China. In M. Warner (Ed.), Culture and management in Asia (pp. 24–47). London: Routledge.
Chin, T. (2014). Harmony as means to enhance affective commitment in a Chinese organization. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,21(3), 326–344. CrossRef
Chinta, R., & Capar, N. (2007). Comparative analysis of managerial values in the USA and China. Journal of Technology Management in China,2(3), 212–224. CrossRef
Chiu, C. H., Ting, K., Tso, G. F. K., & He, C. (1998). A comparison of occupational values between capitalist Hong Kong and Socialist Guangzhou. Economic Development and Cultural Change,46(3), 144–151.
Crow, C. (1937). Four hundred million customers: The experiences, some happy, some sad of an American in China, and what they taught him. New York: Harper & Bros.
Dicken, P. (2015). Global shift: Mapping the changing contours of the world economy. New York: Guilford Press.
Fairbank, J. K. (1987). The great Chinese revolution, 1800–1985. London: Chatto and Windus.
Fan, Y. (2002). Questioning Guanxi: Definition, classification and implications. International Business Review,11(5), 543–561. CrossRef
Fan, Y. (2000). A classification of Chinese culture. Cross Cultural Management—An International Journal,7(2), 3–10. CrossRef
Fang, T. (2012). Yin Yang: a new perspective on culture. Management and Organization Review,8(1), 25–50. CrossRef
Fang, T. (2003). A critique of Hofstede’s fifth national culture dimension. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management,3(3), 347–368. CrossRef
Fang, T., Tung, R. L., Berg, L., & Nematshahi, N. (2017). Parachuting internationalization. A study of four Scandinavian firms entering China. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management,24(4), 554–589. CrossRef
Farh, J.-L., & Cheng, B.-S. (2000). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In J. T. Li, A. S. Tsui & E. Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in the Chinese context (pp. 84–127). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Faure, G. O., & Fang, T. (2008). Changing Chinese values: Keeping up with paradoxes. International Business Review,17, 194–207. CrossRef
Forchielli, A. (2007). Le quattro “P” e le cinque “R” per affrontare il gigante. In Osservatorio Asia, Cina: la conoscenza è un fattore di successo (pp. 105–122). Bologna: Società editrice il Mulino.
Fraser, C. (2016). The philosophy of the Mozi: The first consequentialists (p. 2016). New York: Columbia University Press.
Garrott, J. R. (1995). Chinese cultural values. New angles, added insights. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,19(2), 211–225. CrossRef
Gu, F. F., Hung, K., & Tse, D. K. (2008). When does Guanxi matter? Issues of capitalization and its dark sides. Journal of Marketing,72(4), 12–28. CrossRef
Guthrie, D. (1998). The declining significance of Guanxi in China’s economic transition. The China Quarterly,154, 254–282. CrossRef
Haley, U. C. V., & Haley, G. T. (2006a). The logic of Chinese business strategy: East versus West: Part I. Journal of Business Strategy,27(1), 35–42. CrossRef
Haley, U. C. V., & Haley, G. T. (2006b). The logic of Chinese business strategy: East versus West: Part II. Journal of Business Strategy,27(2), 43–53. CrossRef
Hall, D. L., & Ames, R. T. (1998). Thinking from the Han: Self, truth, and transcendence in Chinese and Western culture. New York: State University of New York Press.
Heffernan, K., & Crawford, J. (2001). The relationship between managerial values and the adoption of western lifestyle practices in the People’s Republic of China. Paper presented at the Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM) Conference, Auckland, 5–8 December 2001.
Ho, D. Y. F. (1976). On the concept of face. The American Journal of Sociology,81(4), 867–884. CrossRef
Hofstede, G. H., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics,16(Spring), 5–21. CrossRef
Jaw, B. S., Ling, Y. H., Wang, C. Y. P., & Chang, W. C. (2007). The impact of culture on Chinese employees’ work values. Personnel Review,36(5), 763–780. CrossRef
Ji, L. J., Nisbett, R. E., & Su, Y. (2001). Culture, change, and prediction. Psychological Science,12(6), 450–456. CrossRef
Jiang, Z., Gollan, P. J., & Brooks, G. (2015). Moderation of Doing and Mastery orientations in relationships among justice, commitment, and trust: A cross-cultural perspective. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,22(1), 42–67. CrossRef
Kahn, M., Kroeber, T., & Kingsbury, S. (1974). The I Ching as a model for a personal growth workshop. Journal of Humanistic Psychology,14, 39–51. CrossRef
Keightley, D. N. (1994). L’antica civiltà della Cina: riflessioni su come divenne “cinese”. In P. S. Ropp (Ed.), L’eredità della Cina (pp. 33–68). Turin: Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli.
