Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter is a joint effort by natural and legal scientists to make the case for the dramatic consequences black carbon (BC) emissions mainly from outside the Arctic region have on the Arctic ecosystem, and how BC has recently become the specific focus of a regime complex. The authors provide scientific knowledge about the sources, pathways, and climate impacts of BC emissions, and stress the special relevance of possible near-immediate climate benefits from BC emission reduction in the Arctic. Further consideration is given to the crucial importance of the governance responses to these opportunities and challenges. Thus, the second part of the chapter critically discusses the status and prospects of current multilateral BC emission reduction efforts in the context of the Arctic Council, the International Maritime Organization, and the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
AMAP. (2011). The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate. AMAP Technical Report No. 04. Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).
Arctic Council. (1996). Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council. Joint Communiqué of the Governments of the Arctic Countries on the Establishment of the Arctic Council. Ottawa, Canada, 19 September 1996.
Arctic Council. (2011). An Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Options for Black Carbon for the Arctic Council. Technical Report of the Arctic Council Task Force on Short-Lived Climate Forcers.
Arctic Council. (2013). Arctic Council Task Force on Short-Lived Climate Forcers: Recommendations to Reduce Black Carbon and Methane Emissions to Slow Arctic Climate Change.
Arctic Council. (2015a). Enhanced Black Carbon and Methane Emissions Reductions: An Arctic Council Framework for Action. Iqaluit 2015a SAO Report to Ministers, Annex 4.
Arctic Council. (2015b). Iqaluit Declaration 2015 On the Occasion of the 9th Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council. Iqaluit, Canada, 24 April 2015.
Azzara, A. (2013, October 02). Arctic Sea Shipping: Emissions Matter More than You Might Think. The International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). Available online: http://www.theicct.org/blogs/staff/arctic-sea-shipping-emissions-matter-more-you-might-think (last accessed 08 January 2016).
Azzara, A., & Rutherford, D. (2015). Air Pollution from Marine Vessels in the U.S. High Arctic in 2025. ICCT Working Paper 2015-1. Washington, DC: The International Council on Clean Transportation.
Bian, H., et al. (2013). Source Attributions of Pollution to the Western Arctic During the NASA ARCTAS Field Campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(9), 4707–4721. CrossRef
Bodansky, D. (2015). Legally Binding Versus Non-legally Binding Instruments. In S . Barrett, C. Carraro & J. de Melo (Eds.), Towards a Workable and Effective Climate Regime (pp. 155–166). London: CEPR Press, and Clermont-Ferrand: Ferdi.
Bodansky, D., & Diringer, E. (2010). The Evolution of Multilateral Regimes: Implications for Climate Change. Arlington, AV: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Bradley, R.S., Keimig, F.T., & Diaz, H.F. (1992) Climatology of Surface-Based Inversions in the North American Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(D14), 15699–15712. CrossRef
Brock, C.A., et al. (2011). Characteristics, Sources, and Transport of Aerosols Measured in Spring 2008 During the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes Affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) Project. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(6), 2423–2453. CrossRef
Bond, T.C., et al. (2007). Historical Emissions of Black and Organic Carbon Aerosol from Energy-Related Combustion, 1850–2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21(2), 1–16. CrossRef
Bond, T.C., et al. (2013). Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(11), 5380–5552.
Boucher, O., et al. (2013). Clouds and Aerosols. In T. Stocker et al. (Eds.), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 571–657). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cavazos-Guerra, C., & Lauer, A. (2014). The Importance of Physical Parameterizations in WRF to Reproduce Atmospheric Dynamics and BC Transport in the Arctic Region: A Sensitivity Study. Presentation at International REKLIM Conference “Our Climate our Future; Regional Perspectives on a Global Challenge”, Berlin, Germany, 06–09 October 2014.
