Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Received and reviewed by former editor, George Neuman.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive style and entrepreneurial drive are important for identifying individuals who have the potential to become successful entrepreneurs, and for discriminating between owner-managers operating in mature and early stages of venture creation and growth.
Data were obtained from entrepreneurs involved in early (n = 81) and mature (n = 50) stages of venture creation and growth. Instruments used in the study include the Cognitive Style Index which measures the analytic-intuitive dimension of cognitive style and the Carland Entrepreneurial Index which measures entrepreneurial drive.
Entrepreneurs tend to be more intuitive and less analytic than non-entrepreneurs. The more intuitive entrepreneurs exhibited higher levels of drive towards entrepreneurial behaviour. Those operating in the early stages of venture creation and growth exhibited higher entrepreneurial drive than those operating in mature stages.
Cognitive style may be useful for identifying individuals who have the potential to become successful entrepreneurs. The finding that more intuitive entrepreneurs exhibited higher levels of entrepreneurial drive suggests that cognitive style may also be helpful for discriminating between micro-entrepreneurs and macro-entrepreneurs.
There is a paucity of convincing research on individual differences as a way of distinguishing entrepreneurs from non-entrepreneurs, even though it is believed to be central to understanding the field. This study is the first of its kind to consider the implications of both entrepreneurial drive and cognitive style for entrepreneurs operating in the mature and start-up stages of venture creation and growth.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Agor, W. H. (1984). Intuitive management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Agor, W. H. (1986). The logic of intuitive decision making: A research-based approach for top management. New York: Quorum Books.
Allinson, C. W., Armstrong, S. J., & Hayes, J. (2001). The effect of cognitive style on leader-member exchange: A study of manager-subordinate dyads. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 201–220. doi: 10.1348/096317901167316.
Allinson, C. W., Chell, E., & Hayes, J. (2000). Intuition and entrepreneurial performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 31–43. doi: 10.1080/135943200398049.
Allinson, C. W., & Hayes, J. (1996). The cognitive styles index: A measure of intuition-analysis for organisational research. Journal of Management Studies, 33, 119–135. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1996.tb00801.x.
Armstrong, S. J. (1999). Cognitive style and dyadic interaction: A study of supervisors and students engaged in working relationships. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds, UK.
Armstrong, S. J., Allinson, C. W., & Hayes, J. (2002). Formal mentoring systems: An examination of the effects of mentor/protégé cognitive styles on the mentoring process. Journal of Management Studies, 39(8), 1111–1137. doi: 10.1111/1467-6486.00326.
Armstrong, S. J., Allinson, C. W., & Hayes, J. (2004). The effects of cognitive style on research supervision: A study of student-supervisor dyads in management education. Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, 3(1), 41–63.
Armstrong, S. J., & Priola, V. (2001). Individual cognitive styles and the composition of self-managing work-teams: An empirical study. Small Group Research, 32, 283–312. doi: 10.1177/104649640103200302.
Baron, R. A. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: Why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 275–294. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00031-1.
Baron, R. A. (1999). Counterfactual thinking and venture formation: The potential effects of thinking about “what might have been”. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(1), 79–91. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00024-X.
Basle, F. (1998). Entrepreneurs come in all shapes and sizes. Indianapolis Business Journal, 19(40), 37–51.
Bateman, T. S., & Grant, J. M. (1993). The proactive component of organisational behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(2), 103–118. doi: 10.1002/job.4030140202.
Baum, R. J., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 292–303. doi: 10.2307/3069456.
Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1986). Psychological characteristics associated with entrepreneurial performance. In R. Ronstadt, J. A. Hornaday, R. Peterson, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research. Wellesley, MA: Babson College Press.
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 18(3), 442–456. doi: 10.2307/258091.
Brandstatter, H. (1997). Becoming an entrepreneur, a question of personality structure? Journal of Economic Psychology, 18, 157–177. doi: 10.1016/S0167-4870(97)00003-2.
Brazeal, D. V., & Herbert, T. T. (1999). The genesis of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23(3), 29–45.
Brockhaus, R. H. (1980). Risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Journal, 23(3), 509–520. doi: 10.2307/255515.