Leung, T. K. P., & Chan, R. Y. K. (2003). Face, favour and positioning. A Chinese power game. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11/12), 1575–1598.
Levine, D. N. (1985). The flight from ambiguity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Li, P. P. (2016). Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the east: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management,23(1), 42–77. CrossRef
Li, P. P. (2014). Toward the geocentric framework of intuition: The Yin-Yang balancing between the Eastern and Western perspectives on intuition. In M. Sinclair (Ed.), Handbook of Research Methods on Intuition (pp. 28–41). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Li, P. P. (1998). Towards a geocentric framework of organizational form: A holistic, dynamic and paradoxical approach. Organization Studies,19(5), 829–861. CrossRef
Lockett, M. (1988). Culture and the problems of Chinese management. Organization Studies,9(4), 475–496. CrossRef
Luo, Y. (2007). Guanxi and business. Hackensack: World Scientific Publishing. CrossRef
Luo, Y. (2002). Partnering with foreign firms: How do Chinese managers view the governance and importance of contracts? Asia Pacific Journal of Management,19(1), 127–151. CrossRef
Luo, Y. (2000). Guanxi and Business. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. CrossRef
Manarungsan, S., & Tang, Z. (2012). Integrating oriental wisdom in MBA education: The case of confucianism. In G. P. Prastacos, F. Wang, K. E. Soderquist (Eds.), Leadership through the classics (pp. 377–387). Heidelberg: Springer.
March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.
Mattsson, L.-G., & Tidström, A. (2015). Applying the principles of Yin-Yang to market dynamics. Marketing Theory,15(3), 347–364. CrossRef
Morin, E. (2008). On Complexity. Cresskill: Hampton Press.
Needham, J. (1956). Science and civilization in China, Vol. 2: History of scientific thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nolan, P. (2001). China and the global business revolution. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Pan, Y., Song, X., Goldschmidt, A., & French, W. (2010). A cross-cultural investigation of work values among young executives in China and the USA. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,17(3), 283–298. CrossRef
Pearce, J. A. I. I., & Robinson, R. B., Jr. (2000). Cultivating Guanxi as a Foreign Investor Strategy. Business Horizons,43(1), 31–39. CrossRef
Peat, F. D. (2002). From certainty to uncertainty: The story of science and ideas in the twentieth century. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Peng, K., & Nisbett, R. E. (1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction. American Psychologist,54(9), 741–754. CrossRef
Qian, W., Razzaque, M. A., & Keng, K. A. (2007). Chinese cultural values and gift-giving behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing,24(4), 214–228. CrossRef
Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Stewart, S., Terpstra, R. H., & Yu, K. (1999). Doing business in the 21st century with the new generation of Chinese managers: A study of generational shifts in work values in China. Journal of International Business Studies,30(2), 415–428. CrossRef
Ralston, D. A., Yu, K., Wang, X., Terpstra, R. H., & He, W. (1996). The Cosmopolitan Chinese manager: Findings of a study of managerial values across the six regions of China. Journal of International Management,2, 79–109.
Rarick, C. A. (2009). The historical roots of Chinese cultural values and managerial practices. Journal of International Business Research,8(2), 59–65.
Rarick, C. A. (2007). Confucius on management: Understanding Chinese cultural values and managerial practices. Journal of International Management Studies,2, 22–28.
Redding, S. G. (2002). The capitalist business system of China and its rationale. Asia Pacific Journal of Management,19(2/3), 221–249. CrossRef
Redding, S. G. (1990). The spirit of Chinese capitalism. Berlin: De Gruyter. CrossRef
Reuvid, J., & Yong, L. (2003). Doing business with China. London: Kogan Page.
