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This unique book reveals how Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) can be used to achieve resilience to change and external shocks. COINs, which consist of 'cyberteams' of motivated individuals, are self-organizing emergent social systems for coping with external change. The book describes how COINs enable resilience in healthcare, e.g. through teams of patients, family members, doctors and researchers to support patients with chronic diseases, or by reducing infant mortality by forming groups of mothers, social workers, doctors, and policymakers. It also examines COINs within large corporations and how they build resilience by forming, spontaneously and without intervention on the part of the management, to creatively respond to new risks and external threats. The expert contributions also discuss how COINs can benefit startups, offering new self-organizing forms of leadership in which all stakeholders collaborate to develop new products.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Entrepreneurship

Frontmatter

Analyzing VC Influence on Startup Success: A People-Centric Network Theory Approach

Abstract
We study the impact of venture capitalists on startup success using social network analysis. Using multiple sources, we compile a unique dataset of 3199 US-based technology startups and their board members, from which we generate and analyze the interlocking directorates network (formal network) and the Twitter activity network (informal network). We define three metrics of success: startup funding (collected from Crunchbase), annual sales (collected from OneSource), and return-on-investment (annual sales/funding). We find that startups with more VCs on their board are more centrally located in the formal network, tend to receive greater funding, have greater annual sales, yet a smaller return-on-investment. We also find that VCs are significantly more central in the Twitter network than non-VCs, and they have greater Twitter popularity (number of followers/number of people they follow). Interestingly, VCs tweet significantly less than non-VCs. Our results indicate that VCs carry a significant amount of capital, both financially as well as socially, which they transmit to the startups they become involved with, yet they tend to invest disproportionately to startup revenue (hence lower ROI).
Beth Hadley, Peter A. Gloor, Stephanie L. Woerner, Yuhong Zhou

Resilient Community and Economic Development Through Collaborative Innovation Networks

Abstract
A single organization or individual is almost always unable to provide completely satisfactory solutions to a community problem. Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) provide a method in which entities capitalize on existing human capital to spur cooperative innovation in community and economic development. This report details the successful experience of the U.S. EDA University Center for Regional Economic Innovation (REI) at Michigan State University in utilizing a COIN as a resilient economic and community development strategy. This method is successful as it allows for the resilience and adaptability of decentralized networks while retaining access to a large resource base.
Jacob Leppek, Jen Bruen, John Schweitzer

Resilience Through Collaborative Networks in Emerging Economies: Evidence from Chinese Venture Capital

Abstract
The high-speed growth of emerging economies attracts the attention of global investors, but the uncertain institutional environment in emerging and transitional economies makes investors uneasy. Using China’s venture capital (VC) data, this article examines the performance consequences of differences in ownership between foreign and local investors, and network position established when VC firms (VCs) syndicate portfolio company investments. There is a phenomenon of separate institutional settings between China’s local VCs and foreign VCs in China, which makes ownership significantly affect investment performance. The VCs’ positions in the collaborative networks can play a mediating role; foreign VCs have better investment performance because of their more central-network position. Better-networked VCs can supplement or replace formal institutions in transitional economies.
Yuhong Zhou, Peter A. Gloor, Stephanie L. Woerner

Enhancing Social and Intellectual Collaboration in Innovation Networks: A Study of Entrepreneurial Networks in an Urban Technological University

Abstract
This article documents a pilot study of the social networks of faculty, staff, and students at the Illinois Tech (IIT), an urban technical university located in Chicago. The focus of our study is the Entrepreneurship Academy (EA) Council, a university-wide, academically focused organization with an overall goal of fostering a community of entrepreneurs that transcends schools, departments, and units. In this pilot study, we used Condor, a dynamic social network (SNA) tool, to map and analyze the visual representations of the email accounts of several EA Council members. In a second phase of the project we plan to  introduce the EA Council to how they might use dynamic SNA to build and enhance resilient networks connecting students, faculty, staff, alumni, corporate partners, government, and entrepreneurial advocates to foster the creation a new generation of high impact entrepreneurs. We will present the results of this pilot study to the EA Council members with the aim of stimulating strategic conversations about the role of social networks in collaboration and innovation and about how they can use dynamic SNA to further the development of IIT’s entrepreneurial ecosystem.
Christine Miller, Jacqueline Verrilli, Teesta Jain, Nik Rokop

“German Association or Chinese Emperor?” Building COINs Between China and Germany

Abstract
This paper describes our experience teaching a distributed virtual course with teams made up by students from China and Germany. It is based on a distributed course about Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) which has been successfully taught for the last 12 years to students from Germany, the US, Finland, and Switzerland. In this course, students form teams from different locations and languages, and together complete a complex project analyzing online social media. In 2016–2017, we applied the same course framework to participants from China and Germany. To gather insights from the course, we follow a mixed method study design by analyzing qualitative interviews with course participants and quantitative communication data of course participants. We find that combining members from China and Germany into the same team poses a set of unique intercultural challenges, overcoming language and behavioral differences. We present key lessons learned to inform future courses combining participants from the East and the West.
Yang Song, Matthäus P. Zylka, Peter A. Gloor

Healthcare

Frontmatter

Dynamically Adapting the Environment for Elderly People Through Smartwatch-Based Mood Detection

Abstract
The ageing population and age-related diseases are some of the most urgent challenges in healthcare. This leads to an increasing demand in innovative solutions to afford a healthy and safe lifestyle to the elderly. Towards this goal, the City4Age project, funded by the Horizon 2020 Programme of the European Commission, focuses on IoT-based personal data capture, supporting smart cities to empower social/health services. This paper describes the combination of the smartwatch-based Happimeter with City4Age data capture technology. Through measuring the mood of the wearer of the smartwatch, a signal is transmitted to the Philips Hue platform, enabling mood-controlled lighting. Philips Hue allows the wireless remote control of energy-efficient LED light bulbs. Thus, measuring the mood through the Happimeter, the living environment for elderly people can be dynamically adapted. We anticipate that by changing colors and brightness of light bulbs using the Philips Hue platform, their quality of life can be improved. A validation test will be done in the context of the City4Age project, involving 31 elderly people living in a Southern Italian city.
Antonio Capodieci, Pascal Budner, Joscha Eirich, Peter Gloor, Luca Mainetti

Creating Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) to Reduce Infant Mortality

Abstract
This case study illustrates the growth process of a collaborative innovation network in healthcare. It tracks e-mail communication of COIN members through a method we call “virtual mirroring”, and measures the online perception of the topics of the COIN by coolhunting on social media such as Twitter and blogs. It also describes how the COIN members through “coolfarming” self-organize and identify new sub-topics for their work. In particular, the paper describes the growth process of the US Department of Health and Human Services Infant Mortality CoIIN (Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network), applying both improvement and innovation concepts to reducing infant mortality among disadvantaged families in the US.
Peter A. Gloor, Francesca Grippa

Muse Headband: Measuring Tool or a Collaborative Gadget?

Abstract
We have conducted an observational study on persons participating passively in public lectures. During a lecture we were measuring the level of focus of listeners using the Muse EEG-headband as well as conducting an observational study of the usage of the device by experiment participants. The purpose was twofold: to understand to what extent commercially available portable EEG-devices can record synchronicity of experience among the audience and to check what kind of usage participants make of this multi-purpose device. While we got some preliminary insights, we found that the usefulness in measuring EEG signal of consumer-grade devices such as Muse is extremely limited in non-laboratory conditions.
Aleksandra Przegalinska, Leon Ciechanowski, Mikolaj Magnuski, Peter Gloor

Creative Systems Analysis of Design Thinking Process

Abstract
In this paper, we study design thinking using concepts of Creative Systems Theory. Design thinking is a methodology of solving problems and is aimed at achieving innovation based on the idea of human centred design. The five stages of the design thinking process, as defined by Stanford d.school, are widely known: Empathise, Define, Ideate, Prototype and Test. Since each stage has different functions that should occur in the whole process, we consider each of the functionalities with the use of the concepts of Creative Systems Theory, which looks at creativity based on the autopoietic systems theory where the creative process is described as a chain of discoveries. Our consideration implies that design thinking could be grasped as a meaning process, where each stage facilitates different types of chains of discoveries in the creative system. This paper makes a first step towards understanding the design thinking process via the application of the Creative Systems Theory.
Namino Sakama, Haruka Mori, Takashi Iba

Society and Culture

Frontmatter

Indigenous Siberian Food Sharing Networks: Social Innovation in a Transforming Economy

Abstract
The sustainability of indigenous communities in the Arctic, and the vulnerable households within, is in large part dependent on their continuing food security. A social food-sharing network within the Ust’-Avam community on the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia is analyzed for underlying patterns of resilience and key evolutionarily stable strategies supporting cooperative behavior. Factors influencing the network include interhousehold relatedness, reciprocal sharing, and interaction effects. Social association also influences sharing. Evidence for multiple determinants of food sharing in this sample is discussed in reference to major evolutionary hypotheses and comparable studies. In sum, the findings illustrate the robustness of self-organizing distribution networks in an economic context of uncertainty.
John P. Ziker, Karen S. Fulk

Protecting New Zealand Native Birds: An Investigation of Founder Motivations in the Squawk Squad Collaborative Innovation Network

Abstract
Student social enterprise is an ideal breeding ground for Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) to thrive. Students and graduates are fresh with learning, are tech savvy, have uncolonised minds, and they default to working in non-hierarchical cooperative ways when working with their peers. This paper identifies the motivations of the founders still involved in the Squawk Squad initiative in New Zealand. Squawk Squad is a new social enterprise using smart sensors, modern trapping technologies, and a wider social network to tackle the problem of pests decimating the populations of endangered native birds. The ideas behind this social enterprise were developed by a team at a local start up week-end, and within 6 months, the team had launched a successful Kickstarter Campaign that brought in three and a half times its target. Interviews were conducted with two of the founding members to identify what motivated them to work on and grow the initiative without clear tangible rewards. Themes were identified using open coding, and seven motivational concepts were identified. Many of the themes identified will not be new to those involved in COINs research and its applications. However, this investigation does provide an interesting case study and may provide a new contribution regarding the role of technology and social networks in the democratization of conservation in New Zealand. This may have further relevance to academics and practitioners seeking to foster and grow student social enterprise and seeking to harness the power of the swarm and collaborative innovation networks.
Stephen J. Thorpe, Leanne Bint

Analyzing the Evolution of World Cultures Through Epic Stories: From Gilgamesh to Games of Thrones

Abstract
We study humanity’s attitude towards violence by looking at the plots of 110 epics in Wikipedia. Starting with Gilgamesh dated 2100 BC, and ending with Games of Thrones firmly anchored in the twenty-first century we analyze the plot section of each epic described in Wikipedia, using different automatic sentiment analysis tools such as LIWC and IBM Watson ToneAnalyzer and AlchemyLanguage to calculate average sentiment. We find an increase in positive sentiment over the centuries, confirming Steven Pinker’s theory of a reduction in overall violence despite a still high potential for conflicts in today’s globalized interconnected fast changing world; indicating growing societal resilience towards violence. We also find more positive emotion in Asian and African epics.
Peter Praeder, Gloria Volkmann, Peter A. Gloor

GalaxyScope: Finding the “Truth of Tribes” on Social Media

Abstract
This paper introduces GalaxyScope, a novel system to distinguish different interpretations of “truth” for different virtual tribes. It extracts the tribes from Wikipedia through analyzing its categories “Ideologies”, “Lifestyles”, and “Culture”, leading to tribes such as “capitalism”, “socialism”, and “liberalism”. It then calculates the most influential “tribe leaders” through their association on Wikipedia with these concepts. To score their influence in Wikipedia, we use a novel metric we call “reach2” which measures how many people somebody can reach within two degrees of separation on Wikipedia living people pages. It subsequently calculates the vocabulary on Twitter of the tribe leaders, and uses these words to automatically assign individuals to tribes, as well as calculating the relevance of text documents such as tweets or news items for each tribe.
Joao Marcos De Oliveira, Peter A. Gloor

Wuity as Higher Cognition Combining Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments for Creativity: Analyzing Elon Musk’s Way to Innovate

Abstract
Derived from unifying dual-process theories of cognitive psychology, we propose a new concept of deliberate intuition as a construct of higher-level cognition that integrates intuitive and deliberate judgments. We introduce “Wuity” cognition embedded into Chinese philosophy, which is defined by the capability of deliberate intuition and intuitive insights, based on imagery reasoning and non-dualistic thinking and manifested as mindful observation and visual analogy. We develop a framework of five features of Wuity and six steps of Wuity-based innovation. As a case study illustrating our method, we analyze Elon Musk’s way to innovate and discuss common aspects of Wuity as a higher cognition and creative thinking way of innovators in East and West.
Xin Wang, Peter A. Gloor

A Method of Generating Societal Vision Based on the Social Systems Theory

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a method of generating societal vision based on the social systems theory. When trying to generate innovation for the future society by some kind of new technology, we must have a vision of how the technology will spread in the society and change it. It is quite difficult to imagine how a new technology will spread to and influence the whole society, considering the high complexity and opaqueness of the modern society. To generate innovation and design a better future, some frameworks to understand society as a whole are necessary. In this paper, we first refer to some existing methods for thinking about the future and indicate how they are not appropriate to our research question due to the lack of a framework to understand the societal wholeness. Second, to create the framework, we (1) refer to the social systems theory that considers society as an autopoietic system whose elements are communication, (2) utilise the perspective of a functionally differentiated society and (3) refer to the functional method to analyse the social systems. Further, on the basis of the theory, we propose a method of generating societal visions, and also show the worksheet that is used to practice the method. Through this work, we enable a user to think about the network of the functional systems of the society and its change, and then to imagine the influence or spreading diffusion of the innovation to various areas outside the target domain of the innovation.
Norihiko Kimura, Haruka Mori, Yuzuki Oka, Wataru Murakami, Rio Nitta, Takashi Iba

Open Dialogue and Creativity

Frontmatter

Peer Learning via Dialogue with a Pattern Language

Abstract
In this paper, we study the way of peer learning via dialogue that uses a pattern language. Pattern languages are a collection of patterns to describe design knowledge that exists in particular areas of a profession. For the past 7 years, we have been holding workshops for dialogue with a pattern language in order to realise peer learning. In this paper, we introduce the dialogue workshop using the Learning Patterns, a pattern language for creative learning, and analyse the data of our survey. The results of 710 valid responses show that 92.4% of participants learned something new about the way of learning, when they read the book of the Learning Patterns; 91.5% reflected that the dialogue was important to learn the ways of learning; 95.7% of participants considered this activity of listening to others significant for various reasons; 90.3% thought the pattern language was helpful for sharing their experience with peers; 88.3% were able to imagine how they can actually take actions of the patterns they chose; and 96.5% of participants thought reading the pattern language and participating in the dialogue workshop was enjoyable.
Takashi Iba

Using Open Dialogue Patterns to Improve Conversation in Daily Life

Abstract
This study explores a novel way of using Open Dialogue Patterns to improve everyday communication. Open Dialogue is a dialogue-based approach frequently utilised in psychotherapy and has been proposed to apply to other situations. We organised the essence of Open Dialogue by using pattern language so as not to be limited to the field of psychotherapy (Iba et al., Open dialogue patterns: a pattern language for collaborative problem dissolving. Viking Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs, 2017; Nagai et al., Basic patterns for dialogical meeting: open dialogue patterns, Part2. 22st European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP2017), 2017). In this study, we employed a learning programme to improve everyday conversation using Open Dialogue Patterns and confirmed four participants and ten cases. The results reported herein suggest that these patterns are effective through ‘utilisation to deepen understanding of interpersonal relations’, ‘induction of the inquiry of effective dialogue’ and ‘recognition of the dialogue as a design issue.’
Masafumi Nagai, Takashi Iba

Open Dialogue as Coupling of Psychic, Social and Creative Systems

Abstract
In this paper, we study Open Dialogue, a psychiatric programme developed in Western Lapland, Finland, with the theory of autopoietic systems. Although originally developed as a psychiatric programme, we anticipate that the approach can be applied to not only psychotherapy but also educational and organisational situations as a way of “collaborative problem dissolution,” because it is based on the philosophy of dialogism, which is not limited to psychotherapy. In an attempt to apply it in a more general context, we study the function of Open Dialogue in a higher level of abstraction with concepts of systems theories, i.e. the Social Systems Theory and Creative Systems Theory. Our consideration implies that Open Dialogue can be understood well through a combination of chain of consciousness in the psychic system, chain of communication in the social system and chain of discovery in the creative system.
Takashi Iba, Masafumi Nagai, Tsuyoshi Ishida

Story Writing for Creative Revising of Ideas

Abstract
This paper presents the mechanism and methodology of creative revising in design processes. Creative revising is the process of concept development where brainstormed ideas are continuously expanded with many fresh insights and are layered with increasing complexity. This paper begins with a discussion on the factors that make the creative revising process difficult. It arrives at the conclusion that a fixed definition of ideas in the early stages hinders their development. Creative revising requires the practitioner to continuously obscure and redefine notions, and we found that designers could explore the different potentials of their ideas by writing stories. This method of creative revising ameliorates the coherence and complexity of the design as a whole. This paper therefore proposes that the writing of stories is an effective way of revising ideas and one that could prove to be a valuable method that would enable designers to ensure the sustainable improvement of their works.
Konomi Munakata, Shuichiro Ando, Takashi Iba
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