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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 20th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2019, held in Turin, Italy, in September 2019.

The 56 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 141 submissions. They provide a comprehensive overview of major challenges and recent advances in various domains related to the digital transformation and collaborative networks and their applications with a strong focus on the following areas related to the main theme of the conference: collaborative models, platforms and systems for digital revolution; manufacturing ecosystem and collaboration in Industry 4.0; big data analytics and intelligence; risk, performance, and uncertainty in collaborative networked systems; semantic data/service discovery, retrieval, and composition in a collaborative networked world; trust and sustainability analysis in collaborative networks; value creation and social impact of collaborative networks on the digital revolution; technology development platforms supporting collaborative systems; collective intelligence and collaboration in advanced/emerging applications; and collaborative manufacturing and factories of the future, e-health and care, food and agribusiness, and crisis/disaster management.



Industry 4.0 Challenges


Non-technical Challenges of Industry 4.0

Cyber-physical systems, Industry 4.0, and Economy 4.0 are defined as current trends in industrial manufacturing and more broadly – in economy and society. Three non-technical challenges are distinguished: (1) a challenge to future employees requiring new educational methods; (2) a challenge to fixing errors in complex software and training datasets; and finally (3) a challenge to responsibility of complex software designers, developers and integrators. These challenges may be considered as directions of future research on Industry 4.0 and Economy 4.0. All these challenges have roots in technology, but they have far social consequences.

Wojciech Cellary

A Meta-Model of Cyber-Physical-Social System: The CPSS Paradigm to Support Human-Machine Collaboration in Industry 4.0

The 4th industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) heavily relying on the concept of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) has transformed the manufacturing industry into an intelligent environment. Advances in manufacturing and automation industries created hyper-connected industrial ecosystems that are not limited to smart production but also facilitate organizational integration. Hence, fostering the creation of collaborative, networked and intelligent industries. One of the emerging advances in the digital transformation of industries is the creation of environments where humans work in close collaboration with sensor enabled smart machines and robots. Particularly the close involvement of humans in such smart environments challenges system designed methodologies mainly because human aspects are not considered in CPS design frameworks. In this paper, we present an approach to support this aspect of Industry 4.0 taking a Cyber-Physical-Social System (CPSS) paradigm to incorporate human aspects with the existing notion of CPS. We propose a meta-model of CPSS that can serve as a framework to design systems involving human and CPS collaboration.

Bereket Abera Yilma, Hervé Panetto, Yannick Naudet

Collaborative Networks and ICT Trends for Future CPPS and Beyond

Enterprises are forced to implement continuously new ICT architectures, devices and technologies to react in time to the demands of the market for high quality, individualized products. These demands can be fulfilled only by well-organized and operated networked production systems. Cyber Physical Production Systems (CPPS) represent this type of networks connecting their different components through collaborative networks (CN), using emerging technologies in a very flexible and efficient way. The paper gives a short overview on the trends of CN and CPPS as systems, than the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is introduced as a new technology to control devices in CPPS. As a next step a new paradigm for future production systems, beyond the CPPS is presented; the biological transformation in manufacturing (BTM), where biology, IC and manufacturing technologies are merged. There are many open questions in reference to BTM that need to be answered by the manufacturing community.

István Mezgár

Computational Creativity to Design Cyber-Physical Systems in Industry 4.0

The Fourth industrial revolution to be successfully implemented requires higher levels of creativity and innovation in the collaboration, design and composition of its cyber-physical building blocks. Powering industry 4.0 by creativity and innovation triggers efforts for better understanding of human creativity concepts and its intersection with cyber-physical systems in industry 4.0. Since computational creativity is an emerging field of research within AI that focuses on theoretical and practical issues in the study of creativity, the goal of this paper is to motivate a discussion about the application of computational creativity to design cyber physical production systems, which are at the core of industry 4.0. The fundamental research question in the paper is about the applicability of computational creativity in an industry 4.0 context.

Sanaz Nikghadam-Hojjati, José Barata

Advanced Cyber Physical Systems


Adaptive Integration of IoT with Informatics Systems for Collaborative Industry: The SITL-IoT Case

Legacy industrial infrastructures are facing complex challenges to evolve to integrated solutions through the adoption of novel computing and business paradigms. The fast-growing collaborative businesses introduce the additional complexity of managing cooperative interactions among systems of business partners. The SITL-IoT research project aims to develop an open integrated and collaborative systems landscape for the silos agri-food industry. This case considers a silos’ operator managing a maritime silos terminal in collaboration with the seaport administration, where trucks transfer bulk products to silos or bulk storages and distribute them to factories. The existing legacy management and supervision solutions are neither integrated nor properly prepared to cope with collaborative processes. Furthermore, the interactions with business partners are complex and follow dedicated integration solutions that pose difficult challenges in terms of management and evolution, since they do not follow open collaborative models or technology implementations. This paper discusses the problem domain and the approach to co-design and implement a technology-agnostic open integration infrastructure to support such collaborative network. The proposed approach considers a multi-supplier strategy for the adaptive integration of things on Internet of Things (IoT), considering the collaborative networks dimension.

A. Luis Osório, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Tiago Dias, José Tavares

Collaborative Softbots: Enhancing Operational Excellence in Systems of Cyber-Physical Systems

This paper outlines the use of Collaborative Networks foundations at the intra-organizational level, applying them in the support of systems of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), and of collaborative softbots in more particular. Five use case scenarios have been implemented upon a didactic shopfloor as a proof of concept. In spite of the complexity related to the knowledge modeling of softbots, the achieved results demonstrated the potentials of better human-automation symbiosis when groups of CPSs, information systems and humans have to cooperate and collaborate using collaborative softbots to improve operational excellence and human satisfaction in smart, social factories.

Ricardo J. Rabelo, Saulo Popov Zambiasi, David Romero

A Systematic Review of Collaborative Networks: Implications for Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Enterprises

The formation of collaborative networks advocates the efficient sharing of information and knowledge, agile and intelligent decision making for the improvement of operational, financial and organizational performance. Such configuration is motivated by the technological advances, increasing demand for customized products and dynamism characteristic of the digital era. Sensing, Intelligent, and Sustainable Enterprises (S ^ 3) address a new vision to be disseminated among organizations seeking competitive advantage. Based on the literature on Collaborative Networks and S ^ 3 Companies, the article proposes to systematically review the state-of-the-art of collaborative networks, identifying challenges and future research opportunities present at the intersection of these two approaches. As a contribution of the research, is presented a conceptual framework based on the main results of the review.

Fábio Müller Guerrini, Juliana Suemi Yamanari

Finding the Right Way Towards a CPS – A Methodology for Individually Selecting Development Processes for Cyber-Physical Systems

Numerous traditional, agile and hybrid development approaches have been proposed for the development of CPS. As the choice of development process is crucial to the success of development projects, it has become a major challenge to identify the best-suited process.This paper introduces a methodology for identifying the best-suited CPS development process, based on the individual boundary conditions for a certain development project within a company. The authors used a set of eight indicators to assess a CPS-development project. The results of the assessment were matched with CPS-development approaches. Based on the matching results a best-suited development process was selected. The application is shown for a use case in the German manufacturing industry. The developed method aims to reduce the risk of project failure due to the wrong choice of development process.

Günther Schuh, Violett Zeller, Max-Ferdinand Stroh, Philipp Harder

Open Innovation


Crowd Engineering: Manage Crowd Contributions for Design and Manufacture of Innovative Products

The increasing complexity of designing and manufacturing products as well as the growing speed required for their innovation is pushing large and medium-small companies to an ever-broader search for new ideas and for a wide availability of experts, able to provide timely contributions. Existing approaches mainly address the early phases of the product lifecycle in the frame of “open innovation”. The crowd engineering approach is to organize an efficient and effective utilization of the “crowd”, i.e. a wide set of persons, from students to private experts, and to start-ups and smart SMEs, which could be involved in the creation of innovative products. The first purpose of the paper is to give a presentation of Crowd Engineering in terms of a logical frame where crowd-workers will contribute into an informal collaborative network to fulfill technical and social needs. Then a schematic model based on an analogy between Crowd Engineering and Supply Relationship Management, will be outlined thus offering, on one hand, suggestions for a real implementation, on the other, some hints for a research agenda.

Agostino Villa, Teresa Taurino

Open Innovation Practitioners Mindset on Risk

Open Innovation is a strategy used by organizations to more promptly comply with the continuous changing market needs and renew their income streams. But its effective achievement depends on the practitioners’ ability to assume concrete mindset, like openness, acceptance of risk, talent to build trust and to learn from successes as well as from failures. Based on these assumptions, the paper explores the concept of mindset in open innovation. The approach is twofold combining sentiment analysis over interviews on web documents with semi-directive interviews conducted in IT companies. The results include a characterization of OI practitioners’ mindset concerning risk and related elements.

Paula Urze, João Rosas, Alexandra Tenera, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos

Developing a Green Product-Based in an Open Innovation Environment. Case Study: Electrical Vehicle

In order to respond to new market challenges, companies have attempted to develop open innovation processes with other organizations such as research centers and higher-education institutions. However, it is also frequently mentioned by several companies that the lack of models that support open innovation in a sustainable way, involving higher-education institutions or research centers and companies in the context of a collaborative environment, is an obstacle for a wider acceptance of this way of promoting innovation processes. Starting with some discussion about innovation models in a collaborative context, this paper discusses the developed of an electric vehicle based on an open-innovation approach among several companies and a Portuguese university.

Ricardo Santos, Antonio Abreu, Vitor Anes

Commute Green! The Potential of Enterprise Social Networks for Ecological Mobility Concepts

The paper discusses the potential of collaborative networks (CN) to support eco-friendly commuting and create ecological benefits. It therefore develops framework conditions within the concept of social business. The objective is to show up solutions to reduce air pollution, frustration, stress caused by rush hour traffic related to the inflexible working hours. Therefore, relevant social business framework conditions to support eco-friendly behavior have been identified. As a result, the paper shows how social business can combine digitally driven empowerment of workers and corporate responsibility for human and environment. It points out the potential for ecological as well as for social benefits.

Christian Zinke-Wehlmann, Julia Friedrich

Managing Disruption in Collaboration


Development of a Methodology for the Analysis and Evaluation of Alternative Actions in Disruption Management in Production

Due to Digital Transformation, also called Industry 4.0 or the Industrial Internet of Things, the barrier for implementing data collecting technology on the shop floor has decreased dramatically in the past years – leading to an increasingly growing amount of data from a multitude of IT systems in production companies worldwide. Despite that, the production controller still relies heavily on intrinsic knowledge and intuition for the management of disruptions in production. Thanks to advances in the fields of production control and artificial intelligence, potentials for the collected data for disruption management arise. However, in order to transform data into usable information and allow drawing conclusions for disruption management in production, the relevant data-objects, disturbances and alternative actions must be known. Thus, the decision-making can be supported, reducing the decision latency and increasing benefit of alternative actions. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to discuss the prerequisites necessary to perform a data based disruption management and the methodology itself, serving as an approach to allow companies to build a data basis, classify disruptions and alternative actions in order to improve decision making in the future.

Ben Luetkehoff, Volker Stich, Moritz Schroeter, Felix Steinlein

Actionable Collaborative Common Operational Picture in Crisis Situation: A Comprehensive Architecture Powered with Social Media Data

Previous works in social media processing during crisis management highlight a paradox: citizens are extensively sharing data from the field of the crisis, while decision-makers are looking for information about the emerging risks they need to address. Several tools already exist to help taking advantage of this new important source of data. However, few made their way to decision-makers, mainly because they remain resource-consuming. That is why the question of a tool, able to process social media in near-real time, to deliver actionable information from the field is still pending. Based on a state of the art of the Natural Language Processing tools and systems dedicated to the use of social media data to improve the situational awareness of the decision-makers, this paper aims to describe a way to provide them with a first comprehensive system which asset is to completely address the challenge, from the collection of the data to their interpretation and understanding and finally offer situational models. In this sense, the paper focuses on the thorough detail of the business and consequent technical challenges that are raised, and a work in progress proposal to address them in a comprehensive manner.

Julien Coche, Aurélie Montarnal, Andrea Tapia, Frederick Benaben

A Knowledge-Based System for Collecting and Integrating Production Information

Design and production departments are scarcely integrated in manufacturing companies. This fact, especially for companies with a highly customized production, is very critical, since the collaboration between the two departments is essential to reduce the trial-and-errors cycles to design new products and process. It is therefore necessary to collect data from the shop floor, especially the ones related to anomalies or critical situations, and make them at disposal to be used to improve the design of the next products and processes. The aim of this paper is to develop a knowledge-based system to digitalize and collect data regarding anomalies at the shop floor, and to integrate them with data coming from the design phase, in order to reduce the time for finalizing a new product. A case study has been developed for a car prototyping company to illustrate the potentiality of the proposed solution.

Giulia Bruno, Emiliano Traini, Franco Lombardi

Big Data and Learning


Interactive Machine Learning: Managing Information Richness in Highly Anonymized Conversation Data

This case study focuses on an experiment analysing textual conversation data using machine learning algorithms and shows that sharing data across organisational boundaries requires anonymisation that decreases that data’s information richness. Additionally, sharing data between organisations, conducting data analytics and collaborating to create new business insight requires inter-organisational collaboration. This study shows that analysing highly anonymised and professional conversation data challenges the capabilities of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms alone cannot learn the internal connections and meanings of information cues. This experiment is therefore in line with prior research in interactive machine learning where data scientists, specialists and computational agents interact. This study reveals that, alongside humans, computational agents will be important actors in collaborative networks. Thus, humans are needed in several phases of the machine learning process for facilitating and training. This calls for collaborative working in multi-disciplinary teams of data scientists and substance experts interacting with computational agents.

Ari Alamäki, Lili Aunimo, Harri Ketamo, Lasse Parvinen

Methods of Data Mining for Quality Assurance in Glassworks

In manufacturing enterprises implementing the idea of Industry 4.0, devices that generate data are increasingly used. Over time, huge data sets are created. These collections, known as Big Data, are very important to the company because they can contain valuable information. One of the goals of today’s enterprises is to discover this information and transform it into knowledge. The aim of the article is to present the methodology of exploration of large data sets from the manufacturing process in glassworks. The result of the research is knowledge about the parameters of the manufacturing process causing defects in the products.

Łukasz Paśko, Paweł Litwin

A Digital-Enabled Framework for Intelligent Collaboration in Small Teams

Socialized value creation in networked organizations is the new paradigm of digital organizations. In dynamic and uncertain environment, small teams and big organizations can benefit from interaction with intelligent assistance. For that purpose, various behavior and relationships in situations should be effectively collected and fused. This paper proposes very early steps toward developing theoretical method for the intelligent collaboration of small teams and their big organization environment. Three main subjects are addressed in this paper: (i) Behavior intelligence support for virtual organizations; (ii) Situations behavior digitization, focusing on scenario recognition and modeling; (iii) Data fusion and behavior pattern mining, based on situation-based behavior modeling and heterogeneous behavior model fusion.

Juanqiong Gou, Qinghua Liu, Wenxin Mu, Wenchi Ying, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Frederick Benaben

Collaborative Knowledge Management


Supporting Transparent Information/Knowledge Federation in Collaborative Administrative Environments

Leading edge ICT facilitates obtaining and interoperating information within collaborative networks (CNs), providing the base to tackle more advanced challenges. The paper addresses provision of transparent federated information/knowledge within administrative CNs. We introduce a methodology and mechanisms for incremental ontology development. The paper first identifies four typical sources of information/knowledge at the organizations involved in targeted emerging CNs, including: (i) database schemas, (ii) mission statements and main application scenarios, (iii) textual communications, and (iv) governance policies. It then introduces a systematic methodology to develop their meta-data and unify them into an ontology. This methodology consists of four semi-automated steps to gradually develop and enhance an ontology for the environment. The paper describes and exemplifies these steps and their mechanisms. An example real emerging case in the field of higher education administration in China is presented to serve as the proof of concept and verification of our proposed solution approach.

Beibei Pang, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Juanqiong Gou, Wenxin Mu

A Method of Ontology Evolution and Concept Evaluation Based on Knowledge Discovery in the Heavy Haul Railway Risk System

The risk pre-control of heavy haul railways is a collaborative scenario with multi-department linkage and the risk analysis model relies on multiple data sources. As a tool for knowledge formal modeling, Ontology and knowledge graph can achieve knowledge discovery, reasoning and decision support based on multi-dimensional heterogeneous data. This paper restores unusual context with participant behavior data as the core, establishes a basic Scenario-Risk-Accident Chain (SRAC) ontology framework. Under collaborative relationships formed by reasoning rules between context and risk, this paper establishes evolution mechanism of SRAC to introduce new knowledge, such as knowledge extracted from device detection data. New entities are added to the risk concept tree through semantic similarity algorithms. In addition, researchers added weight attribute to the risk ontology. With quantitative representation of risk concepts, this paper uses risk relevance mining to establish associated-subgraphs, establishes a new method for potential accident level assessment through maximum flow search mechanism.

Tiancheng Cao, Wenxin Mu, Aurélie Montarnal, Anne-Marie Barthe-Delanoë

Designing a Trusted Data Brokerage Framework in the Aviation Domain

In recent years, there is growing interest in the ways the European aviation industry can leverage the multi-source data fusion towards augmented domain intelligence. However, privacy, legal and organisational policies together with technical limitations, hinder data sharing and, thus, its benefits. The current paper presents the ICARUS data policy and assets brokerage framework, which aims to (a) formalise the data attributes and qualities that affect how aviation data assets can be shared and handled subsequently to their acquisition, including licenses, IPR, characterisation of sensitivity and privacy risks, and (b) enable the creation of machine-processable data contracts for the aviation industry. This involves expressing contractual terms pertaining to data trading agreements into a machine-processable language and supporting the diverse interactions among stakeholders in aviation data sharing scenarios through a trusted and robust system based on the Ethereum platform.

Evmorfia Biliri, Minas Pertselakis, Marios Phinikettos, Marios Zacharias, Fenareti Lampathaki, Dimitrios Alexandrou

Collaborative Business Ecosystems and Processes


A Model of Evolution of a Collaborative Business Ecosystem Influenced by Performance Indicators

The materialization of the 4th Industrial Revolution needs to emphasize the role of collaboration. Traditional business ecosystems have evolved to hyper-connected organizations facing more advanced collaboration models, dynamic networks, and more complex smart systems. Emerging collaborative aspects in this context need to be identified, and tools developed to help organizations coping with changing environment, market, and societal needs. As such, an assessment model is proposed to measure the expected self-adjustment of organizations in a collaborative business ecosystem, induced by performance indicators, in order to improve the organizations themselves and the ecosystem as a whole. Organizations with distinct profiles, categorized by classes of responsiveness, respond differently to the collaboration opportunities they may receive, or are more likely to invite others to collaborate. This behaviour is expected to be influenced by the variation in importance (weight) of each specific performance indicator adopted in a given business ecosystem, as the organizations, like individuals, tend to evolve according to how they are evaluated. To assess the proposed approach, an experiment has been set up using a simulation model based on system dynamics and agents. Preliminary results, based on a number of relevant scenarios, are presented and discussed.

Paula Graça, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos

Verifying for Compliance to Data Constraints in Collaborative Business Processes

Production processes are nowadays fragmented across different companies and organized in global collaborative networks. This is the result of the first wave of globalization that, among the various factors, was enabled by the diffusion of Internet-based Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) at the beginning of the years 2000. The recent wave of new technologies possibly leading to the fourth industrial revolution – the so-called Industry 4.0 – is further multiplying opportunities. Accessing global customers opens great opportunities for organizations, including small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but it requires the ability to adapt to different requirements and conditions, volatile demand patterns and fast-changing technologies. Regardless of the industrial sector, the processes used in an organization must be compliant to rules, standards, laws and regulations. Non-compliance subjects enterprises to litigation and financial fines. Thus, compliance verification is a major concern, not only to keep pace with changing regulations but also to address the rising concerns of security, product and service quality and data privacy. The software, in particular process automation, used must be designed accordingly. In relation to process management, we propose a new way to pro-actively check the compliance of current running business processes using Descriptive Logic and Linear Temporal Logic to describe the constraints related to data. Related algorithms are presented to detect the potential violations.

John Paul Kasse, Lai Xu, Paul deVrieze, Yuewei Bai

Collaborative Networks Management from a Theory of Constraints Perspective

Collaborative networks are organizational structures that, instead of expressing market behavior, their formation and operation are based on principles of collaboration, where trust, reliability, and commitment between partners prevail. These principles allow collaborative networks to share risks and become more competitive. Collaboration-based strategies are increasingly important in the face of a growing demand for new and more sophisticated services and products, posing significant challenges for companies that must struggle to fulfill. In this sense, companies need to adapt their business strategies, so they can react and keep up with the pace of change. In this work, we propose a new perspective from the Theory of Constraints in Collaborative Networks Management. The adaptation of the TOC’s Five Focusing Steps and TOC Thinking Process, combined with the Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) approach, are proposed to improve Collaborative Networks Management. CCPM is brought into a collaboration context to deal with project network uncertainty. A preliminary motivation example is shown in this position paper, aiming at illustrating this prospective approach in Collaborative Networks Management.

Alexandra Tenera, João Rosas

Collaborative Government and Social Policies


Next Generation Government - Hyperconnected, Smart and Augmented

Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG2030) requires that governments and their various institutions be more agile, collaborate across agency boundaries and national borders, and also develop specific capabilities. Some of the required capabilities are related to developing and sustaining governance networks, digitally transforming public service delivery, building resilience structures within government for crisis and disasters, and harnessing disruptive technologies for new solutions to hitherto unsolved problems. This paper highlights how the integration of hyper-connectivity, “smartness” and Artificial Intelligence adoption within the context of the recent Post-New Public Management (NPM) paradigms can generate new capabilities to strengthen government institutions towards achieving their relevant SDG goals.

Adegboyega Ojo

Inter-governmental Collaborative Networks for Digital Government Innovation Transfer – Structure, Membership, Operations

Digital government refers to the transformation of government organizations and their relationships with citizens, business and each other through digital technology. It entails digital innovation in processes, services, organizations, policies, etc. which are increasingly developed and tested in one country and transferred, after adaptation, to other countries. The process of innovation transfer and the underlying information and knowledge sharing increasing take place through networks. The aim of this study is to identify various forms of such networks, their structures, membership criteria and modes of operation. The study relies on the analysis of literature on innovation transfer, collaborative networks and inter-governmental collaboration, and a survey of existing inter-governmental networks for digital government innovation transfer. The key finding is that such networks are a growing form of international collaboration and an instrument in global economy.

Magdalena Ciesielska, Tomasz Janowski

Where Are Females in OSS Projects? Socio Technical Interactions

Recent researches provide evidence that women are underrepresented in the field of computer science. It has been reported that less than 10% of Open Source Software (OSS) contributors in GitHub are women. Although related qualitative and quantitative studies point out the gender gap, the technical and social interaction of females within OSS still remain unexplored and largely misunderstood. As a first step towards proposing articulated actions towards diversity and inclusion, we need first to explore the gender gap in terms of activities and interactions. Thus, we propose to answer the questions: where are females in OSS projects? How they evolve? and How they contribute to the sustainability of the OSS social capital?. We particularly focus on building socio-technical networks and analyze them to explain how females contribute and interact in practice. We reflect on interactions’ graphs and examine through a preliminary study, using data from six OSS projects, possible links between existing findings and the directions we suggest for more gender diversity. We found that females are extremely underrepresented within OSS communities, but when they participate they are productive just as males, they evolve following relatively the same patterns than males and remain more involved in projects than males.

Ikram El Asri, Noureddine Kerzazi

Digital Transformation of Supply Chain


A Digital Platform Architecture to Support Multi-dimensional Surplus Capacity Sharing

The highly disruptive transformation that digital platforms are imposing on entire sectors of the economy, along with the broad digitalization of industrial business processes, is having an impact on supply chains around the world. To take advantage of this new aggregated market paradigm new business models with a heavy focus on servitization are changing the value proposition of businesses. In this paper, we describe a reference architectural framework designed to support a digital platform fostering the optimization of supply chains by the pairing of unused industrial capacity with production demand. This framework aims at harmonizing stakeholder requirements with specifications of different levels in order to set up a coherent reference blueprint that serves as a starting point for development activities. A four-layer approach is used to articulate between technical components, with the data and tools layers, and the ecosystem, with the business and interfaces layers. The overall architecture and component description is presented as extensions of the initial set of affordances.

Henrique Diogo Silva, António Lucas Soares, Andrea Bettoni, Andrea Barni Francesco, Serena Albertario

Investigating Supply Chains Models and Enabling Technologies Towards Collaborative Networks

This research employs an extensive multiple case studies analysis to identify the most important business models affecting supply chain configurations and related enabling technologies towards the creation of collaborative networks. The results obtained from the investigation of 24 companies of manufacturing and process industry, informed by literature, identify four ‘design principles’ of business models, i.e. Personalized production, Servitization, Decentralized and modular production, and Recycle, Re-use and Sustainability. Each model is further described and discussed at the interplay between digitalization and collaborative network practices at supply chain level, showing that adopting one or a combination of the four design principles allows to actuate some of the most important features of collaboration like Vertical integration or networking of smart production systems, Horizontal integration through global value chain networks, Through-engineering across the entire value chain, Acceleration of manufacturing and Digitalization of products and services.

Elena Pessot, Andrea Zangiacomi, Frank Berkers, David Hidalgo-Carvajal, Ron Weerdmeester, Rosanna Fornasiero

Toward an Agile Adaptation of Supply Chain Planning: A Situational Use Case

The project CAASC “Cloud Adaptation for an Agile Supply Chain” (French ANR project) aims to develop monitoring services in multi actors supply chain, by integrating uncertainties in supply chain planning and developing adaptation functions to environment changes.In this paper we present a use case in the form of a serious game that aim to emerge and validate the required functionalities for the project. The game simulates a collaborative rolling horizon mid-term planning process. By analyzing its processes and results, we identify the central role of deviations analysis of plans to qualify uncertainties, assess robustness and propose response strategies.

Sanaa Tiss, Caroline Thierry, Jacques Lamothe, Christophe Rousse

Managing Logistics in Collaborative Manufacturing: The Integration Services for an Automotive Application

The critical success factor of the supply chain management process in a modern manufacturing company consists in the company’s capability to exploit the data produced by a growing number of different sources. The latter include a network of collaborative sensors, digital tools, and services, made available to suppliers and other involved supply chain actors by the recent advancements in digitalization. The collected data can be processed and analyzed in near real time to extract significant information useful for the company to take some relevant decisions. However, these data are typically produced under the form of heterogeneous formats, as they arrive from different types of sources. This is the reason why the real challenge is finding valid solutions that support the data integration. In this regard, this paper investigates the potential of a solution for data integration that allows supporting a set of interacting decision-support tools within the inbound logistics of the automotive manufacturing. This solution is based on a message-oriented middleware which enables a collaborative approach where suppliers, trucks, dock managers and production plants can share information about their own status for the optimization of the overall system.

Nicola Mincuzzi, Mohammadtaghi Falsafi, Gianfranco E. Modoni, Marco Sacco, Rosanna Fornasiero

Collaborative Services for Digital Transformation


Evaluating the Applicability and Utility of an Elderly Care Ecosystem

The improvement of life expectancy and the decline of total fertility rate worldwide have been key factors for the increasing percentage of the elderly population in the society. Aging comes with several personal needs, which require multiple care services specially tailored (personalized) for each individual. As these needs change throughout life, current services need to adapt (evolve) to reflect new requirements. Advances on collaborative networks for elderly care suggest the integration of services from multiple providers, encouraging collaboration as a way to provide better personalized and evolutionary services. This approach requires a support system to manage the personalized and evolving services for elderly care. In this paper, we present the Elderly Care Ecosystem (ECE) framework. ECE is a system designed to support the personalization and evolution of elderly care services following the principles of collaborative networks. To show the feasibility of our approach, we developed a prototype of ECE and evaluated it empirically using the technology acceptance model. Evaluation results are then presented and discussed.

Thais A. Baldissera, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos

Towards a Mobility Payment Service Based on Collaborative Open Systems

There is a need for a new strategy and approach to effectively develop mobility services in Europe. These services should be seen by customers as integrated services which are offered by a payment service provider using direct debit payments as established by the European Central Bank. The mobility service would enable a citizen to use multimodal transportation means including public transportation, tolling, parking lots, bicycle rental, etc. in Europe under a single contract. Competing mobility service providers need to be trusted and supervised by authorities based on digital supervision and auditing processes. Digital platforms need to smoothly deal with heterogeneous infrastructures of the different operators which validate utilizations using a variety of means such as card, mobile phone, or automatic vehicle identification systems. All transportation-related events need to be reliably communicated to the payment service providers. Detected failures need a clear and easy to follow resolution procedure. The variety of existing technologies and methodologies to develop informatics systems and processes automation make it difficult to reach such objectives and also an obstacle for authorities to effectively supervise the processes. An open system of systems framework approach combined with a collaborative network support infrastructure to facilitate information exchange and coordination among all involved stakeholders is proposed as a promising way to address these challenges. This paper further develops previous research in this area, better clarifying the challenges, and recommending a development strategy which has been proved in a number of partial implementations.

A. Luis Osório, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Adam Belloum

Value-Added Services, Virtual Enterprises and Data Spaces Inspired Enterprise Architecture for Smart Cities

As a part of their digital transformation, municipalities across Europe have taken initiatives to support Open Data platforms and provide services leveraging on data. This challenges the traditional business driven IT strategy promoted by several Enterprise Architecture methodologies, which are designed to operate within a single enterprise that has a complete overview of its data and ICT systems. We envisage scenarios where public and private collaborative networks provide value added services to its citizens by leveraging on data. In this paper, we propose an Enterprise Architecture Framework for Cities to support them maneuvre smartly within their data space to create value added services through a variety of collaborative networks or Virtual Enterprises that bridge organisational boundaries. The novel elements of this Enterprise Architecture Framework are a DataxChange, the Value-Added Services and Virtual Enterprise layers. This work has been conducted within the EU H2020 Smart City project +CityxChange.

Sobah Abbas Petersen, Zohreh Pourzolfaghar, Iyas Alloush, Dirk Ahlers, John Krogstie, Markus Helfert

Collaborative Building Ecosystems


Outlining a New Collaborative Business Model as a Result of the Green Building Information Modelling Impact in the AEC Supply Chain

BIM (Building Information Modelling) technological push has enabled to integrate the design/construction outcomes of 3D-CAD along the product/service AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) SC (supply chain) through an intelligent DMS (Data Management System) based on standard and interoperable data formats. The proposed end-to-end approach overcomes a typical AEC gap, enables the operationalisation of the sustainable/green building LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and puts together new collaborative relationships with the owner, among SC stakeholders and with new forms of BIM procurement. The outlined collaborative business model is based on the Quality Control and Assurance framework and provides conceptual consistency to the reintroduction of the owner concerns/satisfaction in the SC, as well as enables consistent and accountable relationships between (smart)materials procurement and building specification. An expert’s focus group carried out a preliminary check of the model’s interest/applicability, resulting in recommendations for its further detailing and for propositions development into a systematic enquiring process.

João Vilas-Boas, Vahid Mirnoori, Alim Razy, Agostinho Silva

Development of a Conceptual Architecture for the Energy Management of Building Ecosystems

The current environmental, social, and political pressure for more efficient use of energy led to the emergence of new legislation and directives both at National and European levels and, as a consequence, to the creation of various focused technological initiatives. In this line, several developments are being carried out to increase energy efficiency by reducing the energy consumption of buildings, costs, and carbon emissions, while providing adequate levels of comfort to the building’s occupants. This work intends to contribute to this area, by proposing a conceptual architecture, based on collaborative networks of physical components/devices virtualized as services to compute and communicate information to support efficient energy management of building ecosystems. The architecture is designed considering the functional requirements, the most relevant technological challenges, and the implementation strategies.

Filipa Ferrada, Ana Inês Oliveira, João Rosas, Patrícia Macedo, Ricardo Almeida, Luis M. Camarinha-Matos

Collaborative Safe Escape in Digital Transformation

Hazards are part of human life and every year thousands of people are affected by different types of natural or human provoked disasters. The evacuation is a crucial part of any rescue plan and there are many procedures and standards to support the process. Nevertheless, traditional methods and procedures need radical changes according to the “4.0” Paradigm. The rate of growth, penetration, and development of technology and more specifically what is known as emerging technologies, changing the norms and routines, and Cyber-physical systems bring intelligent to our life where Hazard Management is no exception. In this paper, a model based on emerging paradigms, called “Collaborative Safe Escape” is proposed for indoor evacuation process. This environment is based on four collaborative networks where evacuee network is a temporary network which would be created in the field when required, while the other are long-term networks with the aim to collaborate in case of hazards to assist the potential victims. The technology and the collaboration between networks create a dynamic connected environment to support the decision of potential victims. In the proposed model, smart buildings including all sensors and devices could provide rich information to be analyzed both by evacuee and rescue team. The Smart Application will keep the people involved in hazards updated by supportive information either by the rescue team or by analyzing the ambient intelligent information. The proposed idea is a future model of Safe Escape Systems in the era of Collaborative Networks and digital transformation.

Ana Inês Oliveira, Pedro Pereira, Javad Jassbi

Data Semantics in Food and Agribusiness


Semantic Support for Scenarios to Improve Communication in Agribusiness

Organizations produce and exchange a huge amount of critical information, which main purpose is to obtain acceptable results. Hence, the trend is by considering integrated systems that can be easily adapted to several domains, especially when they need to exchange information. In this context, the agribusiness sector is a good example where massive data is generated, which implies the need for information sharing and collaboration, where the great challenged is support and understand the colliding context. However, every software system relies on its context, with its own rules, dynamism, and languages. Hence, it implies a significant effort to have a complete understanding of the composed domain. For this purpose, scenarios are well-known tools to describe dynamic domains and are commonly described under text-based context. When different stakeholders build Scenarios, it is essential to review them in order to unify their description. Thus, Scenarios under this unified perspective will better support the analysis and identification of relationship between two or more domains. This analysis is the key to design mechanisms to exchange information. Therefore, in the light of this, this paper proposes a semantic definition of Scenarios and a set of queries to identify issues in the Scenarios and improve their quality. In addition to this, a wiki platform to implement the semantic support and the queries is also provided.

Leandro Antonelli, Diego Torres, Mariángeles Hozikian, Jorge E. Hernandez

Collaboration Networks for Information Empowerment of Food Consumers

The growing popularity of social networking platforms and recent advances in the internet of “things for food” open the way to conceive new information solutions to assist food consumers in their consumption activities. This paper deals with an egalitarian and bottom-up approach, where food consumers and stakeholders of the food supply chain interact to create and share valuable and reliable food information possibly coming from food instrumental measurements performed by consumers via smart food things. In particular, we propose a model of a collaborative network where members manage food information in a collective and distributed way (in terms of information generation, validation and delivery). Moreover, we highlight the outcome value of this new collaborative way of food information management under a consumer perspective.

Antonio Palmiro Volpentesta, Alberto Michele Felicetti, Nicola Frega

Big Data Transformation in Agriculture: From Precision Agriculture Towards Smart Farming

Big data is a concept that has changed the way to analyse data and information in different environments such as industry and recently, in agriculture. It is used to describe a large volume of data (structured or unstructured data), which are difficult to obtain, process or parse using conventional technologies and tools like relational databases or conventional statistics, in a reasonable time for their insight. However, Big Data is applied differently in each area to take advantage of its potential and capabilities. Specially in agriculture that presents more demanding conditions due to its inherent uncertainty, so Big Data methods and models from other environments cannot be used straight away in this area. In this paper, we present a review/update of term Big Data and analyse the evolution and the role of Big Data in agriculture outlined the element of collaboration.

María Angeles Rodríguez, Llanos Cuenca, Ángel Ortiz

Digital Transformation in Food and Agribusiness


Servitization of Biomass Processing for a Virtual Biorefinery: Application to the Lignocellulosic Biomass in a French Local Territory

Processing biomass requires four major steps (pretreatment, fermentation, separation and purification) achieved by dedicated plants called biorefineries. These highly specialized structures cannot cope with the high variability of the whole biomass supply chain. Thus, providing agility to biorefineries is a key challenge to foster biomass processing. The goal is to design a virtual biorefinery as a collective network supported by the servitization of unit operations and the reuse of existing devices. In this regard, the first step described in this paper aims to gather and organize knowledge about a given local area (stakeholders, services) and the existing transformation process operations (inputs, outputs) through a framework. To this end, two metamodels are proposed: one to collect and structure the required information about the local area; one to organize the knowledge about the transformation processes. Their use is illustrated by a use case provided by a municipalities community located in South-West France.

Michelle Houngbé, Anne-Marie Barthe-Delanoë, Stéphane Négny

Collaborative, Distributed Simulations of Agri-Food Supply Chains. Analysis on How Linking Theory and Practice by Using Multi-agent Structures

Simulations help to understand and predict the behaviour of complex phenomena’s, likewise distributed socio-technical systems or how stakeholders interacts in complex domains. Such domains are normally based on networked based interaction, where information, product and decision flows comes in to play, especially under the well-known supply chains structures. Although tools exist to simulate supply chains, they do not adequately support multiple stakeholders to collaboratively create and explore a variety of decision-making scenarios. Hence, in order to provide a preliminary understanding on how these interaction affects stakeholders decision-making, this research presents an study, analysis and proposal development of robust platform to collaboratively build and simulate communication among supply chain. Since realistic supply chain behaviours are complex, a multi-agent approach was selected in order to represent such complexities in a standardised manner. The platform provides agent behaviours for common agent patterns. It provides extension hotspots to implement more specific agent behaviour for expert users (that requires programming). Therefore, as key contribution, technical aspects of the platform are presented, and also the role of multi-level supply chain scenario simulation is discussed and analysed, especially under de context of digital supply chain transformation in the agri-food context. Finally, we discuss lessons learned from early tests with the reference implementation of the platform.

Alejandro Fernandez, Jorge E. Hernandez, Shaofeng Liu, Hervé Panetto, Matías Nahuel Pankow, Esteban Sanchez

Enhancing the Sustainability Performance of Agri-Food Supply Chains by Implementing Industry 4.0

In order to enhance the sustainability in the supply chain, its members should define and pursue common objectives in the three dimensions of the sustainability (economic, environmental and social). The Agri-Food Supply Chain (AFSC) is a network of different members such as farmers (producers), processors and distributors (wholesales, retailers…), etc.. In order to achieve the performance objectives of the AFSC, Industry 4.0 technologies can be implemented. The aim of this paper is to present a classification of these technologies according to two criteria: objective to be achieved (environmental or social) specified in the main issues to be covered in each objective and member of the AFSC supply chain where it is implemented. In this work, we focus on technologies that deal with environmental and social sustainability because economic sustainability will depend on the specific characteristics of the business (a supply chain using a specific Industry 4.0 technology may be profitable while others do not).

David Pérez Perales, María-José Verdecho, Faustino Alarcón-Valero

Data Management for Collaboration in Value Creation Networks


Data-Driven Pattern-Based Constructs Definition for the Digital Transformation Modelling of Collaborative Networked Manufacturing Enterprises

The digital transformation of collaborative networked manufacturing enterprises requires the building and the applying digital models representing the set of resources and processes knowledge. Modelling such digital copy of the physical system to perform real-time validation and optimization is quite complex and thus needs a big amount of data and some modelling patterns representing the operational semantics of the modelled elements. Generally, the modelling action has a specific application type. For this reason, the core challenge of the digital transformation modelling is to create a modular “digital model”, namely a decomposable and re-composable model, towards different applications. The authors propose an approach based on the combination of data-driven and model-based approaches, to identify and formalize modelling patterns, that combine for developing a modular executable model of the studied system.

Concetta Semeraro, Mario Lezoche, Hervé Panetto, Michele Dassisti, Stefano Cafagna

Data Privacy Concerns Throughout the Customer Journey and Different Service Industries

Data privacy concerns play a significant role during collaboration with customers in digital networks. An important element in collaboration between business partners is the utilization of customer data in common offering development, marketing, and service operations. The aim of this paper was to focus on data privacy in the context of the customer journey and in different service industries. Based on empirical survey data (n = 306), our findings highlighted the importance of recognizing phases in the customer journey and have drawn attention to information sensitivity in different service industries. Findings showed that customers’ willingness to share data with different industries varied. Moreover, consumers’ attitudes towards the use of their personal data varied at different phases of the customer journey. Our findings have emphasized the importance of information sensitivity in different phases of the customer journey, especially when designing a means for effective data utilization in collaborative networks.

Marko Mäki, Ari Alamäki

Connected and Multimodal Passenger Transport Through Big Data Analytics: Case Tampere City Region, Finland

Passenger transport is becoming more and more connected and multimodal. Instead of just taking a series of vehicles to complete a journey, the passenger is actually interacting with a connected cyber-physical social (CPS) transport system. In this study, we present a case study where big data from various sources is combined and analyzed to support and enhance the transport system in the Tampere region. Different types of static and real-time data sources and transportation related APIs are investigated. The goal is to find ways in which big data and collaborative networks can be used to improve the CPS transport system itself and the passenger satisfaction related to it. The study shows that even though the exploitation of big data does not directly improve the state of the physical transport infrastructure, it helps in utilizing more of its capacity. Secondly, the use of big data makes it more attractive to passengers.

Riku Viri, Lili Aunimo, Heli Aramo-Immonen

Collaborative Decision-Making in Value Creation Networks


Framework to Model PSS Collaborative Value Networks and Assess Uncertainty of Their Economic Models

This paper presents a framework for addressing the challenge of economic value sharing among actors of Product-Service value networks. More specifically the framework is dedicated to the assessment of alternative collaborative value networks and their associated economic models, at the time of designing a product-service system (PSS). The framework includes three main components: modelling, simulation and uncertainty assessment. The framework is briefly presented as parts of its components were discussed in previous research. The paper provides an illustration with a design project of a PSS solution in the agro-alimentary industry, requiring a balanced configuration of collaborative value network.

Xavier Boucher, Khaled Medini, Camilo Murillo Coba

A Business Model Assessment and Evaluation Framework for City Logistics Collaborative Strategic Decision Support

Several City Logistics (CL) initiatives have emerged in the last two decades with the aim to reduce the negative externalities of freight distribution in urban areas. Such initiatives can be public and/or private but need to not break or impeach current operations efficiency so to not hinder their profitability. In order to provide business value to CL initiatives and thus fostering their long-term success, it is necessary to understand the decision-making of private companies operating in the urban freight ecosystem. This paper proposes an ex-ante assessment and evaluation framework built around the concept of an ecosystem business modelling that includes the decision-making by CL stakeholders. A theoretical framework previously developed is extended to evaluate a collaborative business model of an Urban Consolidation Centre (UCC). Cost-Benefit analysis (CBA is used estimate the impact of the business model configuration. Finally, research and practice implications are also addressed.

Giovanni Zenezini, Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu, Giulio Mangano, Laura Palacios-Arguello

Assessment of Failures in Collaborative Human-Robot Assembly Workcells

Collaborative Human-Robot workcells introduce robot-assisted operations in small-volume production or assembly processes, where conventional automation is noncompetitive. Unfortunately, the collaborative work of humans and robots sharing the same work area and/or working on the same assembly operation may pose unprecedented problems and failure risks. Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is a popular tool to design reliable processes, which investigates the potential failure modes from the perspective of severity, occurrence and detection. The traditional FMECA approach requires the assessment of failure modes to be carried out collectively by a group of experts. Nevertheless, in the field of Human-Robot collaboration, experts are often unlikely to agree in their judgements, due to the almost inexistent historical records. Additionally, the traditional approach is not appropriate for decentralized production/assembly processes.The paper revisits the traditional approach and integrates it with the ZMII-technique – i.e., a recent aggregation technique developed by the authors – which overcomes some limitations, including but not limited to: (i) arbitrary categorization and questionable aggregation of the expert judgments, (ii) disregarding the variability in these judgments, and (iii) disregarding the result uncertainty. The description is supported by a real-life application example.

Domenico A. Maisano, Dario Antonelli, Fiorenzo Franceschini

Discrete Event Simulation as a Support in the Decision Making to Improve Product and Process in the Automotive Industry - A Fuel Pump Component Case Study

In Mexico, the automotive sector is one of the most profitable industrial activities as it contributes 2.9% of the national GDP [1]. However, there still exist facilities that are in transit of manufacturing processes improvement. In recent years, the adoption of emergent technologies, practices and tools that lead into the Industry 4.0, has been a parameter to compete and remain competitive in the global market. Upgrading all the processes is not always a viable solution. Thus, companies must identify the optimal solution to increase their productivity. Numerous technologies are available to facilitate this migration. This paper aims to show how discrete event simulation with an action research cycle supports the decision making in process improvement aided by the information collected in Collaborative Networks. A case study is shown in the automotive sector to validate changes in processes based on estimated energy consumption, maintenance strategies, process time reduction and the implementation of state-of-the-art sustainable processes.

Luis E. Villagomez, Daniel Cortés, José Ramírez, Alejandro Álvarez, Rafael Batres, Ivann Reyes, Germán Esparza, Nancy Cruz, Arturo Molina

Virtual Reality in Education for Industry 4.0


Application of Virtual Reality in Designing and Programming of Robotic Stations

The article presents the subject of the practical application of virtual reality in the design and programming of robotic stations. Robotic stations designed with the use of virtual reality were created in a collaborative network study consisting of a university, enterprise and government organization - National Centre for Research and Development. An example of a project implemented within the framework described in the collaboration article is the robotisation of the manufacturing processes of aircraft engine components.

Dariusz Szybicki, Krzysztof Kurc, Piotr Gierlak, Andrzej Burghardt, Magdalena Muszyńska, Marek Uliasz

Application of Virtual Reality in the Training of Operators and Servicing of Robotic Stations

The article discusses the subject of the use of virtual reality in training the service and maintenance of robots and robotic stations. The developed trainings use virtual reality, thus they are interactive and allow advanced operations without the risk of damaging expensive equipment. The idea of the training program and the application of virtual reality was based on the collaborative network defined in the article. The individual chapters discuss the idea of virtual reality, tools used to develop the training system and examples of activities carried out. Real tools used to obtain virtual reality are shown. Methods of developing interactive elements necessary in simulations are presented.

Magdalena Muszyńska, Dariusz Szybicki, Piotr Gierlak, Krzysztof Kurc, Andrzej Burghardt, Marek Uliasz

VR Training for Security Awareness in Industrial IoT

Virtual Reality technology provides new solutions and more efficient opportunities for a revolutionary new manufacturing training environment. This work focus on presenting a VR training environment on a new and promising IoT communication protocol, the Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN). The LP-WAN have recently emerged as a standard IoT communication system that satisfies the challenges of industrial networks by enhancing their reliability and efficiency. The LPWAN is a promising response to the limitations showed by current IoT technologies. Here are exploited the possibilities of the 3D virtual world technology to create experiential learning simulations, which address IoT users’ real needs for privacy and security awareness. To this aim, a 3D role playing game is introduced and a group of master students have evaluated its ability to help them for handling the security features of LPWAN.

Vasiliki Liagkou, Chrysostomos Stylios

Education and Enabling Tools for Industry 4.0


Simulations of Manufacturing Systems: Applications in Achieving the Intended Learning Outcomes

The work describes various problems that can arise in the planning, organization and operation of manufacturing processes. The consequences for the companies resulting from the problems are deliberated together with the proposed remedies. It is important to teach students what kind of problems they may face in their future work and how they can analyze the problems and look for appropriate solutions. The students should also understand how the problems can influence on other companies working in a collaborative network (CN). In the work, the intended learning outcomes that can be achieved are presented. Then, simulations of chosen problems are analyzed and discussed.

Paweł Litwin, Maksymilian Mądziel, Dorota Stadnicka

Influence of Trust Factors on Shared Laboratory Resources in a Distributed Environment

Every collaboration stands on a foundation of mutual trust. This is a pre-requisite for any information sharing as well as the basis to successfully carry out collaborative tasks. This article presents the use case of Open Digital Lab 4you, a digitized laboratory environment, and identifies relevant trust factors based on a literature review and action-based research. In this paper stakeholders’ needs and requirements are discussed and these are linked to several, critical aspects of trust when sharing resources among public institutions.

Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Valentin Kammerlohr, Barbara Göbl, Heiko Duin

Key Performance Indicators Integrating Collaborative and Mobile Robots in the Factory Networks

Measuring performances of collaborative robots in Industry 4.0 applications is an open research area since the emergence of collaborative and mobile robots as a support for semi-automatic manufacturing processes. A compelling management problem is the definition of convenient performance measures on which to assess the new generation of robots, to improve process performances both at the robotic cell design stage and at the production stage. A consequent problem is to gather the required data to measure performances. Data must be obtained automatically and in real time. Different levels of communication protocols have to be harmonized in order to transfer data from robots and other factory machines to the cloud on the internet and eventually to the production control system. A case study allows to demonstrate the operation of data acquisition system for collaborative and mobile robots and the real–time monitoring dashboard. The outcome of the study is the gathering of data at field level, the evaluation of robot performances at machine level in order to execute the real time production control at factory level.

Khurshid Aliev, Dario Antonelli, Ahmed Awouda, Paolo Chiabert


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