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2023 | Buch

Climate Change and Ocean Renewable Energy

herausgegeben von: Soufiane Haddout, Priya Krishnamoorthy Lakshmi, Antonio Mubango Hoguane

Verlag: Springer Nature Switzerland

Buchreihe : Springer Proceedings in Earth and Environmental Sciences


Über dieses Buch

Renewable-energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale. Renewable-energy includes sources such as sunlight, tides, waves, wind, rain, and geothermal heat. According to BP's-2018 Energy Outlook (EO), renewable energy will be the fastest growing source of energy, increasing fivefold by 2040 thus providing around 14% of global primary energy at this future point. On the other hand, climate change is bringing about rising temperatures, which have significant negative impacts on humans and the environment, and transitioning to renewable energy sources, such as biofuels, can help meet this challenge. Transitioning to renewable energy, and reducing reliance on fossil fuels, is one way to help slow down the effects of climate change. While renewables used to be a more expensive option, new clean energy technologies are lowering costs and helping to move economies away from fossil fuels. The 1st International Conference on Climate Change and Ocean Renewable Energy (CCORE 2022), is a virtual conference held from November 4-7, 2022, presenting experiences and ideas through research talks and presentations from diverse fields in climate change and ocean renewable energy. This event offers a platform in bringing together a forum for students, postdocs and established scientists to exchange their ideas and contribute to an integrative approach to climate change and ocean renewable energy.



Development and Utilization of Ocean Renewable Energy

Zero Carbon Emission Based Electrical Power Plant by Harvesting Oceanic Wave Energy: Minimization of Environmental Impact in Bangladesh
Fossil fuels are mostly utilized for producing electricity in many countries including Bangladesh, which emit bulk amount of greenhouse gases. At present, about 3% electricity is produced in Bangladesh from renewable energy sources (RESs) viz. solar, wind, hydro, and bioenergy to reduce the emission level. In this paper, an oceanic wave energy based direct drive linear generator is proposed to produce electrical power. As the oceanic wave energy converter results almost zero carbon emission it can mitigate the adverse environmental impact. Mathematical model of the wave energy and linear generator are presented. The proposed generator design and its working principle are described. The generated voltage, armature current, power generation, magnetic flux linkage, and mechanical force are plotted. Load profile of the generator are also presented. High graded magnetic materials are applied to the proposed generator to reduce the conversional power loss. Simulation results show that the proposed generator produces approximately 5.44 kW of electrical power (maximum) where the peak voltage of the proposed generator is 198.5 V. Therefore, the oceanic wave farm can be constructed with several linear generators to produce sufficient electricity and mitigate negative environmental impact. As the harvesting of oceanic wave energy does not require any land area, the corresponding impact of using the land area can be avoided which is another benefit of using it. Moreover, the proposed power generation scheme can be supportive not only for Bangladesh but also for the countries that have adjacent ocean and plan to achieve net zero emission target.
Selim Molla, Omar Farrok, Mohammad Jahangir Alam
The Effect of Air Density in Offshore Wind Power Potential in India
In the wind energy sector, the yearly energy production is often calculated using a constant value of air density based on the location's annual average value. As a result, the correction necessary in assessing daily, monthly, or seasonal wind power density (WPD) owing to air density is typically neglected in current literature. Therefore, the present study assessed the WPD due to variations in air density. Indian offshore region is considered as a study area. Further, wind speed, air density and temperature data are taken from the latest ERA5 reanalysis. The findings show that the WPD is higher by 5% as determined by when the air density adjustment is taken into account. Seasonal results show that during summer, WPD has a maximum variation of about 7–8% and a minimum variation of about 2–5.5% during winter.
Garlapati Nagababu, Ravi Patel, Kantipudi M. V. V. Prasad
Influence of Vertical Plates on the Pitching Motion of a SPAR Wind Floater in Waves
One of the concerns about using a heave plate on a SPAR floater is that the pitch response will be inadequately minimized. This weakness will result in excessive misalignment conditions in the floater wind. The vortex ring state phenomenon is a more complex effect and the most common potential issue. This issue may result in over-performance of wind turbine system components. A time domain based experimental test was developed in this study to investigate the extent to which the number and configuration of vertical plates influence pitch response, which is useful for improving wind energy extraction performance. Because the vertical plate configuration is an important key parameter, the following arrangements are proposed to be investigated: solid plates, three-perforated plates, and six-perforated plates. 3VP-S, 3VP-3H, 3VP-6H, 4VP-S, 4VP-3H, 4VP-6H, 5VP-S, 5VP-3H, and 5VP-6H are the modified SPARs. The ballasting area is where the modified vertical plate of the base SPAR is located. In 120 regular wave cycles, the effects of the proposed model's pitch response, pitch reduction percentage, wave steepness, natural period, and viscous damping were evaluated. The wave tank was used to test ten different scenarios. The 4VP-6H, 5VP-3H, and 4VP-S models were identified to provide better estimates than other modified models. The perforated plate is confirmed to be more effective at reducing pitch motion than the solid plate and base SPAR. The increase in pitch response is consistent with the increase in applied wave parameters. The model was also initiated to be in dominant stand-by mode for all wave parameters. Because of the reduced volume caused by the SPAR body modification, the percentage reduction in pitch motion increases with decreasing wave loads. When compared to the base SPAR, the proposed model's pitch reduction percentage ranges from 19 to 56%. In all scenarios, the wave steepness relationship is inversely proportional to the pitch reduction percentage. Furthermore, none of the proposed models are closer to the natural frequency than the base SPAR, resulting in the lowest resonance. The perforated plate also dampens more effectively than the base SPAR. This is primarily due to the geometry of the vertical plate and its configuration layout. Finally, as the most recent conceptual design in wind floater SPAR, the 4VP-6H model is deeply recommended.
Fuad Mahfud Assidiq, Daeng Paroka, Habibi, Hidayatullah, Muhammad FajarFitra Ramadan
Developing a Decision Support System for a Pumped Storage Hybrid Power Plant
Investments in renewable energy systems have been increasing in recent years in order to reduce climate-dependent fossil fuels and to supply the increased energy demand. One of the main difficulties with renewable resources is that they depend on meteorological conditions and produce intermittent energy. Energy storage systems are being developed to preserve the excess energy produced and to use it in situations where energy production is less than expected. Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants (PSHPs) have an important role to overcome these challenges. Operating PSHP in a hybrid manner together with another renewable energy source (solar, wind, etc.) becomes more advantageous for improving system efficiency. In this study, a hybrid system is developed as a Decision Support System (DSS) that wind and solar energy separately are the main energy generator, which stores the excess energy produced with PSHP. The energy production of the Wind Power Plant (WPP) is calculated using wind speed data acquired by the ERA5 global dataset. The energy production of the Solar Power Plant (SPP) is calculated by the solar radiation and cloudiness data. The study also investigates the effects of the developed hybrid system on both observed and predicted market prices. Hourly market prices are predicted via the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model using the lagged market price data sets. According to the results, the hybrid system is superior to the conventional WPP/SPP regardless of observed and predicted market prices. The study is a pioneer application in Türkiye and provides a DSS to use energy resources management more efficiently by increasing the operational flexibility for the decision-makers. The preliminary results also promising as the total revenues increased by around %5.7 and %12.5 for the Hydro-Wind Hybrid System (HWHS) and the Hydro-Solar Hybrid System (HSHS), respectively.
Ilkay Ekici, Feyza Durgut, Gökçen Uysal
A SWOT Analysis for Offshore Wind Energy Development: Turkey Case
The increasing energy need and climate change crisis force countries to seek alternative energy sources. In the last decade, there is a dramatic increase in the investment of renewable energy systems globally. In the renewable energy systems one of the leading energy systems is wind energy. Although current installations of wind energy mostly compose of onshore wind energy systems, offshore counterparts are raising attention recently. In this study, offshore wind development in European and Asian countries is reviewed and a Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis for Turkey in terms of an investment on offshore wind is applied. The analysis showed that there are many opportunities and strengths that overcome weaknesses and threats for Turkey to deploy offshore wind on their seas.
Samet Öztürk
The Combined Effects of Channel Amplitude and Fluid Elasticity on Viscoelastic Fluid Flow Through a Periodic Channel
Stability of second order and second grade viscoelastic fluid flow in a periodic channel in the inertial regime is studied. We examine, by using the local linear stability analysis, the combined effects of the periodic channel and fluid elasticity on the flow regime. A derived fourth order dispersion equation is developed and resolved by using the spectral method to analyze the effects of the governing parameters. The critical Reynolds number (\({Re}_{c}\)) and wave number (αc) values are established at various values of an elastic number (E), depending on the channel magnitude (ϵ), in accordance with the channel cross section (x). The found results show the presence of important stations: the enlarged and narrowed zones, the latter being the section most influenced on the flow, that corresponds to the minimum \({Re}_{c}\).
M. Madi, A. Rafiki, K. Souhar, Y. Haddout

Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources Management

Evaluation of Floc Characteristics Induced by Heavy Metals in an Estuarine Environment
Experimental investigations were carried out to understand the role of metal fraction and turbulence on the flocculation of kaolin flocs. Mixing experiments were done in a flocculatorand themicro-scale investigations were carried out using an image-capturing system followed by an image-processing technique. The floc characteristics were analyzed for different meal concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/l), salinities (0, 15 and 30 g/L), turbulent conditions (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 s−1) and time intervals (0, 10, 20 and 30 min). The work was followed by an analysis of floc size, fractal dimension, floc density, and floc volume fraction in three size classes: 0–50 µm, 50–100 µm, and >100 µm. The maximum floc size was observed at a salinity of 30 g/L and turbulence shear of 10 s−1for the highest heavy metal concentration of 20 mg/l. An increase in heavy metal concentration enhanced the aggregation process at high salinity conditions and low turbulence shear rates. The rise in turbulence shear initially increased floc size, which further decreased at high turbulence shears. Resistance of flocs to breakage was analyzed using the parameter breakage coefficient. The breakage coefficient is the ratio of the number of flocs before breakage to the number of flocs after breakage.The breakage coefficient of macro-flocs was determined from the experimental results and a relationship in terms of metal concentration is proposed. The study suggests that the binary breakage model finds application at intermediate turbulence ranges of 20 s−1 with the highest metal concentration of 20 mg/l. Thus, a relation for the breakage coefficient in terms of metal concentration was generated through the detailed analysis of the breakage coefficient from the experimental outcomes. Therefore, the developed model can be applied to quantify the breakage coefficient under all ranges of turbulence shear encountered in estuaries with mixed sediments.
Febina A. Manaf, K. L. Priya, Hamie Harold, Suchith Chellappan
Ecosystem Approach for Sustaining Water Resources
Water quality is one of the challenges related to human activities, which in such part, reduces ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are the contribution of ecosystems to human beings. Ecosystem services of most aquatic ecosystems in Indonesia are water provisioning, fisheries, irrigation, recreation, hydroelectricity power, flood protection, erosion prevention, habitat for biodiversity, and socio-culture-religion. An ecosystem has to provide support for living organisms and has to be capable of withstanding pressure. However, when the pressure is too high, it influences the performance of ecosystem services. Sediment samples were collected from 4 sites in Cebong Lake, Dieng, Central Java. Diatoms were separated from sediment with strong acid. Identification was performed using a microscope at 1000 magnification. Based on the diversity index of diatom, the ecosystem of Cebong Lake was relatively stable. Based on the Trophic Diatom Index (TDI), Cebong Lake is in a mesotrophic state (the TDI value is 40–60). Understanding the structure and functioning of lake ecosystems by relating diversity and stability. Regarding water resource management, biodiversity can be applied to evaluate realistic target achievement, ecosystem services, and human impacts. At the ecosystem level, biodiversity expresses natural variability reference conditions.
Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Jumari Jumari, Riche Hariyati, Alam Dilazuardi
Flood Modelling and Inundation Mapping of Meenachil River Using HEC-RAS and HEC-HMS Software
The flood modelling and inundation mapping study was done for the Meenachil river basin in Kerala. The study shows the usage of HEC-RAS and HEC-HMS tools in determining the flood hazard and vulnerability. Flood inundation maps for different return periods were developed to analyze the future flooding scenarios. Abnormal heavy rainfall in July-August 2018 which leads to severe flooding caused loss of many lives and damages to properties in Kerala. This study also analyzed the 2018 flood event to develop the flood inundation maps and to identify the flood affected area of different land use classes as well as the flood affected road infrastructure. The Meenachil river basin was delineated using HEC-HMS and the topographic characteristics were extracted from SRTM DEM. Hydrologic model was developed using SCS Curve number method, SCS unit hydrograph method and Muskingum method for loss, transform and routing method respectively. The simulated hydrologic model was manually calibrated using discharge data. The precipitation data from the year of 1990 to 2017 was used to run the hydrologic simulation to obtain the discharge values which were used as input for hydraulic analysis using HEC-RAS. The discharge values obtained were then used to find the peak discharge for different return periods of 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 years using Gumbel’s method. The simulated discharge is fed to HEC-RAS as the upper boundary condition for identifying the flood affected area. One dimensional steady state analysis was carried out to obtain the flood depth for different return periods. Similarly, hydraulic analysis was carried out for the year of 2018. The peak annual discharge in cumecs was calculated using Gumbel’s method and found to be 7484.468 m3/s. The flood plain map covered an area of 24.2465 km2. It was observed that depth of flow increased towards the downstream end. The developed flood inundation map was superimposed on road map to find the length of different classes of roads that got submerged. Land use map was generated for the year of 2018 through Isocluster method of unsupervised classification of LISS III image. This was used to identify the area of different land use classes that were affected during 2018 flood as per the simulation.
S. Athira, Yashwant B. Katpatal, Digambar S. Londhe
Analysis Based on Sediment Core Diatoms for Paleolimnological Approach
Lake is a body of water surrounded by land that has an important role in human life. Galela Lake, as one of the largest freshwater sources in North Maluku, faces the threat of anthropogenic activities that impair the function of the lake ecosystem. Diatoms are used as one of the paleolimnological approaches to reconstructing environmental conditions. This study aims to examine the abundance and diversity of diatoms, as well as the status of water pollution observed through the diversity index (H′), evenness (e), dominance (D) and diatom index. Samples are taken using piston corer at the Galela Lake inlet location adjacent to the Wasi River. Using a microscope under 1000× magnification, there were 51 species of diatoms from 25 genera. The diversity index (2.10–3.21), evenness (0.69–0.92) and dominance (0.05–0.14) were categorized as medium to high, highly distributed, and low dominance. The representative diatom indices for Galela Lake are IBD, IPS, IDG, and TDI because >70% of species encountered are in accordance with the OMNIDIA database. Based on IBD and IDG, Galela Lake’s inlet has good ecological status in the bottom core and gradually decreases to moderate in the upper core, while the IPS index was moderate to low. The obtained results showed that there are changes in the diatom species composition caused by anthropogenic activities around the lake that affect the change in nutrient concentration.
Alisha Revalia Ghassani Amir, Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Riche Hariyati
Impact of Agro-Chemicals Exposure on the Human Health and Environment
In modern agricultural technology agrochemicals are inevitable inputs but its indiscriminate use in agriculture has serious repercussions on the farmers’ health and the environmental. The Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh was chosen purposively for the study. The secondary data has been used for the year 2006 and primary data was collected for the year 2017 from 100 farmers by using pre-tested schedule. From the last decades, intensification of the agriculture has led to extensive use of agro-chemicals by the farmers especially in cash crops like apple and vegetable crops. Most of the farmers using agro-chemicals without using the protective equipment and have its direct exposure. The study concluded that agro-chemicals exposure is more in recent time than the earlier. The practice of indiscriminate agro-chemicals is due to inferior quality, resistance developed by the pest and the effect of climate change. Therefore, there is a need to enhance and provide depth knowledge to the farmers to strengthen their understanding regarding the use of agro-chemicals which have direct or indirect impact on human health and environment.
Shanta Kumari, Chetan Chauhan
Climate Change Impact on Agriculture of Almaty Region, Kazakhstan
The global processes of climate change under the influence of anthropogenic factors entail extreme and almost irreversible consequences. Climate change affects agricultural production and its productivity throughout the world. Agriculture, which is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions, can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change. Kazakhstan is Central Asia’s most important supplier of grain and grain products. Kazakhstan also plans to increase the number of livestock for 100% domestic meat supply, but the issue rests on the quality and availability of pastures affected by climate change. Analyzes showed that under the conditions of the expected climate in 2030, the average yield of spring wheat in Kazakhstan regions (Akmola, Aktobe, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kostanay, Pavlodar) will be decreased and in the conditions of 2050 – 51–80% will be a decrease of production. This means that while maintaining the existing stage of farming culture, the yield of spring wheat by 2030 will decrease to 13–37%, which will lead to a reduction in the area by 23.86% of the total area of crops in 2019. Objectives of the review: to analyze the processes of climate change and to study the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Kazakhstan. For article have been used different literature as IPCC, WMO, WTO, FAO, UNEP, UNFCCC, UNDP, IMF, WB, OECD, KAZHYDROMET, IRRI, Committee of the Statistics of Kazakhstan, Turkish State Meteorologic Service reports etc.
Zhansaya Bolatova
Why is Correct Agricultural Water Management Necessarily a Prerequisites in Water Shortage Regions?
This study was carried out to investigate the significance of proper water management in water-stressed agricultural areas such as Turkey's Konya Basin. For that purpose, agro as well as the water potential of Konya plain was analyzed in regard to water management. As results, water resources particularly groundwater, are not used sustainably since there is dramatic groundwater depletion in most parts of the region. The reasons are the widening of cultivated lands in the favor of crops having grand water consumption and areas brought into irrigation with no care. In accordance with our previous research findings in our region, the following solutions could be addressed: crop pattern redesigned in accordance with current water resources for example crop pattern of cereals could be increased, landowners producing low water consuming crops must be subsidized, sprinkler or drip irrigation systems should be used more, water charges should be volume-basis, and farmers should be trained about correct and deficit irrigation with visual materials.
Bilal Acar, Nuh Uğurlu, Sena Afacan, Emrah Gülen, Nasuh Açık, Erdal Kökdere, Yusuf Taştan
Some Considerations on the Application of Ocean Wave Energy for Water Pumping in Near Shore Areas in Mozambique Channel
Previous studies have indicated that off Mozambique coast is characterized by low to moderate and high variability ocean wave climate, with considerable time during the year with wave energy below the threshold for electricity production. This paper discusses the potential for applications of the available ocean wave energy off Mozambique coast, for water pumping and for saltwater desalination. Wave energy absorption efficient was set to 25%. The saltwater pumping rate varies from 184.5 ± 130.5 L per hour per a meter of wave width (L/hr/m), and the freshwater production rate in a wave powered reverse osmosis desalination plant varied from 338.3 ± 239.3–1,377.8 ± 1,196.3 L/hr/m, with high values observed in the southern part of the channel, and low values were observed in the northern part of the Channel. Saltwater pumped into coastal reservoirs may be used for inland aquaculture and mini-hydroelectric power stations and freshwater produced may be used for drinking, sanitation and irrigation, all of which with potential to boost the livelihood, income generation and economy of the coastal areas. Harvesting of wave energy of up to 100 m wave width would yield 15 tons of fish, 90,000 mussels per year and 15 kW electricity production, in southern Channel and providing portable water for 13,800–45,000 living in coastal areas adjacent to Mozambique Channel.
Alberto Filimão Sitoe, António Mubango Hoguane, Soufiane Haddout
Predicting the Spatio-Temporal Evolution of DO and COD in the Bouregreg Estuary (Morocco): First Results
In Morocco, the Bouregreg estuary is located between Rabat and Salé at 34°2′9″N and 6°50′7″W, from its origins in the Middle Atlas Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean, it travels around 240 km. It is a part of a watershed with an area 9800 km2and an elevation range of 0 to 1627 m. This estuary is dominated by seawater, with minimal freshwater inflow for most of the year. Agricultural and industrial areas are located near the estuary mouth. Some urban sewage from Rabat and Sale is discharged directly into the estuary. According to our knowledge, there is no research on the water quality modeling in the Bouregreg Estuary. For the first time, dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are calculated in this study using an adopted 1-D numerical model (AQUASIM) based on reaeration rates and measured concentrations of DO and COD. Various statistical parameters were used to assess the accuracy of the AQUASIM model. The findings indicate that autumn has higher concentrations of DO along the estuary (from 3.18 mg/l at 7 km to 8.5 mg/l) than summer (from 2.97 mg/l at 7 km to 8 mg/l at the mouth). Additionally, from 39 mg O2/l at the mouth to 236 mg O2/l at 7 km, the average COD values increased. The present work will help to assess the variability and suitability of aquatic habitats, thereby providing enhanced information about the Bouregreg estuary ecosystem and a deeper understanding of its dynamics.
Soufiane Haddout, K. L. Priya, Joan Cecilia C. Casila, Mary Ann Q. Franco, António Mubango Hoguane
Climate Change and Ocean Renewable Energy
herausgegeben von
Soufiane Haddout
Priya Krishnamoorthy Lakshmi
Antonio Mubango Hoguane
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