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This volume addresses the latest results of the Major Water Program of the Chinese Government which aims at the restoration of polluted water environments and sustainable management of water resources in China. It specifically summarizes the results of the BMBF-CLIENT project “Management of Water Resources in Urban Catchments” and the related MoST project “Key Technologies and Management Modes for the Water Environmental Rehabilitation of a Lake City from the Catchment Viewpoint” in Chaohu. The project is conducted by the Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Technische Universität Dresden, German and Chinese companies (WISUTEC, AMC, bbe Moldaenke, itwh, OpenGeoSys e.V., HC System and EWaters) in close cooperation with Tongji University, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology of Academy of Sciences, Institute for Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chaohu Lake Management Authority. The book explains the development of concepts and solutions for sustained water quality improvement in Chaohu, combining urban water resource management, decentralized sanitation solutions, methods in water quality assurance, environmental information systems and groundwater modeling.



Chapter 1. Introduction

This book synthesizes the results of research into water research management conducted in university-based or affiliated institutes, companies and local authorities and their partner. The background is a research and development programme on “Managing Water Resources for Urban Catchments”. It ran between 2015–2018 and was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Scientists and company employees worked together in the inter-disciplines and international project.
Agnes Sachse, Zhenliang Liao, Weiping Hu, Xiaohu Dai, Olaf Kolditz

Chapter 2. Managing Water Resources for Urban Catchments

The overall objective of the project was the development of water management system solutions for a sustainable improvement of water quality in the city of Chaohu and in the Chao Lake. The Urban Water Resources Management (UWRM) concept is the innovative approach, which includes both efficient urban water management in urban and suburban areas, as well as interaction with aquatic ecosystems. Data and models for planning purposes and regional water management are made available by using a comprehensive online environmental information system for authorities and water suppliers. The Chao Lake plays a central role as an ecological and economic protection and raw water supplier for the drinking water supply of the population of the city of Chaohu. The research and development project (R&D Project) thus makes an important contribution to the sustainable development of the Chaohu region as part of the Masterplan Ecological Seascape Chaohu of the Anhui Provincial Government. The scientific and technical solutions are implemented in demonstration projects.
Olaf Kolditz, Thomas U. Berendonk, Cui Chen, Lothar Fuchs, Matthias Haase, Dirk Jungmann, Thomas Kalbacher, Peter Krebs, Christian Moldaenke, Roland Müller, Frank Neubert, Karsten Rink, Karsten Rinke, Agnes Sachse, Marc Walther

Chapter 3. WP-A: Urban Water Resources Management

The Anhui Chao Lake Environmental Rehabilitation Project (ACLERP) calls for the laying of 100 km of sewer and reaching 30,000 m\(^{3}\)/d in capacity at the wastewater treatment plant. The “Masterplan Ökologische Seestadt Chaohu” (https://​www.​wasser-hannover.​de/​de/​projekte/​oekologische-seestadt-chaohu) names the remaining deficits of ACLERP and gives concrete recommendations for further plans. In the model region of Chao Lake (Chaohu), the fragile interplay of natural and settlement space is currently pronounced and endangered. The region around the lake with the major cities of Hefei and Chaohu City is one of the fastest growing urban areas in the world. The city of Chaohu draws its drinking water from Chao Lake and its further development is strongly linked to its water quality. The increasing anthropogenic pollution components of the lake have led to a significant deterioration of water and water quality in recent years.
Peter Krebs, Firas Al Janabi, Björn Helm, Honghao Li, Benjamin Wagner, Christian Koch, Renyuan Wang, Lothar Fuchs

Chapter 4. WP-B: Development and Testing of a GIS-Based Planning Tool for Creating Decentralized Sanitation Scenarios

In Chinese peri-urban and rural areas with low population density, the implementation of central wastewater infrastructure and management concepts is difficult, mainly because of high investment costs and inadequate operation and maintenance concepts. However, these areas strongly contribute to precarious environmental situations of which Chao Lake is a perfect illustration. In the lake catchment three primary diffuse sources of pollution have been identified: (1) indirect discharges of untreated or inadequately treated domestic wastewater, (2) pollution from livestock production, (3) agricultural runoff and groundwater passage. In 2011, these primary nonpoint sources caused 42% of organic (COD) inflows to the lake, 38% of TN, and 42% of TP (Asian Development Bank, ADB 2015). To improve water quality in Chao Lake, investment in wastewater management is likely to be the easiest action as it also helps to improve the quality of the local inhabitants. However, defining and implementing cost-efficient investment plans is difficult and requires enlighted decisions.
Thomas Aubron, Manfred van Afferden, Ganbaatar Khurelbaatar, Roland Müller

Chapter 5. WP-C: A Step Towards Secured Drinking Water: Development of an Early Warning System for Lakes

Lakes are important ecosystems that provide a number of ecosystem services including provision of drinking water, flood control, fisheries and in general a high natural, cultural and aesthetic value. Provisioning services from lakes are particularly relevant in regions where lakes supply drinking water. In these water bodies, a high water quality is of utmost importance in order to produce drinking water at required quantities and at affordable prices. High nutrient loading, eutrophication, and toxicant pollution, however, are growing stressors in many places, driving severe water quality deteriorations that harm domestic water supply, quality of life and social welfare. Fast growing urban areas are particularly vulnerable to these deteriorations in surface water resources, because waste, waste water, and chemical pollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, etc.) are affecting nearby aquatic ecosystems. While in river ecosystems these pollution pressures only affect water users further downstream, i.e. not directly the pollution producer responsible for the water quality deterioration, standing water bodies like lakes or reservoirs directly and often negatively feed back to the adjacent urban communities.
Marcus Rybicki, Christian Moldaenke, Karsten Rinke, Hanno Dahlhaus, Knut Klingbeil, Peter L. Holtermann, Weiping Hu, Hong-Zhu Wang, Haijun Wang, Miao Liu, Jinge Zhu, Zeng Ye, Zhaoliang Peng, Bertram Boehrer, Dirk Jungmann, Thomas U. Berendonk, Olaf Kolditz, Marieke A. Frassl

Chapter 6. WP-D: Environmental Information System

The previous chapters gave detailed insight into the collection of environmental data and the use of that data for purposes such as determining and improving water quality, dealing with extreme weather events, or the planning of waste water management systems. However, adequate visualisation techniques are required to communicate the significance of this work and the consequences of research results to stakeholders or laymen. In addition, sustainable management of water resources requires well-engineered software solutions that can be operated by regional authorities and operating companies. To this end, the “Urban Catchments”-project includes the adaption and adjustment of software frameworks for the region around Chao Lake.
Frank Neubert, Matthias Haase, Karsten Rink, Olaf Kolditz

Chapter 7. WP-E: Groundwater Systems

The work package E was introduced as an addition to the “Urban Catchments”-project, in late 2016, more than one and a half year after its start. Its objective was to create a groundwater model to complete the hydraulic system which so far was limited to the urban and suburban regions around Chao Lake and the lake itself. The vast network of rivers, streams and ditches in combination with the domination of agricultural land use in the area around Chao Lake results in an inflow of nutrients and possibly other pollutants by surface water. But it is assumed that a considerable amount of pollutants and nutrients find their way into Chao Lake via groundwater flow, after they presumably leaked from defect sewage pipes or seeped into the groundwater directly from their source at the surface.
Martin Pohl, Christian Engelmann, Marc Walther
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