Rosker, J. (2008). Searching for the way (Theory of knowledge in pre-modern and modern China). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Sai On Ko, A. (2005). Organizational communications in Hong Kong: A cultural approach to groupthink. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(4), 351–357.
Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. (2014). Self-initiated expatriates: An exploratory study of adjustment of adult third-culture kids vs. adult mono-culture kids. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,21(4), 422–436. CrossRef
Shenkar, O. (2008). China and the world: The impact of a rising China on the European and the United States. Seminar. Dipartimento di Economia e Direzione Aziendale, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, 23 June 2008.
Shenkar, O., & Ronen, S. (1987). Structure and importance of work goals among managers in the People’s Republic of China. Academy of Management Journal,30(3), 564–576. CrossRef
Shin, D. H. (2012). Cross-analysis of usability and aesthetic in smart devices: What influences users’ preferences? Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,19(4), 563–587. CrossRef
Soontiens, W. (2007). Chinese ethnicity and values: A country cluster comparison. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal,14(4), 321–335. CrossRef
Spence, J. (2005). The once and future China. Foreign Affairs,146, 44–46.
Spence, J. (1994). L’immagine della Cina agli occhi degli occidentali dalla fine del secolo XVI a oggi. In P. S. Ropp (Ed.), L’eredità della Cina (pp. 17–33). Turin: Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli.
Stacey, R. D., Griffin, D., & Shaw, P. (2000). Complexity and Management. London: Routledge.
Su, C., Mitchell, R. K., & Sirgy, M. J. (2007). Enabling Guanxi management in China: A hierarchical stakeholder model of effective Guanxi. Journal of Business Ethics,71(3), 301–319. CrossRef
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence. How to create wealth from conflicting values. Chichester: Wiley.
Tung, R. L. (1994). Strategic management thought in East Asia. Organizational Dynamics,22(4), 55–65. CrossRef
Tung, R. (2014). Requisites to and ways of developing a global mind-set: Implications for research on leadership and organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(4), 329–337.
Tung, R. L., & Verbeke, A. (2010). Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research. Journal of International Business Studies,41(8), 1259–1274. CrossRef
Wang, C. L. (2007). Guanxi vs. relationship marketing: Exploring underlying differences. Industrial Marketing Management,36, 81–86. CrossRef
Wang, Z.-M. (1998). Team management conflict. In J. Selmer (Ed.), International management in China: Cross-cultural issues (pp. 29–44). London: Routledge.
Wang-Cowham, C. (2008). The effect of individual factors on the transfer of human resource management knowledge in Chinese subsidiaries. The perspective of Chinese HR managers. Journal of Technology Management in China,3(2), 224–241. CrossRef
Weaver, W. (1948). Science and complexity. American Scientist,36(4), 536–544.
Wong, L. (2005). Chinese management as discourse: “Chinese” as a technology of self and control? Asian Business and Management,4, 431–453. CrossRef
Woods, P., & Lamond, D. (2011). What would confucius do?—Confucian ethics and self-regulation in management. Journal of Business Ethics,102(4), 669–683. CrossRef
Yan, J., & Sorenson, R. (2006). The effect of Confucian values on succession in family business. Family Business Review,19(3), 235–250. CrossRef
Yang, K. (1986). Chinese personality and its change. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 106–170). New York: Oxford University Press.
Yates, R. E. (1989, November 12). Far East offers friendly ports for product pirates. Chicago Tribune.
Yeung, I. Y. M., & Tung, R. L. (1996). Achieving business success in Confucian societies: The importance of Guanxi (Connections). Organizational Dynamics,25(2), 54–65. CrossRef
Yu, P. K. (2015). Intellectual property and Confucianism. In I. Calboli & S. Ragavan (Eds.), Diversity in intellectual property. Identities, interests, and intersections (pp. 247–273). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zhou, S. (Ed.). (2010). The research on the Chinese traditional mode of cognition. Shanghai: Shanghai Century Press.
- Chinese Cultural Roots and Their Influence on Managerial Issues
- Chapter 5
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Wissenstransfer im Outsourcing/© WrightStudio | stock.adobe.com