Citrinin was first isolated and identified from cultures of the fungus Penicillium citrinum. Citrinin [(3R-trans)-4,6-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethyl-6-oxo-3H-2-benzopyran-7-carboxylic acid] has a molecular weight of 250.24 and an empirical formula of C13H14O5. The chemistry and occurrence of citrinin and the fungi and plants reported to produce citrinin have been reviewed by Betina (1984) and Wilson and Abramson (1992). As a mycotoxin, citrinin is of interest because it acts as a nephrotoxin and often occurs together with ochratoxin A. Citrinin is not extremely stable, is an acid, and can bind metal ions. Therefore, it is not easy to develop analytical methods for its determination in foods and feeds.
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- Citrinin: Analysis and Occurrence
David M. Wilson
- Springer US
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