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This book explains in depth the issues and challenges faced by rice farmers in India in relation to production and productivity, and the possible adaptation strategies to climate change.

Based on five years of groundbreaking research on emerging trends in cultivation in major rice growing regions in India, it begins by describing production and yield trends across different rice growing regions. It then offers a comprehensive review of relevant literature and the quantification methodologies and approaches used to analyze the impact of climate change. The book also analyzes climate change impacts on rice productivity and production, applying field-tested quantification methods, such as the Just-Pope production function where time series and cross-section data are simultaneously used for all regions. The results are presented for five geographical regions of India – northern, eastern, western, central and southern – for better comparison and readability. The analyses cover scenarios for both mid-century (2021–2050) and end-century (2071–2100), and in the context of climate change, they also incorporate both medium and high carbon emission scenarios. Thus the future rice production and productivity trends are clearly projected for making necessary interventions. Lastly, the book outlines the essentials of an enabling environment policy and discusses the institutional and policy options necessary to ensure sustainable rice production in India. It also makes the case for introducing appropriate and affordable adaptation strategies to support farmers in different rice-growing regions.

The cost–benefit analysis of strategies presented in this book provides an invaluable tool for officials at agriculture departments planning up-scaling of agricultural productivity. The projections are also useful for policy makers and planners developing future investment plans to support rice production in their country. Overall, this book is of interest to a wide audience, including professionals and business enterprises dealing with rice, as well as to academic researchers and students.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Climate Change and Agriculture in India

Abstract
Climate change is a continuous phenomenon, and its variability is a complex phenomenon. In order to assess its impact and to develop appropriate adaptation measures, an interdisciplinary approach is essential.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 2. Rice Production in India: Analysis of Trend, Constraints and Technologies

Abstract
Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the population across the globe. As a labour-intensive crop, the rice cultivation provides livelihood and employment to millions of people. The Green Revolution enabled many countries across the globe to increase the production, and in India besides increasing production, the country entered into a new era of input use
D. Suresh Kumar

Chapter 3. Climate Change Projections for Major Rice Growing States of India

Abstract
This chapter presents evaluation of the model baselines with respect to the observations. Further, it also describes the methodology and approach used for extracting future climate change projections for the major rice growing states to predict the rice production in India.
S. Senthilnathan

Chapter 4. Methodologies for Quantifying Climate Change Impacts on Rice Production

Abstract
In order to study how climate change affects agriculture, scientists normally use farm survey data collected by them, viz. primary data.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 5. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Yield in Northern Region of India

Abstract
The north region for the present study covers three states: Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The districts selected from the three states were: Sangrur, Karnal and Chandauli, respectively. As stated in the methodology chapter, the present study is based on (i) primary data: farm survey among 100 farmers from each of the three districts and (ii) secondary data: time series data (1980–2010) on productivity (yield) of rice and climate variables from the three districts.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 6. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Yield in Eastern Region of India

Abstract
The East Region for the present study covers four states, viz. Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, and the districts selected from these States were Jehanabad, Bhadrak, Raipur and Bankura, respectively. As stated in the methodology chapter, the present study is based on (i) primary data: farm survey among 100 farmers from Bihar, 500 farmers from Odisha, 70 farmers from Chhattisgarh and 151 farmers from West Bengal and (ii) secondary data: time series data (1982–2010) on productivity (yield) of rice and climate variables from the three districts belonging to Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal (since Chhattisgarh is a newly formed State, it was excluded).
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 7. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Yield in Western Region of India

Abstract
The western region for the present study covers the Gujarat state. As stated in the methodology chapter, the present study is based on (i) primary data: farm survey among 103 farmers belonging to Navsari district and (ii) secondary data: time series data (1980–2010) on productivity (yield) of rice and climate variables from the district.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 8. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Yield in Central Region of India

Abstract
The Central Region for the present study covers two states: Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The districts selected from the two States were: Balaghat and Bhandara respectively. As stated in the methodology chapter, the present study is based on (i) primary data: farm survey among 70 farmers from Madhya Pradesh and 100 farmers from Maharashtra of the two districts and (ii) Secondary data: time series data (1980–2010) on productivity (yield) of rice and climate variables from the two districts. Figure 8.1 gives the map of the study area.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 9. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Yield in Southern Region of India

Abstract
The southern region for the present study covered three states: Tamil Nadu (TN), Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Karnataka (KA), and in each state, one district where rice is predominantly grown was selected, viz. Thanjavur, West Godavari and Shimoga, respectively.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 10. Economics of Adoption of Rice Production and Management Technologies

Abstract
The major factor that may help to mitigate the climate change impacts in the agriculture sector will be introduction of technologies or practices that will help in providing the assured income.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Chapter 11. Climate Change and Rice Production in India: A Way Forward

Abstract
It is expected that climate change and its variability could have serious impact on agriculture and water sectors and eventually on the food security and livelihoods of a large section of the rural population in developing countries (IPCC AR4 2007; IPCC 2018). The climate change, in the long run, may lead to new combinations of changes with regard to atmospheric constituents, temperature, solar radiation and pests, diseases and weeds.
K. Palanisami, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu, Udaya Sekhar Nagothu, C. R. Ranganathan

Backmatter

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