Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Psychologists generally recognize that the century-old measure called IQ or intelligence quotient is a gross over-simplification, and individuals differ in many ways in their abilities to process information and take appropriate action. It is difficult if not futile to separate an individual’s personality from intellectual skills, because the two interact closely to define character and determine behavior. Central to both is consciousness, which is not some mystical concept but the very real functioning of short-term working memory, mediating between instantaneous perception and long-term memory. Human differences are illustrated by a pilot study contrasting an individual with average working memory with one who may be considered to have eidetic or photographic memory. Consideration of two kinds of neural networks, back-propagation and direct reinforcement, show how artificial intelligence could emulate the intellectual skills of a particular person. Two other demonstration studies show how an individual’s skills could be captured inside an expert system. Capture and emulation of a wide range of forms of skillful cognition demand development of appropriate theories, research methods, and emulation technologies, as well as approaches to integrate them.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Edgerton, R. B. (1967). The cloak of competence. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mercer, J. R. (1973). Labeling the mentally retarded. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1992). Social research methods and statistics: A computer-assisted introduction (pp. 335–338). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81–97. CrossRef
Newell, A. (1990). Unified theories of cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1986). Experiments in psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Kalat, J. W. (1986). Introduction to psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eidetic_memory. Accessed 24 Feb 2013.
Stromeyer, C. F., & Psotka, J. (1970). The detailed texture of eidetic images. Nature, 225, 346–349. CrossRef
Blakemore, C., Braddick, O., & Gregory, R. L. (1970). Detailed texture of eidetic images: a discussion. Nature, 226, 1267–1268. CrossRef
Stromeyer, III, C., F. (1970, November). An adult eidetiker. Psychology Today, 76–80.
https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/. Accessed 26 May 2013.
Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2004). No place for nostalgia in science: a response to Arkes and Tetlock. Psychological Inquiry, 15(4), 279–289. CrossRef
Jung, C. G. (1919). Studies in word-association. New York: Moffat, Yard.
Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of Prejudice. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley.
Bainbridge, W. S. (2006). God from the machine: artificial intelligence models of religious cognition. Walnut Grove: AltaMira.
Stark, R., & Bainbridge, W. S. (1987). A theory of religion. New York: Toronto/Lang.
Bainbridge, W. S. (2002). A prophet’s reward: dynamics of religious exchange. In T. G. Jelen (Ed.), Sacred markets, sacred canopies (pp. 63–89. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1987). Sociology laboratory. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1995). Neural network models of religious belief. Sociological Perspectives, 38, 483–495. CrossRef
Kehl, R. F., & Kirkland, D. R. (2011). The official guide to Steinway Pianos (p. xiii). Milwaukee: Amadeus.
http://schaffpiano.com/. Accessed 5 Aug 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuning_fork. Accessed 25 May 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfect_pitch. Accessed 25 May 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano_tuning. Accessed 25 May 2013.
http://schaffpiano.com/catalog/electronic_tuning_devices.pdf. Accessed 25 May 2013.
http://www.piano.christophersmit.com/wippen.html. Accessed 30 Mar 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_(piano). Accessed 30 Mar 2013.
http://schaffpiano.com/catalog/action_parts_-_grand.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar. 2013.
https://www.ptg.org. Accessed 25 May 2013.
Meade, R. H. (1968). An introduction to the history of general surgery (pp. 68–69). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1938). Notes from a speech, New Haven School of Physical Therapy, New Haven, Connecticut. June, 18, 1938.
Dally, A. (1996). Fantasy surgery 1880–1930 (pp. 112–112). Amsterdam: Rodoppi.
de Forest, L. E. (1950). Ancestry of William Seaman Bainbridge (p. 28). Oxford: Scrivener.
Barnes, B. A. (1977). Discarded operations: Surgical innovation by trial and error. In J. P. Bunker, B. A. Barnes, & F. Mosteller (pp. 109–123) Costs, risks, and benefits of surgery. New York: Oxford University Press.
New Tuberculosis Cure. New York Times, January 14, 1914, p. 4.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1913, November 1) Remarks on chronic intestinal stasis, with reference to conditions found at operation and the mortality. British Medical Journal, 2, 1128–1130.
Conrad, P. (1976). Identifying hyperactive children: the medicalization of deviant behavior. Lexington: Lexington.
Conrad, P., & Schneider, J. W. (1980). Deviance and medicalization: From badness to sickness. St. Louis: Mosby.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1914). Notes from a speech, National University of Arts and Sciences, St. Louis, Missouri. October, 27, 1914.
King’s Surgeon on Man’s Worst Peril. New York Times, November 26, 1925, p. 17.
Health and Civilization. New York Times, December 6, 1925, p. 14.
Lane, W. A. (1927). Secrets of good health. Garden City: Doubleday, Page and Company.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBworks. Accessed 30 Apr 2013.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eliza_Maria_Mosher. Accessed 20 July 2013.
Mosher, E. (1916). Intestinal stasis: Its causes, prevention and treatment. Woman’s Medical Journal, 26(12), 283–285.
Mosher, E. (1912). Health and happiness: A message to girls. New York: Funk &\and Wagnalls.
http://xdl.drexelmed.edu/viewer.php?object_id=2996, http://um2017.org/faculty-history/faculty/eliza-maria-mosher/commemorate-fifty-years-service, http://digitallibrary.vassar.edu/fedora/repository/vassar%3A30578, http://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bhlead/umich-bhl-852016. Accessed 20 July 2013.
Bainbridge, W. S. (1916). Chronic intestinal stasis: Report of twelve cases, with points of special interest illustrated. American Journal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, 73(2), 193–227.
http://books.google.com/books?id=LehXAAAAMAAJ. Accessed 20 July 2013.
Benfer, R. A., Brent. E. E., & Furbee, L. (1991). Expert systems. Newbury Park: Sage.
Garson, G. D. (1991). A comparison of neural network and expert systems algorithms with common multivariate procedures for analysis of social science data. Social Science Computer Review, 9, 399–434. CrossRef
- Cognitive Abilities
William Sims Bainbridge
- Springer London
Neuer Inhalt/© Filograph | Getty Images | iStock