Brockhaus, R. H. (1982). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (pp. 39–56). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Brockhaus, R. H., & Horwitz, P. S. (1986). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), Art and science of entrepreneurship. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Brockhaus, R. H., & Nord, W. R. (1979). An exploration of factors affecting the entrepreneurial decision: Personal characteristics versus environmental conditions. Proceedings of the Academy of Management, 36, 4–368.
Brodzinski, J. D., Scherer, R. F., & Wiebe, F. A. (1990). Boundary spanning activity: A function of the small business owner’s decision style. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 1–12.
Burt, R. S. (1983). Applied network analysis: A methodological introduction. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
Busenitz, L. W., & Barney, J. (1997). Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making. Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 9–30. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(96)00003-1.
Busenitz, L. W., & Lau, C. M. (1996). A cross-cultural model of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20(4), 25–38.
Busenitz, L. W., West, G. P., Shepherd, D., Nelson, T., Chandler, G. N., & Zacharakis, A. (2003). Entrepreneurship research in emergence: Past trends and future directions. Journal of Management, 29(3), 285–299.
Buttner, E. H., & Gryskiewicz, N. (1993). Entrepreneurs problem-solving styles: An empirical study using the Kirton adaption/innovation theory. Journal of Small Business Management, 31, 22–32.
Carland, J. W., & Carland, J. A. (1992). Managers, small business owners, entrepreneurs: The cognitive dimension. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 55–66.
Carland, J. W., Carland, J. A., & Ensley, M. (2002). Hunting the Heffalump: The theoretical basis and dimensionality of the Carland Entrepreneurial Index. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 7(2), 51–84.
Carland, J. W., Carland, J. A., & Hoy, F. (1992). An entrepreneurship index: An empirical validation. Paper presented at the Babson Entrepreneurship Conference, Fontainbleau, France, July.
Carland, J. W., Carland, J. A., & Stewart, W. H. (1996). Seeing what’s not there: The enigma of entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 7, 1–20.
Carland, J. W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W. R., & Carland, J. A. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualisation. Academy of Management Review, 2, 354–359. doi: 10.2307/258448.
Chell, E., Haworth, J., & Brearley, S. (1991). The entrepreneurial personality: Concepts cases and categories. London: Routledge.
Cooper, A. C., Woo, C. Y., & Dunkleberg, W. C. (1988). Entrepreneurs perceived chances of success. Journal of Business Venturing, 3(1), 97–108. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(88)90020-1.
Corbett, A. C. (2005). Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 473–491. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00094.x.
Cromie, S. (1987). Motivations of aspiring male and female entrepreneurs. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 8, 251–261. doi: 10.1002/job.4030080306.
Cromie, S. (2000). Assessing entrepreneurial inclinations: Some approaches and empirical evidence. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 7–30. doi: 10.1080/135943200398030.
Deeks, J. (1976). The small firm owner-manager, entrepreneurial behaviour and management practise. New York: Praeger.
Doktor, R. (1978). Problem solving styles of executives and management scientists. TIMS Studies in the Management Sciences, 8, 123–134.
Drucker, P. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship. New York: Harper-Row.
Foxall, G. R., & Hacket, P. M. W. (1994). Styles of managerial creativity: A comparison of adaption-innovation in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. British Journal of Management, 5, 85–100. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.1994.tb00070.x.
Foxall, G. R., Payne, A. F. T., Taylor, J., & Bruce, G. (1990). Marketing vs non-marketing managers. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 8, 63–66. doi: 10.1108/EUM0000000001071.
Gaglio, C. M., & Katz, J. A. (2001). The psychological basis of opportunity identification: Entrepreneurial alertness. Small Business Economics, 16(2), 95–110. doi: 10.1023/A:1011132102464.
Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur?” is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12, 11–22.
Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., & Gartner, W. B. (1995). A longitudinal study of the cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviours and successes at venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, 371–391. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(95)00035-7.
Ginn, C., & Sexton, D. L. (1990). A comparison of the personality type dimension of the 1987 inc. 500 company founder/CEOs with those of slower-growth firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 5(5), 313–326. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(90)90008-H.
Glaser, R. (1984). Education and thinking. The American Psychologist, 39, 93–104. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.39.2.93.
Goldsmith, R. E., & Kerr, J. R. (1991). Entrepreneurship and adaption innovation theory. Technovation, 11(6), 373–382. doi: 10.1016/0166-4972(91)90019-Z.
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2002). The new leaders: Transforming the art of leadership into the science of results. London: Time Warner.
Gryskiewicz, S. S., Hills, D. W., Holt, K., & Hills, K. (1987). Understanding managerial creativity: The Kirton adaption-innovation inventory and other assessment measures. Greensboro, North Carolina: Centre for Creativity and Leadership.
Guilford, J. (1956). Fundamental statistics in education and psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hammond, K. R., Hamm, R. M., Grassia, J., & Pearson, T. (1987). Direct comparison of the efficacy of intuitive and analytical cognition in expert judgement. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 17(5), 753–770.
Hayes, J., Allinson, C. W., & Armstrong, S. J. (2004). Intuition, women managers and gendered stereotypes. Personnel Review, 33(4), 403–417. doi: 10.1108/00483480410539489.
Herron, L., & Sapienza, H. J. (1992). The entrepreneur and the initiation of new venture launch activities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(1), 49–55.
Hogarth, R. M. (2001). Educating intuition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hornaday, J. A., & Aboud, J. (1971). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Personnel Psychology, 24, 141–153.
Hull, D. L., Bosley, J. J., & Udell, G. G. (1980). Renewing the hunt for the heffalump: Identifying potential entrepreneurs by personality characteristics. Journal of Small Business Management, 18, 11–18.
Hyrsky, K., & Tuunanen, M. (1999). Innovativeness and risk-taking propensity: A cross cultural study of Finnish and US entrepreneurs. Liiketaloudellinen Aikakawskirja, 48(3), 238–256.
Johnson, B. (1990). Toward a multi-dimensional model of entrepreneurship: The case of achievement motivation and the entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(3), 39–54.
Kagan, J. (1965). Reflection impulsivity & reading ability in primary grade children. Child Development, 36, 609–628. doi: 10.2307/1126908.
Kagan, J., & Moss, H. A. (1965). Psychological significance of styles of conceptualisation. In Basic cognitive processes in children. Monograph of Society for Research in Child Development, 28, 73–112.
Kaish, S., & Gilad, B. (1991). Characteristics of opportunities search of entrepreneurs versus executives: Sources, interest and general alertness. Journal of Business Venturing, 6, 5–61. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(91)90005-X.
Keh, H. T., Foo, M. D., & Lim, B. C. (2002). Opportunity evaluation under risky conditions: The cognitive processes of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(5), 125–148. doi: 10.1111/1540-8520.00003.
Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (1977). The entrepreneurial personality: A person at the crossroads. Journal of Management Studies, 14, 34–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1977.tb00616.x.
Kirton, M. (1984). Adaptors and innovators—Why new initiatives get blocked. Long Range Planning, 17, 137–143. doi: 10.1016/0024-6301(84)90145-6.
Kirton, M. (1988). Adaptors and innovators: Problem solvers in organisations. In K. Gronhaug & G. Kaufman (Eds.), Innovation: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian University Press.
Kirton, M. J., & McCarthy, R. (1988). Cognitive climate and organisations. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 175–184.
Kirzner, I. M. (1979). Perception, opportunity and profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kirzner, I. M. (1980). The primacy of entrepreneurial discovery. In A. Seldon (Ed.), The prime mover of progress (pp. 5–30). London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
Kirzner, I. M. (1982). The theory of entrepreneurship in economic growth. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of entrepreneurship. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Koh, H. C. (1996). Testing hypotheses of entrepreneurial characteristics. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11, 12–25. doi: 10.1108/02683949610113566.
Krueger, N. F. (2000). The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(3), 5–23.
Kubes, M. (1992). Cognitive style and interpersonal behavior: The Kirton Adaption-Innovation and Schutz’s FIRO-B inventories. Psychology, A Journal of Human Behaviour, 29(2), 33–38.
Leddo, J., & Abelson, R. P. (1986). The nature of explanations. In J. A. Galambos, R. P. Abelson, & J. B. Black (Eds.), Knowledge structures (pp. 103–122). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Leibenstein, H. (1968). Entrepreneurship and development. The American Economic Review, 58, 75–86.
Leonard, D., & Straus, S. (1997). Putting your company’s whole brain to work. Harvard Business Review, 75, 110–121. PubMed
Lynch, D. (1986). Is the brain stuff still the right (or left) stuff? Training and Development Journal, 40, 23–26.
MacMillan, I. C., & Katz, J. A. (1992). Idiosyncratic milieus of entrepreneurial research: The need for comprehensive theories. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 1–8. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(92)90031-L.
Markman, G. D., Balkin, D. B., & Baron, R. A. (2002). Inventors and new venture formation: The effects of general self-efficacy and regretful thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2), 149–165. doi: 10.1111/1540-8520.00004.
McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
McNerney, D. J. (1994). Truths and falsehoods about entrepreneurs. HR Focus, 71(8), 7.
Messick, S. (1976). Personality consistencies in cognition and creativity. In S. Messick (Ed.), Individuality in learning (pp. 4–22). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Mill, J. S. (1848). Principals of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy. London: John W. Parker.
Miller, A. (1987). Cognitive styles: An integrated model. Educational Psychology, 7(4), 251–268. doi: 10.1080/0144341870070401.
Miller, A. (1991). Personality types, learning styles and educational goals. Educational Psychology, 11(3), 217–238. doi: 10.1080/0144341910110302.
Mintzberg, H. (1989). Mintzberg on management. New York: Macmillan Free Press.
Mitchell, R. K., Smith, B., Morse, E. A., Seawright, K. W., Peredo, A. M., & McKenzie, B. (2002). Are entrepreneurial cognitions universal? Assessing entrepreneurial cognitions across cultures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26, 9–32.
Mitchell, R. K., Smith, B., Seawright, K. W., & Morse, E. A. (2000). Cross-cultural cognitions and the venture creation decision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 974–993. doi: 10.2307/1556422.
Murphy, H. J., Kelleher, W. E., Doucette, P. A., & Young, J. D. (1998). Test–retest reliability and construct validity of the Cognitive Style Index for business undergraduates. Psychological Reports, 82, 595–600. doi: 10.2466/PR0.82.2.595-600.
Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford.
Myers, I. B., & Briggs, K. C. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Nickerson, R., Perkins, D., & Smith, E. (1985). The teaching of thinking. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Nulty, D., & Barrett, M. (1996). Transitions in students’ learning styles. Studies in Higher Education, 21(2), 333–345. doi: 10.1080/03075079612331381251.
Olk, P., & Elvira, M. (2001). Friends and strategic agents: The role of friendship and discretion in negotiating strategic alliances. Group & Organization Management, 26(2), 124–164. doi: 10.1177/1059601101262002.
Palich, L. E., & Bagby, D. R. (1995). Using cognitive theory to explain entrepreneurial risk-taking: Challenging conventional wisdom. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, 425–438. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(95)00082-J.
Pask, G., & Scott, B. C. (1972). Learning strategies and individual competence. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 4, 217–253. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7373(72)80004-X.
Priola, V., Smith, J., & Armstrong, S. J. (2004). Group-work and cognitive style: A discursive investigation. Small Group Research, 35(5), 565–595. doi: 10.1177/1046496404265143.
Rickards, T., & Moger, S. (1994). Felix and Oscar revisited: An exploration of the dynamics of a real-life odd couple work relationship. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30, 108–131. doi: 10.1177/0021886394301008.
Riding, R. (1991). Cognitive styles analysis user manual. Birmingham: Learning and Training Technology.
Riding, R., & Cheema, I. (1991). Cognitive styles—An overview and integration. Educational Psychology, 11(3 & 4), 193–215. doi: 10.1080/0144341910110301.
Riding, R., & Sadler-Smith, E. (1992). Type of instructional material, cognitive style and learning performance. Educational Studies, 18(3), 323–339. doi: 10.1080/0305569920180306.
Rotter, K. (1966). Generalised expectations for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1–27. PubMed
Rush, M. G., & Moore, D. M. (1991). Effects of restructuring training and cognitive style. Educational Psychology, 11(3 & 4), 309–321. doi: 10.1080/0144341910110307.
Sadler-Smith, E., & Shefy, E. (2004). The intuitive executive: Understanding and applying ‘gut feel’ in decision making. Academy of Management Executive, 18, 76–91.
Sandberg, W. R. (1986). New venture performance: The role of strategy and industry structure. Lexington, MA: D.C. Health and Company.
Schere, J. L. (1982). Tolerance for ambiguity as a discriminating variable between entrepreneurs and managers. Proceedings of the Academy of Management, 1, 404–408.
Schroder, H. M. (1989). Managerial competence and style. In M. J. Kirton (Ed.), Adaptors and innovators: Styles of creativity and problem solving. London: Routledge.
Sexton, D. L., & Bowman, N. B. (1985). The entrepreneur: A capable executive and more. Journal of Business Venturing, 1, 129–140. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(85)90012-6.
Sexton, D. L., & Bowman-Upton, N. B. (1991). Entrepreneurship: Creativity and growth. New York: MacMillan.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226. doi: 10.2307/259271.
Shaver, K. G., & Scott, L. R. (1991). Person, process, choice: The psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 23–45.
Shepherd, D., & Krueger, N. (2002). Entrepreneurial teams and social cognition: An intentions-based perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26, 47–63.
Shultz, T. W. (1980). Investment in entrepreneurial ability. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 82, 437–448. doi: 10.2307/3439676.
Simon, M., Houghton, S. M., & Aquino, K. (2000). Cognitive biases, risk perception and venture formation. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(2), 113–134. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00003-2.
Stewart, W. H. (1996). Psychological correlates of entrepreneurship. New York: Garland Publishing.
Stewart, W. H., Watson, E. W., Carland, J. C., & Carlandn, J. W. (1998). A proclivity for entrepreneurship: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business managers and corporate managers. Journal of Business Venturing, 14(2), 189–214. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00070-0.
Streufert, S., & Nogami, G. Y. (1989). Cognitive style and complexity: Implications for I/O psychology. In E. L. Cooper & I. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organisational psychology (pp. 93–143). Chichester: Wiley.
Swayne, C., & Tucker, W. (1973). The effective entrepreneur. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Taggart, W. (1997). Discovering and understanding intuition: Exceptional human experience. Studies of the Unitive Spontaneous Imaginal, 15, 174–188.
Taggart, W., Robey, D., & Kroeck, K. G. (1985). Managerial decision styles and cerebral dominance: An empirical study. Journal of Management Studies, 22(2), 175–192. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1985.tb00071.x.
Tennant, M. (1988). Psychology and adult learning. London: Routledge.
Timmons, J. A. (1989). The entrepreneurial mind. Andover, MA: Brick House Publishing.
Vesper, K. H. (1982). Introduction and summary of entrepreneurship research. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of entrepreneurship. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Welsch, H. P., & Young, E. C. (1982). The information source selection decision: The role of entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Journal of Small Business Management, 20, 49–57.
Witkin, H. A., Dyk, R. B., Faterson, H. F., Goodenough, D. R., & Karp, S. A. (1962). Psychological differentiation: Studies of development. London: John Wiley & sons.
Witkin, H. A., Moore, C. A., Oltman, P. K., Goodenough, D. R., Friedman, F., Owen, D. R., et al. (1977). Role of the field dependent and field independent cognitive styles in academic evolution: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(3), 197–211. doi: 10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206. PubMed
Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organisational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18(2), 293–321. doi: 10.2307/258761.
Wooten, K. C., Barner, B. O., & Silver, N. C. (1994). The influence of cognitive style upon work environment preferences. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 307–314.
- Cognitive Style and Entrepreneurial Drive of New and Mature Business Owner-Managers
Steven J. Armstrong
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia