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The book addresses the sustainability of cities in the context of sustainability science and its application to the city boundary. In doing so it investigates all the components of a city on the basis of sustainability criteria. To achieve sustainability it is essential to adopt an integrated strategy that reflects all sectors within the city boundary and also address the four key normative concepts: the right to develop for all sections, social inclusion, convergence in living standards and shared responsibility and opportunities among sectors and sections. In this book, the individual chapters examine the nodes of sustainability of a city and thus essentially present a large canvas wherein all sustainability-relevant issues are interwoven. This integrative approach is at the heart of the book and offers an extensive, innovative framework for future research on cities and sustainability alike. The book also includes selected case studies that add to the reading and comprehension value of the concepts presented, ensuring a blend of theory and practical case studies to help readers better comprehend the principle of sustainability and its application.



Chapter 1. Cities and the Sustainability Dimensions

Cities are the epicenters of economic prosperity, and that makes them vulnerable to various stresses both of environment and social dimensions. However, due to their higher per capita incomes and improved systems and infrastructure, they are equally capable to respond to certain corrective and futuristic measures. For the urban systems to sustain, they need to have abundant supply of resources as well as improved systemic efficiency in using the resources available to them. This accounting to both internal and external sustainability would be possible only by embarking onto ecological efficiency in various segments of the urban system accounting to production and consumption. Therefore, the cities have to develop a combination of policies to address in tandem and realize ecologically efficient production, ecologically efficient landscaping, ecological friendly culture, ecologically efficient and secured services provision, and ecologically efficient sanitation system. These five components as part of eco-city would help cities not only for their environmental sustainability but also on social equity and economic prosperity.
Sudhakar Yedla

Chapter 2. Role of Eco-production in Managing Energy and Environmental Sustainability in Cities: A Lesson from Ulsan Metropolis, South Korea

Currently, 1.6 billion people or 40 % of Asians live in cities and urban areas that generate a total GDP of 80 %. As the cities consume enormous amount of resources and energy, they eventually result in massive environmental pollution. A total of 15 industrial complexes in Ulsan city (the industrial capital of Korea) consume 85 % of the total energy and other resources producing 20 % of the total national export. Thus, efficient use of energy and resources in industrial park is essential to maintain economic and environmental sustainability in Ulsan. In this context, the Ulsan Eco-industrial Park (EIP) initiative plays a vital role in eco-productions that reduce impact on the environment through optimized utilization of energy and resources by establishing symbiotic relationships among industries in a mutually beneficial manner. In this chapter, the role of collective eco-production efforts through national EIP initiative has been demonstrated to manage the economic, environmental, and social sustainability in this industrial city. The viability of industrial symbiosis (IS) networks through the design and implementation of various policy instruments, through the presence of facilitators such as an EIP centers, and through enabling frameworks such as the research and development into business (R&DB) approach for retro-fitting the conventional industrial complexes into EIPs has been demonstrated.
Hung-Suck Park, Shishir Kumar Behera

Chapter 3. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Andhra Pradesh: A Stocktaking

The state of Andhra Pradesh is a leader in the country for special economic zones (SEZs) on all the common quantitative and qualitative indicators of assessment. Yet, the performance of the SEZs can at best be described as mixed. The SEZs continue to be permeated with a number of concerns. The percentage of lands put under utilisation remains low. The trend to denotify already sanctioned SEZs is on the rise. Land aggregation for the SEZs is beset with numerous problems. There have been serious environmental concerns as well with a few of the SEZs. On the other hand, there are many impressive success stories also. Numerous SEZs in the state have been universally recognised for attracting high-value clients, for contributing significantly towards the well-being of the surrounding community, for taking care of the environment responsibly and for strategic utilisation of the lands in their possession. In days to come, new instruments of industrialisation being promoted by the government, like the National Manufacturing and Investment Zone and the Information Technology Investment Region, are bound to further erode the standing of the SEZs. It is felt that only those SEZs that have adequately mastered the success factors are going to thrive, while all the rest face an uncertain future.
Jayesh Ranjan

Chapter 4. Enhancement of Eco-production Capacity in Chittagong Export Processing Zone (CEPZ), Bangladesh, Employing Korean EIP Transition Strategy

In many developing countries, industrial zones have played a central role in fostering industrial development. However, they were also the major contributors of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This implies that industrial zones can be platforms to reduce GHG emissions in industrial sectors which enable green growth and support low-carbon economies. Eco-industrial parks (EIPs) could be one of such platforms to realize low-carbon development through the introduction of the IS concept. Governments like the Republic of Korea have been successful in transforming the traditional industrial parks to EIPs by the national initiatives since 2005. The IFC, World Bank, has initiated Low-Carbon Zone Project in Chittagong Export Processing Zone (CEPZ), Bangladesh, by employing diverse tools and methodologies, including Korean industrial symbiosis (IS) experiences. The potential IS opportunities in CEPZ were identified by analyzing the demand for energy in particular steam and electricity and exploring potential symbiotic networks based on the energy production and consumption survey and analysis by both top-down and bottom-up approaches. For the proposed symbiosis networks to be implemented in a fast, durable, and resilient manner in Bangladesh, right policy and regulatory framework, targeted mitigation activities, as well as awareness campaign and knowledge-sharing were recommended.
Shishir Kumar Behera, Song-Hwa Chae, Han-Koo Yeo, Hung-Suck Park

Chapter 5. Scenario of Urban Transport in Indian Cities: Challenges and the Way Forward

Cities and towns play a vital role in promoting economic growth and prosperity. Although less than one-third of India’s people live in cities and towns, these areas generate over two-thirds of the country’s income and account for 90 % of government revenues. In the coming years, as India becomes more and more urbanized, urban areas will play a critical role in sustaining high rates of economic growth. But economic growth momentum can be sustained if and only if cities function efficiently – that their resources are used to maximize the cities’ contribution to national income. City efficiency largely depends upon the effectiveness of its transport systems, that is, efficacy with which people and goods are moved throughout the city. Poor transport systems stifle economic growth and development, and the net effect may be a loss of competitiveness in both domestic and international markets. Although Indian cities have lower vehicle ownership rate, number of vehicles per capita, than their counterparts in developed countries, they suffer from worse congestion, delay, pollution, and accidents than cities in the industrialized world. This chapter provides an overview of urban transport issues and challenges in India. Rather than covering every aspect of urban transportation, it primarily focuses on those areas that are important from policy point of view. The chapter first reviews the trends of vehicular growth and availability of transport infrastructure in Indian cities. This is followed by a discussion on the nature and magnitude of urban transport problems such as congestion, pollution, and road accidents. Building on this background, the chapter discusses the policy measures to improve urban transportation in India.
Sanjay Kumar Singh

Chapter 6. Urban Transportation Planning and Investment in India: Emerging Challenges

The capacity of the transport system and the low cost and dependability of the transport services has enabled an increasing number of people to seek the economic, social and cultural opportunities that urban living ideally provides. But paradoxically, metropolitan cities have now grown to the point where they threaten to strangle the transportation that made them possible …… with the technical ability to solve its transport problem well in hand, the modern city is confronted by transportation problems more complex than ever before. Despite all the methods of movement, the problem in cities is how to move. (Owen 1987)
S. Sriraman

Chapter 7. Role of Nonmotorized Transport and Sustainable Transport in Indian Cities

A large number of trips are made by nonmotorized transport in Indian cites. However, majority of the users of nonmotorized transport are captive users, people who do not have any other choice of travel mode. The current state of infrastructure for nonmotorized transport is very poor, and city governments have paid very little attention to investment in developing appropriate infrastructure for nonmotorized transport. Therefore, with the increase in income and access to other motorized modes, these users will move to other modes of transport such as motorized two-wheelers or cars or bus. Improvement in NMT infrastructure can benefit current NMT users by reducing risk from other motorized vehicles. Improved NMT infrastructure is also expected to attract short trips from motorized two-wheelers and bus resulting in lower vehicular emissions. Increase use of NMT results in health benefits by increasing opportunities for active transport. Overall NMT-friendly infrastructure and policies can play a very important role in achieving sustainable transport – providing safe and clean mobility to all city residents.
Geetam Tiwari

Chapter 8. Integrating Climate Change in City Planning: Framework and Case Studies

The relationship between cities and climate change has been under discussion by researchers and policy makers. It is an accepted fact that cities have a very important role to play in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially true for rapidly growing cities in developing countries like India where urban population growth, spatial expansion, and economic development have resulted in increasing demand for energy. Future per capita CO2 emissions are expected to increase by four times between now and 2050. At the same time, like many other cities in developing countries, Indian cities are experiencing simultaneous challenges including infrastructure scarcity, air quality deterioration, and inadequate water resources. Large populations, high densities, presence of informal settlements, and industries within these cities have made them vulnerable to climate extremes. Urban infrastructure also will be at risk from climate change events including intense precipitation, flooding, and heat events. Future growth in urban areas will exacerbate existing issues of infrastructure provision and environmental issues of air quality, water, and waste. Climate change will be an added dimension to these urban challenges. Current urban planning process does not mainstream climate concerns and therefore necessitates the search for alternate approaches. Using case studies of selected cities, the chapter briefly highlights mitigation and adaptation challenges for these selected Indian cities and suggests a framework for integrating climate change concerns in urban planning and management.
Minal Pathak, P. R. Shukla, Amit Garg, Hem Dholakia

Chapter 9. Securing Cities for Energy Needs

Cities are critical for the development of any country. For cities to grow, securing energy supply is important. This chapter reviews the energy needs of Indian cities based on end uses (cooking, lighting, motive power, transport) and source (LPG, electricity, diesel, kerosene, biomass). Electricity accounts for more than 50 % of the supply mix in terms of primary energy for most cities. Daily and seasonal variations in the demand for electricity for Indian cities show morning and evening peaks (6 pm to 10 pm). The growth rates for electricity demand range between 5.1 and 10.6 % for a sample of 12 Indian cities. Most Indian cities face electricity shortages often dealt with by load shedding (curtailment of supply). The threats to energy security for cities include supply–demand mismatch, supply disruptions, market volatility, climate variations, etc. Possible responses to ensure energy security involve enhancement of renewable supply, energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM), smart grids, mass transit, zero energy buildings and sustainable urban design. Tracking the energy and carbon performance of cities in a transparent fashion is a prerequisite for planning future sustainable energy services for the city. Securing energy needs for cities would need changes in our approach to planning cities and implementing projects.
Rangan Banerjee

Chapter 10. Challenges and Opportunities in SWM in India: A Perspective

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the important tasks managed by local municipal bodies. Currently, it is one of the most neglected fields in the society. Unscientific management of waste leads to emission of methane, carbon dioxide, mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, etc. Also, through transportation, various vehicular pollutants are released. In developing countries, waste is treated as a resource, and valuable products are obtained from them. This paper highlights about scientific management of waste and potential for Mumbai to earn about 33 lakhs per day through scientific management of waste. The challenges and opportunities are being discussed in this paper.
Sunil Kumar, Avick Sil

Chapter 11. E-Waste in Indian Cities, Menace, Resource, and Strategies for Sustainable Management

E-waste in India, which may exceed three million tons by 2020, contributes significantly to solid waste generation in cities. Indian e-waste recycling is a subset of metal scrap industry consisting of formal and informal collectors, transporters, dismantlers, and recyclers. Class 1 and 2 cities act as major e-waste suppliers where informal sector collects and supplies 95 % e-waste to informal recycling hubs in metros resulting in toxic emissions and stress on civic services. The formal sector just accounts 5 % with 14 % of their capacity utilization. India’s projected material requirements, up to 2030, are around 14.2 billion tons (46 % minerals and 6 % metals). India imports 95 % copper; 100 % molybdenum, nickel, antimony, cobalt, and magnesite; 90 % phosphate; and 87 % fluorite. Current e-waste inventory estimates from PC projected till 2020 indicate recovery potential of silver (6 tons to 11 tons), gold (1.4 tons to 2.4 tons), palladium (0.5 tons to 0.89 tons), copper (3.14 tons to 5.6 tons), and cobalt (0.4 tons to 0.73 tons) with GHG emissions ranging from 2 to 35 % of the GHG emissions due to primary mining of these metals. SWOT analysis indicates that despite potential strengths and opportunities, weakness exists due to sluggish enforcement of regulations without targets, economic instrument, and take back mechanism increasing illegal leakage of material. Therefore, under 3R strategy, usage of economic instrument, collection targets, and viability gap financing through PPP can lead to successful demonstration of e-waste management in metros. This can be scaled up to waste management parks, ecotowns, and their integration with smart cities.
Amit Jain

Chapter 12. Air Pollution: Short-Lived Climate-Forced Ozone in Urban Areas of Kolkata

The rapid growth in the economy as well as urban population brings us challenges to the venture of maintaining the clean urban air. Urban air quality is a cause of public concern, largely as a result of increased instances of smog and health problems. New pollutants are being increasingly recognised and point to sources, which are of inevitable use in day-to-day modern life. Air pollution sources have grown and so the pollutants. Many of these sources are indices of development. As ubiquitous components in the atmosphere, non-methane volatile organic compounds have received immense attention due to not only their adverse health effects on humans but also because of their role as the precursor of lower tropospheric ozone which eventually leads to urban photochemical smog.
Modern studies on atmospheric photochemistry indicate that ozone mixing ratios at ambient air depend on complex, non-linear, feedback control processes involving NOx and VOC precursor mixing ratio. Hence, control computation is required, adopting mathematical models that include the best representation of the non-linear chemistry as the basis.
Anjali Srivastava, Dipanjali Mujumdar

Chapter 13. Green Infrastructure: Issues and Recommendations

The provision of urban services, such as potable water supply and safe sewage disposal, is often energy intensive and contributes to overall carbon emissions. Though the prime objective is to improve public health and environmental quality, poorly conceptualized and implemented projects often require, among others, significant amounts of energy, thus negatively affecting the environment. Besides, the high energy-intensive systems become unsustainable and fail to provide the intended benefits. Pumping installations consume large amounts of energy, often determining the overall cost of service provision. Wastage of water in the system further adds to the energy usage and thus carbon emissions. A high proportion of non-revenue water is common in almost all towns across India and other developing countries.
The term “green infrastructure” is thus coined signifying the environmental friendliness. Given the large-scale development the urban sector in India is witnessing, enhancing environmental sustainability is essential. One of the main criteria that determine environmental sustainability is carbon emissions. Going beyond the routine techno-economic studies and integrating green concerns such as potential carbon emissions are essential. This chapter examines energy consumption vis-à-vis carbon emissions from urban water and sewerage infrastructure facilities in three case study towns with diverse characters.
Achyutha Rao Aleti, Krishna Chaithanya Talacheeru

Chapter 14. Municipal Convergence for Inclusive Habitat

This chapter brings together the municipal ability to mobilise necessary resources to promote inclusive habitat with a particular reference to shelter, services and livelihood opportunities for the urban poor. It is noted that sustainable habitat has to specifically include suitable access to land tenure, affordable housing, water supply, sanitation, education, health and social security. At the same time, appropriate arrangements are to be made for adequate space and operational arrangements for skill development, job creation, public distribution system of oil, ration and other necessary items in the low-income areas, community centre and its multipurpose use, bus stop, designated hawking place, police post, school, etc.
It is in this context, two case studies are presented. This is indicated that the city governments of Bhopal and Hyderabad have mobilised necessary funds and involved other stakeholders from public and private sectors to converge resources over a period of time. However, there have been delays and obstacles to involve various stakeholders.
Finally, the chapter presents a twofold action agenda covering project-specific and city-scale actions on municipal finance in the form of a generic model for suitable adaptation to mobilise resources for inclusive habitat to facilitate the urban poor to have a reasonably acceptable lifestyle and quality of life.
Kamla Kant Pandey
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