Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Climate change and increased floods events are a major challenge for cities in the developing world. African cities face greater challenges having to deal with fewer management capacities simultaneously with increased intensity of climate related events. This paper presents an assessment of measures employed in construction of residential buildings and the impact of recurrent flooding events. Floods adaptation strategies take a central role here and they are assessed through empirical analysis of adaptation practices at household levels in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The emphasis is on key features of adaptation such as: knowledge of building technicians and technocrats, regulatory bodies, forms of buildings’ contract and the relationship between different key actors. The paper highlights several recommendations to improve the quality of buildings in flood-prone areas, these include forming binding contracts among parties, recognition of informal actors and processes, appropriate building construction as well as storm water drainage systems, buildings’ retrofitting as well as identifying maladaptive approaches. The paper concludes with the significance for urban design and policies in climate change adaptation in rapid growing urban environments and calls for guiding fragmented and adhoc practices to increase the robustness of different forms of settlements in East Africa.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Cardona, O. D., Van Aalst, M. K., Birkmann, J., Fordham, M., McGregor, G., & Perez, R., et al. (2012). Determinants of risk: Exposure and vulnerability. In managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. In C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stucker, D. Qin, D. J. Dokker, K. L. Ebi, et al. (Eds.), A special report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (pp. 67–80). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA.
Cernea, M. M. (2003). The urban environment and population relocation. The World Bank, Washington, DC: World Bank Discussion Papersbreak.
CLUVA. (2010). Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, Seventh Framework Programme.
Dai, A. (2012). Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nature Climate Change, 3, 52–58. CrossRef
De Risi, R., Jalayer, F., De Paola, F., Iervolino, I., Giugni, M., Topa, M. E., et al. (2013a). Flood risk assessment for informal settlements. Natural Hazards, 2013(69), 1003–1032. CrossRef
De Risi, R., Jalayer, F., Iervolino, I., Manfredi, G., & Carozza, S. (2013b). VISK: A GIS-compatible platform for micro-scale assessment of flooding risk in urban areas. In M. Papadrakakis, V. Papadopoulos, & V. Plevris (Eds.), COMPDYN, 4th ECCOMAS thematic conference on computational methods in structural dynamics and earthquake engineering. Greece: Kos Island.
De Risi, R., Jalayer, F., Iervolino, I., Kyessi, A., Mbuya E., & Yeshitela, K., et al. (2012) Guidelines for vulnerability assessment and reinforcement measures of adobe houses, CLUVA project deliverable D2.4. Available at http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.4.pdf. Accessed 24 Dec 2012.
IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2007). Climate change 2007: Synthesis report synthesis report. An assessment of the intergovernmental panel on climate change.
IPCC. (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea & T. E. Bilir et al. (eds.), Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 11–32). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Makoba, N. D. (2009). Enabling affordable housing for low income households in Tanzania: An integrated cost modelling approach. Katholieke Universitat Leuven.
Meixner, T., Manning, A. H., Stonestrom, D. A., Allen, D. M., Ajami, H., Blasch, K. W., et al. (2016). Implications of projected climate change for groundwater recharge in the western United States. Journal of Hydrology, 534(2016), 124–138. CrossRef
Nicholls, R. J., & Kebede, A. S. (2012). Indirect impacts of coastal climate change and sea-level rise: The UK example. Research article. Climate Policy, 12, S28–S52. Taylor & Francis. Available: www.tandfonline.com/tcpo.
Rosenzweig C. W., Solecki, P., Romero-Lankao, S., Mehrotra, S., Dhakal, T. B. & S. Ali Ibrahim. (2015). ARC3.2 summary for city leaders. Urban Climate Change Research NetworkUCCRN. New York: Columbia University.
Sakijege, T., Lupala, J., & Sheuya, S. (2012). Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Jà mbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 4(1), 10.
Seneviratne, S. I., Nicholls, N., Easterling, D., Goodess, C. M., Kanae, J. & Kossin, Y. L.et al. (2012). Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation.
Thompson, L. G. (2010). Climate change: The evidence and our options. The Behavior Analyst, 33(2), 153–170. CrossRef
United Nations Human Settlements Programme. (2014). The State of African Cities 2014: Re-imagining sustainable urban transitions. UN-HABITAT.
UNISDR. (2004). Terminology, Basic terms of disaster risk reduction. Reduction Strategy International for Disaster, www.unisdr.org/files/isdrterminology11.pdf. Website visited June 20, 2013.
Windapo, A. (2013). Fundamentals of Construction Management. www.bookboon.com. Website visited November 2, 2014.
Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. London: Routledge.
World Bank. (2009). Making development climate resilient: A World bank strategy for sub-saharan Africa (p. 46947). Report No: The World Bank.
World Population Data Sheet. (2013). Population reference Bureau. A report on world population highlights’ focus on wealth and income inequality. www.prb.org.
Zografos, C., Goulden M. C., & Kallis, G. (2013). Sources of human insecurity in the face of hydro-climatic change. Global Environmental Change, 1207, 10.
- Climate Adaptation Practices in Building Constructions: Progress and Limitations in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Alphonce G. Kyessi
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen