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Über dieses Buch

The book is basically written with a view to project Computer Numerical Control Programming (CNC) Programming for machines. This book shows how to write, read and understand such programs for modernizating manufacturing machines. It includes topics such as different programming codes as well as different CNC machines such as drilling and milling.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. CNC Programming

Abstract
In the CNC machining industries and all the machining centers, which are having the most commonly used automation process adopting by means of CNC machining. CNC machines the basic concepts of the machine are to control the motion of the tool, by means of set of instruction, which are prepared by programmer of operator. The set of programmed instructions are called the “program” or part programming of CNC machine tool. These instructions are only controlling every movement of the tool and the machine control features.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Programming for Conventional Machining

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Lathe Operation

Abstract
Operations like facing, turning, taper turning, threading, boring, chamfering etc. are the operations undertaken in a CNC Lathe. The movement of the tool on workpiece surface is taken as X-axis and the transverse motion of the tool post is considered as Z-axis while preparing the part programs using G-codes and M-codes. The major challenge in the part programming phase of the Lathe operation is to deal with various complex shapes and structure to be machined which requires a complicated set of part programs that needs to be highly efficient, less time consuming and error free. Few complicated programming associated with the Lathe operation process samples of which are discussed below.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 3. Milling Operation

Abstract
The CNC Milling operation, all the three axis X, Y and Z are used to represent the movement of the worktable and the cutting tool. G00 and G01 codes are being used while preparation of part programs. The major challenge in the part programming phase of the Milling operation is to deal with various complex shapes and structure to be machined which requires a complicated set of part programs that needs to be highly efficient, less time consuming and error free. Few complicated programming associated with the Milling operation process samples of which are discussed below.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 4. Drilling Operation

Abstract
Computer Numerical control (CNC) drilling operation is used for mass production. It is the first choice for the drilling of large-size parts, such as super-long stacking plate, pipe shaped part in the automobile, locomotive, shipbuilding, and engineering machinery manufacturing industries.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 5. Boring Operation

Abstract
Boring is a process of enlarging a hole that has already been made by another process like drilling or casting. In other way we can say boring is a secondary finishing operation.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Programming for Machining Centre

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Drilling and Milling Operation

Abstract
There are few objects which requires both drilling and milling operation. The programming of such operations is carried out in a single programme. It depends upon the user or in object condition whether drilling is required, or milling is required both can be operated with a single programme.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 7. Five Axis CNC Machines

Abstract
A 5 axis CNC machine is a machining center where multiple tools moving and rotating in different direction for manufacturing complex parts are controlled using a single controller or are performed in a single umbrella. The 5 axis CNC machine, as the name suggests, allows control over 5 axes. 3 axes in the tool and 2 in the workpiece holder. Hence practically it can machine any geometry irrespective of the extent of complexity. Moreover, with the availability of multiple tool holder and tool changer it can also perform multi operations which machines like Lathe, Milling, Drilling, etc. do individually.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Programming for Non-conventional Machining

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. Non-conventional Machining

Abstract
The use of numerical control with EDM machines is recognized as a method to increase table-positioning efficiency, such as that used in the case of multiple cavity work, and to cut die and punches with travelling wire EDM. Numerical control is also in orbit—EDM machine tables, especially for large-mold workpieces. The addition of NC to the vertical ram movement makes it possible to EDM at different angles. Using an automatic electrode changer with the NC machines makes the EDM process completely from roughing to finishing operation. After going through this lesion, reader should be able to get an idea of Electrical discharge machining and Wire electrical discharge machining with complicated programming.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Programming for Auxiliary Operation

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Canned Cycle

Abstract
A canned cycle is a combination of machine movements that perform machining operation like drilling, milling, boring and tapping. This cycle simplifies the program by using a single block with a G-code to specify the machining operations usually specified in several blocks. This cycle is also called as fixed cycle. Canned cycles are traditionally used in making the holes on the complex parts of air crafts and aerospace component manufacturing, electronics instruments, optical or mold making industry.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 10. Do Loop Cycle

Abstract
In a couple of occupations some segment of the program should be rehashed, which don’t fit into institutionalized class. A portion of the non-institutionalized cycle is Do-loops. “Do-loops is a no. of steps or operations repeated over a number of equal steps for a previously fixed number of times”. In some jobs certain parts are required to be repeated. Instead of writing the program again and again Do-loops are implemented on incremental mode where the previous position is taken as the reference for next iteration. Do-loop reruns the program till no. of similar operation gets completed. Few complicated programming associated with the Do-Loops Cycle samples of which are discussed below.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 11. Subroutine

Abstract
A subroutine is that part of the programme which is stored in the computer after its performance. The same can be called back as and when it is required. This can be used for different programmes unlike the Do Loops which is part and parcel of the same programme.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 12. Polar Coordinates

Abstract
Polar coordinate system is more effective for rotational axes than Cartesian coordinate one which can be integrated into computer numeric control (CNC) controller based on motion control.
Kaushik Kumar, Chikesh Ranjan, J. Paulo Davim

Backmatter

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