Cohen, J., et al. (2014). Recent Arctic Amplification and Extreme Mid-latitude Weather. Nature Geosciences, 7(9), 627–637. CrossRef
Corbett, J.J., et al. (2010). Arctic Shipping Emissions Inventories and Future Scenarios. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(19), 9689–9704. CrossRef
Dumont, M., et al. (2014). Contribution of Light-Absorbing Impurities in Snow to Greenland’s Darkening Since 2009. Nature Geoscience, 7(7), 509–512. CrossRef
Eckhardt, S., et al (2015). Current Model Capabilities for Simulating Black Carbon and Sulfate Concentrations in the Arctic Atmosphere: A Multi-model Evaluation Using a Comprehensive Measurement Data Set. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(16), 9413–9433. CrossRef
EPA. (2009). EPA Finalizes More Stringent Standards for Control of Emissions from New Marine Compression-Ignition Engines at or Above 30 Liters per Cylinder. EPA-420-F-09-068. Ann Arbor, MI: Office of Transportation and Air Quality, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
European Environment Agency. (2013). The Impact of International Shipping on European Air Quality and Climate Forcing. EEA Technical Report No. 4/2013. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Fenge, T., & Funston, B. (2015). The Practice and Promise of the Arctic Council. Amsterdam: Greenpeace.
Garrett, T., & Verzella, L. (2008). Looking Back: An Evolving History of Arctic Aerosols. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(3), 299–302. CrossRef
Garrett, T. J., et al (2010) Assessing the Relative Contributions of Transport Efficiency and Scavenging to Seasonal Variability in Arctic Aerosol. Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 62(3), 190–196. CrossRef
Garrett, T. J., et al (2011) The Role of Scavenging in the Seasonal Transport of Black Carbon and Sulfate to the Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(16), 1–6. CrossRef
Gautier, et al., (2009). Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Arctic. Science, 324(5931), 1175–1179. CrossRef
Gong, S.L., et al. (2010). Identification of Trends and Interannual Variability of Sulfate and Black Carbon in the Canadian High Arctic: 1981–2007. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(D7), 1–9. CrossRef
Granier, C., et al. (2006). Ozone Pollution from Future Ship Traffic in the Arctic Northern Passages. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(13), 1–5. CrossRef
Handorf, D., et al. (2015). Impacts of Arctic Sea-Ice and Continental Snow-Cover Changes on Atmospheric Winter Teleconnections. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(7), 2367–2377. CrossRef
Hansen, J., et al (2007). Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate: A GISS Model Study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7(9), 2287–2312. CrossRef
Haywood, J. M., & Shine, K. P. (1997). Multi-spectral Calculations of the Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Sulphate and Soot Aerosols Using a Column Model. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 123(543), 1907–1930. CrossRef
Hornbrook, R.S., et al. (2011). Observations of Non-methane Organic Compounds During ARCTAS – Part 1: Biomass Burning Emissions and Plume Enhancements . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(21), 11103–11130. CrossRef
IMO. (2008). Resolution MEPC.176(58). Amendments to the Annex of the Protocol of 1997 to Amend the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as Modified by the Protocol of 1978 Relating Thereto (Revised MARPOL Annex VI). MEPC 58/23/Add.1, 10 October 2008. Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), 58th Session.
IMO. (2010). Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships: Reduction of Emissions of Black Carbon from Shipping in the Arctic, Submitted by Norway, Sweden and the United States. MEPC 60/4/24, 15 January 2010. Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), 60th Session.
IMO. (2014). Shipping in Polar Waters: Development of an International Code of Safety for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code).
IMO. (2015a). Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), 68th Session, 11 to 15 May 2015.
IMO. (2015b). International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code). MEPC 68/21/Add.1, 15 May 2015. Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), 68th Session.
Kerry, J. (2015). Remarks by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry at the Presentation of the U.S. Chairmanship Program at the Arctic Council Ministerial, Iqaluit, Canada, 24 April 2015. Available online: http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2015/04/241102.htm (last accessed 04 January 2016).
Klimont, Z., et al. (2013). ECLIPSE V4a: Global Emission Data Set Developed with the GAINS Model for the Period 2005 to 2050: Key Features and Principal Data Sources. Laxenburg: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
Lauer, A., et al. (2009). An Assessment of Near Future Policy Instruments for International Shipping: Impact on Atmospheric Aerosol Burdens and the Earth’s Radiation Budget. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(15), 5592–5598. CrossRef
Lawrence, D.M., et al. (2008). Accelerated Arctic Land Warming and Permafrost Degradation During Rapid Sea Ice Loss. Geophysical Research Letters, 35(11), 1–6. CrossRef
Lothe, R. (2011, January 28). The European Parliament Calls for Ban on Heavy Fuel Oil on Ships in the Arctic. Bellona. Available online: http://bellona.org/news/climate-change/2011-01-the-european-parliament-calls-for-ban-on-heavy-fuel-oil-on-ships-in-the-arctic (last accessed January 4, 2016).
Mark, A.A., & King, M.D. (2013). The Effects of Additional Black Carbon on the Albedo of Arctic Sea Ice: Variation with Sea Ice Type and Snow Cover. The Cryosphere, 7(4), 1193–1204. CrossRef
Myhre, G., et al. (2009). Modelled Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect with Multi-observation Evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(4), 1365–1392. CrossRef
Myhre, G., et al. (2013). Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing. In T.F. Stocker et al. (Eds.), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 659–740). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Monks, S.A., et al. (2014). Multi-model Study of Chemical and Physical Controls on Transport of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Pollution to the Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(18), 25281–25350.
Nordenskiöld, A.E. (1883). Nordenskiöld on the Inland Ice of Greenland. Science, 2(44), 732–738.
Overland, J.E., & Wang, M. (2013). When will the Summer Arctic Be Nearly Sea Ice Free? Geophysical Research Letters, 40(10), 2097–2101. CrossRef
Pierrehumbert, R.T. (2014). Short Lived Climate Pollution. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 42, 341–379. CrossRef
Quinn, P.K., et al. (2008). Short-lived Pollutants in the Arctic: Their Climate Impact and Possible Mitigation Strategies. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8(6), 1723–1735. CrossRef
Rahn, K.A., et al. (1977). The Asian Source of Arctic Haze Bands. Nature, 268(5622), 713–715. CrossRef
Rogelj, J., et al. (2014). Disentangling the Effects of CO 2 and Short-Lived Climate Forcer Mitigation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(46), 16325–16330. CrossRef
Samset, B.H., et al. (2014). Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(22), 12465–12477. CrossRef
Sand, M., et al. (2013). Arctic Surface Temperature Change to Emissions of Black Carbon Within Arctic or Midlatitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(14), 7788–7798.
Schnell, R.C. (Ed.). (1984). Arctic Haze Special Issue. Geophysical Research Letters, 11(5), 359–472.
Shaw, G. E. (1995). The Arctic Haze Phenomenon. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 76(12), 2403–2412. CrossRef
Shindell, D.T., et al. (2008). A Multi-model Assessment of Pollution Transport to the Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8(17), 5353–5372. CrossRef
Stohl, A. (2006). Characteristics of Atmospheric Transport into the Arctic Troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111(D11), 1–17.
Stohl, A., et al. (2013). Black Carbon in the Arctic: The Underestimated Role of Gas Flaring and Residential Combustion Emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(17), 8833–8855. CrossRef
UNECE. (2010). Black Carbon: Report by the Co-Chairs of the Ad Hoc Expert Group on Black Carbon. ECE/EB.AIR/2010/7, 30 September 2010. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
UNECE. (2012). Decision 2012/2. Amendment of the Text of and Annexes II to IX to the 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone and the Addition of New Annexes X and XI. ECE/EB.AIR/111/Add.1. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
UNEP. (2011). Near-Term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers: A UNEP Synthesis Report. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.
UNEP, & WMO. (2011). Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, and Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.
United States. (2015). U.S. Chairmanship Presentation, Version 1.1, as Presented by the US Senior Arctic Official of the Department of State, Julia Gourley, 24 November 2014. Available online: www.earthjustice.org.
Vermeer, M., & Rahmstorf, S. (2009). Global Sea Level Linked to Global Temperature. PNAS, 106(51), 21527–21532. CrossRef
Warneke, C., et al. (2010). An Important Contribution to Springtime Arctic Aerosol from Biomass Burning in Russia. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(1): 1–5. CrossRef
- Clean Air and White Ice: Governing Black Carbon Emissions Affecting the Arctic
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
- Chapter 12
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia