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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th Collaboration Researchers' International Working Group Conference on Collaboration and Technology, held in Santiago, Chile, in September 2014.

The 16 revised papers presented together with 18 progress papers and 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 49 submissions. The papers published in proceedings of this year's and past CRIWG conferences reflect the trends in collaborative computing research and its evolution. There was a growing interest in social networks analysis, crowdsourcing and computer support for large communities in general. A special research topic which has been traditionally present in the CRIWG proceedings has been collaborative learning.



Understanding How Network Performance Affects User Experience of Remote Guidance

Much research has been done to support remote collaboration on physical tasks. However, the focus of the research has been mainly on system and interface design and their impact on collaboration. Relatively less attention has been paid to investigating how network performance can affect user experience and task performance. In this paper, we present a preliminary user study on this issue in which participants were asked to work collaboratively in pair using a remote mobile tele-assistance system we developed. In this study, five network scenarios were examined and network performance (QoS) was measured using four metrics including delay, jitter, bandwidth and packet loss. User experience (QoE) was measured using both objective and subjective metrics. The formal included time taken and number of instructions repeated for task performance while the latter included user ratings of quality of audio experience, quality of video experience and overall quality of experience. The results indicated that the packet loss rate in QoS is the biggest contributor to loss in QoE. We also discuss implications of the study and possible directions of future work.

Angus Donovan, Leila Alem, Weidong Huang, Ren Liu, Mark Hedley

Requirements for Ad-hoc Geo-referenced BPM with Microblogging

There are many scenarios in which business processes will benefit from the integration of geographical information for its management. In this paper we discuss a set of requirements for ad-hoc geo-referenced Business Process Management (BPM), noting in particular the conflicts between spatial and task dependencies when coordinating activities. We suggest the predominance of spatial dependencies and propose the integration of process models in georeferencing tools. We analyse the communication needs of geo-referenced and BPM processes and suggest the adoption of microblogging platforms for coordination support. We also discuss the implementation of an ad-hoc georeferenced BPM tool, specify the microblogging messages needed to coordinate georeferenced activities, and discuss a preliminary formative evaluation of the proposed implementation.

Pedro Antunes, Gustavo Zurita, Nelson Baloian

Construction and Evaluation of a Collaboration Observation Model

This article proposes a Collaboration Observation Model (COM) to allow a systematic observation of aspects involved in collaboration, in order to facilitate coordination of observation activities in the group as well as to improve collaboration, interaction and communication among participants. Effective collaboration is a key factor of success in teamwork activities to achieve shared goals, because it can improve the quality of interactions and reduce tasks execution time. To evaluate the proposed model, a real experiment was conducted to verify its adequacy to collaborative aspects and to refine the model.

Paula Ballard da F.Gentil, Maria Luiza M. Campos, Marcos R. S. Borges

Monitoring Student Activities with a Querying System over Electronic Worksheets

Monitoring students’ work in the classroom has been recognized as one of the key factors for successful teaching since only a good real-time assessment enables the teacher to give proper and timely feedback. However, it is not an easy task to systematically supervise what students do in the classroom. It also might consume a considerable amount of teachers’ resources. This paper presents a work in which computer technology is used in classrooms by students working on electronic worksheets on their. We explore the possibilities of assessing students’ work during classroom by automatically analyzing the structure of the documents and the changes along time while students work on them. An experiment is described, showing the system is able to give the teacher valuable information. This information is intended to assess the students’ performance and provide them with proper feedback.

Nelson Baloian, Jose A. Pino, Jens Hardings, Heinz Ulrich Hoppe

Two Make a Network: Using Graphs to Assess the Quality of Collaboration of Dyads

In this paper we explore the application of network analysis techniques in order to analyze synchronous collaborative activities of dyads. The collaborative activities are represented and visualized as networks. We argue that the characteristics and properties of the networks reflect the quality of collaboration and therefore can support the analysis of collaborative activities in an automated way. To support this argument we studied the collaborative practice of 228 dyads based on graphs. The properties of each graph were evaluated in comparison to ratings of collaboration quality as assessed by human experts. The activities were also examined with respect to the solution quality. The paper presents the method and the findings of the study.

Irene-Angelica Chounta, Tobias Hecking, Heinz Ulrich Hoppe, Nikolaos Avouris

A Programming Interface and Platform Support for Developing Recommendation Algorithms on Large-Scale Social Networks

Friend recommendation algorithms in large-scale social networks such as Facebook or Twitter usually require the exploration of huge user graphs. In current solutions for parallelizing graph algorithms, the burden of dealing with distributed concerns falls on algorithm developers. In this paper, a simple yet powerful programming interface (API) to implement distributed graph traversal algorithms is presented. A case study on implementing a followee recommendation algorithm for Twitter using the API is described. This case study not only illustrates the simplicity offered by the API for developing algorithms, but also how different aspects of the distributed solutions can be treated and experimented without altering the algorithm code. Experiments evaluating the performance of different job scheduling strategies illustrate the flexibility or our approach.

Alejandro Corbellini, Daniela Godoy, Cristian Mateos, Alejandro Zunino, Silvia Schiaffino

An Ambient Casual Game to Promote Socialization and Active Ageing

Natural interfaces are facilitating the adoption of videogames by older adults, promoting the development of serious games aimed at encouraging healthy behaviors in this population. In this paper we present the design and evaluation of an ambient game, GuessMyCaption, aimed at enhancing the social networks of older adults, known to have an impact in their wellbeing. GuessMyCaption was deployed during a 5-weeks study in the home of one older adult and twelve relatives. The results demonstrate GuessMyCaption is easy to use and maintains an older adult engaged with exercises while offering new opportunities for online and offline socialization. GuessMyCaption had a positive impact in the perceived wellbeing of the older adult improving her perception on her cognitive skills and physical health, and catalyzing socialization. This research shows that the use of natural interfaces and family memorabilia facilitate the adoption of serious games, improves older adults’ perceived wellbeing, and encourage socialization.

Raymundo Cornejo, Daniel Hernandez, Monica Tentori, Jesus Favela

Monitoring Collaboration in Software Processes Using Social Networks

Collaboration monitoring in software process is important to check if the collaboration is indeed happening as planned, but there are few approaches that define how to measure and monitor collaboration. By assessing collaboration during an ongoing process execution, project managers can take corrective actions that might improve the process execution and, consequently, reflect on quality gains of the final product. This research work proposes to evaluate the level of coordination achieved by a running software process through social network analysis metrics.

Gabriella C. B. Costa, Francisco Santana, Andréa M. Magdaleno, Cláudia M. L. Werner

Supporting Teleconsulting with Text Mining: Continuing Professional Development in the TelehealthRS Project

In the primary care scenario, telehealth appears as an option for continuing professional development of the professionals involved. Questions submitted by physicians and its respective answers in the Brazilian health ministry telehealth platform were mined using a text mining tool. Graphs about concepts present in database were created using this tool, turning clearer subjects addressed by teleconsultants. A questionnaire, addressing the current answer methodology and possibilities with graphs, was answered by teleconsultants of a telehealth Center, the TelehealthRS Project. Answers obtained showed the importance given by teleconsultants about the current answer methodology and the conviction that graphs can turn the request answering easier and better developed. This is guiding an implementation on the current Brazilian health ministry platform that will impact in the accuracy and speed of response offered to the professional, enhancing their training and helping in the effectiveness of their continuing professional development.

Fábio Damasceno, Eliseo Reategui, Carlos André Aita Schmitz, Erno Harzheim, Daniel Epstein

Defining a Design Space for Persuasive Cooperative Interactions in Mobile Exertion Applications

This paper presents a design space for persuasive cooperative persuasive interactions for mobile exertion applications. This type of software bridges entertainment with workout activities, providing users with intuitive and fun ways to track their performances. Persuasion and, in particular, cooperative interactions play a pivotal role in user motivation – they are paramount to convince individuals to pursue their goals and overcome obstacles. Applications of this type have started to offer more diverse functionalities, often becoming difficult to label and pinpoint the type of design cues being employed to foster these persuasive and cooperative facets. In this article we propose a design space for this type of features in such software. The design exercise roots itself in existing literature and the results for an online survey we deployed to assess usage habits for this type of applications. Validation is underway and will be achieved via the creation of an application that covers the proposed dimensions.

Luís Duarte, Paulo Ribeiro, Tiago Guerreiro, Luís Carriço

Cooperative Work for Spatial Decision Making: An Emergencies Management Case

Geographical Information systems have been frequently used to support decision processes, especially those involving emergency management. When planning the measures in case of an emergency experts must evaluate and compare many scenarios which arise from different hypotheses about where people may be at the time of the emergency and how will they react. This work presents a tool which can help a group of experts in generating, visualizing and comparing the outcomes of the different hypotheses.

Jonathan Frez, Nelson Baloian, Jose A. Pino, Gustavo Zurita

Architecture of Mobile Crowdsourcing Systems

This paper proposes a general architecture and a classification scheme for mobile crowdsourcing systems, which are illustrated by two example applications. The aim is to gain a better understanding of typical functionalities and design aspects to be considered during development and evaluation of such collaborative systems.

Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Daniel Faust

A Semantic Approach to Shared Resource Discovery

The current available technologies have not been fully exploited to assist collaborators to perform activities that are considered as time/effort wasting and tedious, but which cannot be omitted. A person working in an organization can be in need of a resource they do not own at any moment, but in a place consisting of multiple buildings that are full of resources (e.g., computer devices, files, software and even people) it can get really hard for such a person to locate or even be sure whether there is a resource or a set of them able to fulfill their request. Some works have been already proposed intended to discover services, but their focus is mainly on applications looking for other applications. Therefore, those proposals do not consider information characterizing real life environment that involves human users, whose conditions are constantly changing (e.g., a person’s availability). In this paper, we propose a matchmaking service, which takes a semantic approach for resource discovery in collaborative environments by paying special attention to the effects of human interaction over the availability of resources. The proposed matchmaker has been implemented as a key service of the RAMS Architecture (Resource Availability Management Service) which is able to provide users with a pervasive experience for resource discovery.

Kimberly García, Salma Velasco, Sonia Mendoza, Dominique Decouchant

Performance Effects of Positive and Negative Affective States in a Collaborative Information Seeking Task

Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is a common process carried out by groups in a wide variety of situations and contexts. From family activities to business tasks, people typically engage in collaborative search practices while working toward a common goal. In collaborative settings, various aspects of human behavior influence the way people interact with each other and make decisions. One of these aspects corresponds to emotions and related affective processes such as mood and feelings. Studies in social psychology have suggested that group dynamics and their performance may be affected by the interaction of affective processes, in particular positive and negative ones. Although such findings have been derived in different group situations, to the best of our knowledge none of them refer to the particular case of CIS. Based on previous studies, we investigate to what extent positive and negative affective states relate to group performance in CIS. To carry out this study, we designed an experiment with 45 dyads distributed in three configurations based on initial affective states: (1) positive-positive, (2) positive-negative, and (3) negative-negative. To achieve these initial conditions, members of each dyad were individually exposed to affective stimuli. Following, each dyad worked on a precision-oriented search task. Our results suggest that the three interactions of affective states have different implications on the performance of dyads. In particular, the negative-negative configuration performed significantly better than the other two configurations. Conversely, performance of the positive-negative condition was found to be significantly lower than the other two conditions. Findings from this work have practical implications for applications such as team design in tasks involving CIS.

Roberto González-Ibáñez, Chirag Shah

Promoting Elderly-Children Interaction in Digital Games: A Preliminary Set of Design Guidelines

In this paper, we propose a set of guidelines to facilitate the design of digital games to support elderly-children interaction. We conducted a literature review to identify preliminary elements in the elderly-children interaction process and assessed elder-child interaction during their using two digital games to complement the initial findings. Based on these results, we proposed a set of guidelines to aid in the design of digital games. To validate the guidelines, we conducted an evaluation on the design of digital games with a group of 12 postgraduate students from two local Computer Science programs. Results are promising, indicating a high perception of usefulness, ease of use and intention of use of the proposed guidelines by the group of developers.

Ana I. Grimaldo, Alberto L. Morán, Eduardo Calvillo Gamez, Paul Cairns, Ramón R. Palacio, Victoria Meza-Kubo

Enriching (Learning) Community Platforms with Learning Analytics Components

In this paper we present a generic and extensible analytics workbench and show how it can be integrated with learning environments in order to analyze the learners’ activities. As the analytics workbench already supports a wide range of analysis types including network analysis, statistical analysis, and analysis of activity logs, the main effort needed for embedding learning analytics features into a learning platform lies in data exchange for input and output of analysis processes between the learning platform and the workbench. However the analytics workbench is also designed for extensibility so that more specific analysis capabilities can be added to it easily if desired. We report three case studies of such integrations and show the benefits for different target groups.

Tilman Göhnert, Sabrina Ziebarth, Nils Malzahn, Heinz Ulrich Hoppe

An Ontology Engineering Approach to Gamify Collaborative Learning Scenarios

The design of collaborative learning (CL) scenarios that increase both students’ learning and motivation is a challenge that the CSCL community has been addressing in the past few years. On one hand, CSCL design (i.e. scripts) has been shown to be effective to support meaningful interactions and better learning. On the other hand, scripted collaboration often does not motivate students to participate in the CL process, which makes more difficult the use of group activities over time. To deal with the problem of motivation, researchers and educators are now looking at gamification techniques to engage students. Gamification is an interesting concept that deals with the introduction and use of game design elements in a proper way to satisfy individual motivational needs. The use of gamification in educational settings is a complex task that requires, from instructional designers, knowledge about game elements (such as leaderboards and point systems), game design (e.g. how to combine game elements) and their impact on motivation and learning. Today, to the best of our knowledge, there are no approaches for the formal systematization of the instructional design knowledge about gamification and its application in CL scenarios. Thus, to address this issue, we have applied ontological engineering techniques to develop an Ontology called OntoGaCLeS. In this paper, we present the main concepts and ontological structure used to represent gamified CL scenarios. In this ontology, we formalize the representation of gamification concepts and explain how they affect motivation in the context of collaborative learning. Particularly, we will focus on the definition of player roles and gameplay strategies. Furthermore, to show the utility of our approach, we illustrate how to use our ontology to define a personalized gamification model that is used to gamify a CL scenario based on motivational needs and individual traits of learners in a group.

Geiser Chalco Challco, Dilvan A. Moreira, Riichiro Mizoguchi, Seiji Isotani

Group Formation Algorithms in Collaborative Learning Contexts: A Systematic Mapping of the Literature

Group Formation is a complex and important step to design effective collaborative learning activities. Through the adequate selection of individuals to a group, it is possible to create environments that foster the occurrence of meaningful interactions, and thereby, increasing robust learning and intellectual growth. Many researchers indicate that the inadequate formation of groups can demotivate students and hinder the learning process. Thus, in the field of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), there are several studies focusing on developing and testing group formation in collaborative learning contexts using best practices and other pedagogical approaches. Nevertheless, the CSCL community lacks a comprehensive understanding on which computational techniques (i.e. algorithms) has supported group formation. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study aimed at gathering and analyzing the research findings on this topic using a systematic method. To fill this gap, this research conducted a systematic mapping with the objective of summarizing the studies on algorithms for group formation in CSCL contexts. Initially, by searching on six digital libraries, we collected 256 studies. Then, after a careful analysis of each study, we verified that only 48 were related to group formation applied to collaborative learning contexts. Finally, we categorized the contributions of these studies to present an overview of the findings produced by the community. This overview shows that: (i) there is a gradual increase on research published in this topic; (ii) 41% of the algorithms for group formation area based on probabilistic models; (iii) most studies presented the evaluation of tools that implement these algorithms; but (iv) only 2% of the studies provide their source code; and finally, (v) there is no tool or guideline to compare the benefits, differences and specificities of group formation algorithms available to date. As a result of this work an infographic is also available at:

Wilmax Marreiro Cruz, Seiji Isotani

Evaluating Coordination Support Mechanisms in an Industrial Engineering Scenario

Nowadays, industrial engineering collaboration plays a crucial role along product development life cycle, especially for problem-solving and decision-making processes. This paper evaluates the acceptance of two coordination mechanisms for groups when working on a machine diagnosis report collaboratively. The evaluation is organized as a user study and is based on two hypothesis: groups will prefer unstructured over structured coordination, and groups using structured coordination will accomplish their task more efficiently.

Jordan Janeiro, Stephan Lukosch, Frances M. T. Brazier, Mariano Leva, Massimo Mecella, Arne Byström

Virtual Operating Room for Collaborative Training of Surgical Nurses

In this paper, we present the first results of a study exploring how to support collaborative learning of surgical nursing students in a 3D virtual world. A Virtual Operating room, resembling the one at St. Olav’s University Hospital in Trondheim, Norway was created in Second Life to accommodate an educational role-play. In this role-play, the operating nursing students could practice communication with patients and cooperation in the team while preparing patients for surgery. At the first stage of the evaluation, the virtual simulation has been tested among nine postgraduate nursing students. The participants gave their evaluation and opinions in the form of questionnaires and discussion after the role-plays. Following the analysis of the data, we present a summary of the most important results in this paper. This study provides a number of suggestions for improving the learning process when role-playing in a virtual environment. We demonstrate that an educational simulation can be implemented with limited resources, and yet be practically useful in education of health personnel. Further research with medical and nursing students is highly applicable and feasible, and should include a larger group of participants. In the next stage of our work, the evaluation of the Virtual Operating room has been conducted with nurses, who are on an earlier stage of their study program, as well as anesthesia nurses and non-medics.

Nils Fredrik Kleven, Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland, Mikhail Fominykh, Arne Hansen, Guri Rasmussen, Lisa Millgård Sagberg, Frank Lindseth

JEMF: A Framework for the Development of Mobile Systems for Emergency Management

In recent years, Emergency Management has become the target of multiple research efforts. This domain is characterized by collaborative aspects and several researchers discuss the use of mobile applications to complement traditional forms of information sharing. However, there is little software reuse in proposed solutions, as very few projects have focused on developing reusable components. Reusing components is desirable for it harnesses the strengths of existing systems, speeds up development and increases system reliability. In this paper, we present a framework to support software reuse in mobile systems development, based on specifications from the emergency domain. It provides guidance for the construction of new systems and simplifies their development, as required by the developers.

Marcus F. T. Machado, Bruno S. Nascimento, Adriana S. Vivacqua, Marcos R. S. Borges

The Semantic Web as a Platform for Collective Intelligence


Semantic Web

constitutes a promising platform for the development of computer support for cooperative work. However, the maturity of the related technologies and available datasets poses new challenges. Knowing what these challenges are, and assessing their impact in advance can save effort and reduce the chance of failure. In this article we discuss the specific challenges in the development of an application that integrates collaborative product reviews available in the

Semantic Web

. The challenges we identify, if not tackled, translate to an additional effort in the integration process, the need to discard available data, and potential inconsistencies and lack of data-quality in the final product.

Leandro Mendoza, Guido Zuccarelli, Alicia Díaz, Alejandro Fernández

Engineering Peer-to-Peer Learning Processes for Generating High Quality Learning Materials

Organizations are facing the challenge of transferring knowledge from experienced to novice employees and are seeking for solutions that avoid the loss of knowledge with retiring experts. A possible way for overcoming this challenge is having employees develop learning materials for their novice colleagues. Based on insights from both, education and collaboration research, designing structured collaborative peer-creation-processes seems a promising approach due to several reasons. Within a peer-creation-process participants are guided to knowledge acquisition, transfer as well as documentation for others. By developing learning materials through collaboration with people at different level of knowledge, e.g., the tacit knowledge of the expert gets codified and is ready for being used by novices. Furthermore, the collaborative creation will create learning effects even among participants and should further increase their knowledge, and the quality of the learning materials. Unfortunately, little research has addressed reusable didactically driven processes of systematically documenting knowledge that can be used by others as learning material. In order to bridge this gap we identify requirements from educational and collaboration literature and conceptualize educationally driven changes in the layer model of collaboration, e.g., to consider learning objectives in the goals layer or to integrate peer review as mechanisms for quality control in the procedures layer. This paper opens up a promising field for collaboration research and provides future research directions for reusable structured peer-creation-processes with focus on learning. This research-in-progress paper closes with a conceptual framework with requirements of a collaborative peer creation process.

Sarah Oeste, Matthias Söllner, Jan Marco Leimeister

Start-Smart as a Support for Starting Interaction in Distributed Software Development

Distributed software development is a collaborative activity characterized by frequent interactions among the members of the workgroup. However, interruptions that arise when interacting can adversely affect the work of a developer. This work aims at designing a tool to provide support while initiating interactions to indicate the extent to which a colleague can be interrupted, based on a software industry work context. For this, based on the literature of software engineering and the concept of Collaborative Working Spheres, in this study we defined the information elements that must be provided. As a result, an application was derived providing support for initiating interactions in software development working groups, which will be evaluated in different software factories.

Ramón R. Palacio, José Ramón Martínez, Joaquín Cortez, Luis Adrián Castro, Alberto L. Morán

Social Media Collaboration in the Classroom: A Study of Group Collaboration

This article aims to investigate how students use new technology in collaborative group work and tries to measure what factors impact students’ satisfaction with overall group collaboration. In particular, this study aims to investigate the following research questions: What are the factors (including challenges) that influence the students’ overall satisfaction with collaboration? Does the usage of e-collaboration tools and social media usage influence collaboration satisfaction? The findings of the study are summarized in a model that point towards the main factors influencing student overall group work satisfaction.

Liana Razmerita, Kathrin Kirchner

An Effort of Communication Measure for Synchronous Collaborative Search Systems

Collaborative work in information seeking and retrieval scenarios is difficult to measure. This paper is about an initial attempt to evaluate the effort of communication, one of the most essential components of collaboration, over synchronous collaborative search (CS) sessions. CS is about explicit collaboration among individuals engaged in a common search task, using groupware technologies to satisfy the shared information needs. Strictly speaking, CS field is not limited to synchronous interaction because some situations are concerned with asynchronous, but explicit collaboration. Nevertheless we consider more attractive and novel the situations that requiring support to coordinate synchronous users’ activities in CS systems to measure the effort of communication.

Rolando Salazar-Hernández, Clarisa Pérez-Jasso, Julio Rodríguez-Cano, Edgar Pérez-Perdomo

Using Structural Holes Metrics from Communication Networks to Predict Change Dependencies

Conway’s Law describes that software systems are structured according to the communication structures of their developers. These developers when working on a feature or correcting a bug commit together a set of source code artifacts. The analysis of these co-changes makes it possible to identify change dependencies between artifacts. Influenced by Conway’s Law, we hypothesize that Structural Hole Metrics (SHM) are able to identify strong and weak change coupling. We used SHM computed from communication networks to predict co-changes among files. Comparing SHM against process metrics using six well-known classification algorithms applied to Rails and Node.js projects, we achieved recall and precision values near 80% in the best cases. Mathews Correlation metric was used to verify if SHM was able to identify strong and weak co-changes. We also extracted rules to provide insights about the metrics using classification tree. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that investigated social aspects to predict change dependencies and the results obtained are very promising.

Igor Scaliante Wiese, Rodrigo Takashi Kuroda, Douglas Nassif Roma Junior, Reginaldo Ré, Gustavo Ansaldi Oliva, Marco Aurelio Gerosa

LOST-Map: A Victim-Sourced Rescue Map of Disaster Areas

In the aftermath of natural disasters, members of the affected communities are often the

de facto

first responders. Local volunteers can respond quickly, are strongly motivated, and have the necessary ground knowledge. However, their search and rescue efforts may be misdirected in the absence of information about the location and status of victims. We propose LOST, a system that gathers data from smartphones in affected areas, even when the regular communication infrastructure fails, and aggregates it in a web interface for visualization. For each individual, LOST-Map shows location traces and activity indicators. The information can be explored by selecting time-frames and/or applying filters over activity indicators. This paper briefly describes the design of LOST, introduces the visualization tool LOST-Map, and reports on a study (n=10) that suggests that it can be effectively used by untrained volunteers.

André Silva, Diogo Marques, Carlos Duarte, Maria Ana Viana-Baptista, Luís Carriço

Mapping on Surfaces: Supporting Collaborative Work Using Interactive Tabletop

We investigate the usability of our mindmap application using a tabletop integrated with four Android tablets in the context of support for collaborative work. This paper presents two empirical studies that compares the conventional paper-and-pen approach with an interactive touchscreen tabletop system. Our results clearly indicate that the combination of a tabletop and personal devices support and encourage multiple people to work collaboratively. Furthermore, the results confirm earlier results about the usability advantages of the interactive tabletop application. The comparison of the associated emotional attitudes indicates that the interactive tabletop facilitates the active involvement of participants in the group decision making significantly more than the use of the paper-and-pen approach.

Kanida Sinmai, Peter Andras

How a Conflict Changes the Way How People Behave on Fandoms

An Investigation of Shipper’s Fight in Facebook Groups

Shippers are fans of couples. In the virtual sphere, rival Shippers (Shippers of conflicting couples) are obligated to share the same space in order to discuss common interest matters. However, sometimes, conflict emerges between them when the divergence of opinions appears. Our work investigates the implications of these conflicts. In order to propose countermeasures to prevent or reduce the frequency of conflicts, a good understanding of the problem is necessary. We start discussing about why people felt motivated to debate about fictional couples. Next, we report about how this struggle changes the normative sense of people. Finally, we investigate the role of the virtual space in the conflict. Our investigation takes place in a Facebook group called How I Met Your Mother [Brazil]. To support our observations, we collected evidences from posts from the group, interviews with members and answers from a questionnaire.

Cleyton Souza, André Rolim, Jonathas Magalhães, Evandro Costa, Joseana Fechine, Nazareno Andrade

Choosing an Appropriate Task to Start with in Open Source Software Communities: A Hard Task

Open Source Software (OSS) projects leverage the contribution of outsiders. Usually these communities do not coordinate the work of the newcomers, who go to the issue trackers and self-select a task to start with. We found that “finding a way to start” is recurrently reported both by the literature and by practitioners as a barrier to onboard to an OSS project. We conducted a qualitative analysis with data obtained from semi-structured interviews with 36 subjects from 14 different projects. We used procedures of Grounded Theory – open and axial coding – to analyze the data. We found that newcomers are not enough confident to choose their initial task and they need information about the tasks or direction from the community.

Igor Steinmacher, Marco Aurélio Gerosa

Collaborating in the Fog: A Rich Description of Agile Software Development

Collaborative agile software development is inexorably replacing traditional command-and-control project arrangements. To gain a better understanding of collaboration in this context, empirical data was collected from a single co-located agile software development project. Aspects of collaboration in that project are described in a rich description. Collaboration is achieved with an assemblage of collaborative activities, activity sequencing, inter and intra-group interactions, shared artefacts, and other practices. This case description is a first step in informing a theory of collaboration that has potential to contribute to collaboration research and collaboration tool design.

Diane E. Strode

Motivating Wiki-Based Collaborative Learning by Increasing Awareness of Task Conflict: A Design Science Approach

Wiki system has been deployed in many collaborative learning projects. However, lack of motivation is a serious problem in the collaboration process. The wiki system is originally designed to hide authorship information. Such design may hinder users from being aware of task conflict, resulting in undesired outcomes (e.g. reduced motivation, suppressed knowledge exchange activities). We propose to incorporate two different tools in wiki systems to motivate learners by increasing awareness of task conflict. A field test was executed in two collaborative writing projects. The results from a wide-scale survey and a focus group study confirmed the utility of the new tools and suggested that these tools can help learners develop both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations to contribute. This study has several theoretical and practical implications, it enriched the knowledge of task conflict, proposed a new way to motivate collaborative learning, and provided a low-cost resolution to manage task conflict.

Kewen Wu, Julita Vassileva, Xiaoling Sun, Jie Fang


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