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Über dieses Buch

This book explores the principles, design, and image processing of multi-primary displays, and introduces the reader to the intricacies of the typical imaging pathways which influence display design and the perception of color within a display system.

Early chapters introduce the concepts behind human perception, color science, and lighting, which are necessary to fully understand multi-primary displays. The reader is also introduced to digital capture and transmission systems to better understand the ecosystem in which multi-primary displays exist. Subsequent chapters introduce the reader to current display technologies, including LCD, OLED, and inorganic LED displays. The working principles, performance, and upcoming advances are discussed for each of these technologies to provide the reader with a clear understanding of the tradeoffs which are necessary when considering multi-primary displays. This discussion is followed by an in-depth discussion of the image processing technology necessary to implement multi-primary displays. The book concludes with chapters that clearly discuss the advantages and limitations of multi-primary displays for direct view, virtual reality, and augmented reality displays.

The book provides a broad viewpoint across the entire display ecosystem, explaining the interactions among system components to provide a rationale for the further development of multi-primary displays.

Whether the reader is interested in broadening their understanding of display systems or the development of multi-primary displays, the text provides and understandable and practical summary of important display system concepts.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Color from a Systems Point of View

Abstract
As we begin to explore the perception of color, it is important to understand the attributes of our environment, our tools, and our visual system which influence the perception of color. We begin with a walk in the wild to explore our changing perception of color. We explore this experience, describing color in a three-dimensional space, which changes as illumination changes. This experiential exploration emphasizes the fact that is important to describe color, not just in a two-dimensional space but a three-dimensional space which includes a luminance dimension. From the real world to the virtual world, we discuss the need for color accuracy in virtual experiences from retail to medicine. The purpose of this chapter is to define the system components and some of their attributes which influence the perception of color. We will then expand on each of these influences in subsequent chapters to provide a holistic view of color perception . This information is used to help understand the advantage of multi-primary color displays.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 2. Human Perception of Color

Abstract
As we have established that color is in the eye of the beholder, it is appropriate to begin our discussion by examining human vision, perception and methods of specifying color. This chapter investigates the properties of human vision and basic color science metrics that will be useful to understand multi-primary displays. We begin by reviewing the basic anatomy of the human eye and the functions of the basic structures which are important to our discussion. We then discuss color processing in the human eye -brain system at a high level, providing a general sense of some of the important aspects of the human eye -brain system beyond the eye which influence our perception of color. We will then turn our attention to common metrics for understanding and measuring luminance and color. We will use many of these metrics throughout this book to help understand the utility and differences between different lighting and display technologies, as well as help us understand some important differences between traditional three color primary displays and multi-primary displays.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 3. Scenes and Lighting

Abstract
Turning from perception , we take a look back at our world. We begin by discussing the measurement of light in our natural world, clearly differentiating the measurement of luminance and illuminance . We then explore illumination both in our natural world as well as artificial illumination we employ every day in our manmade world, comparing and contrasting daylight and artificial illumination. We conclude this chapter by discussing the reflectance of items and the implications of this reflectance on color saturation and relative luminance . We clearly illustrate that all colors are not equally-likely but that saturated colors, and especially bright, saturated colors, are rare although often important entities within our environment, whether it is artificial or manmade.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 4. Capture, Storage and Transmission Systems

Abstract
To bring our world into our display, it is necessary to capture, store and transmit a representation of that world. We seek to discuss the important attributes of this portion of the system before we finally turn our attention to displays. In this chapter, we discuss common components and attributes of digital cameras. Included will be a discussion of sensor technology which illustrates sensors analogous to our multi-primary displays. From the camera, we will discuss image encoding and the assumptions typically made regarding encoding for display and some of the reasons these assumptions are less relevant than they have been in the past. Finally, we will turn our attention to three-dimensional capture as this portion of the discussion will be relevant to our future discussion of virtual and augmented reality displays.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 5. LCD Display Technology

Abstract
In a first of two chapters on display technology, this chapter introduces Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). We review some of the reasons this technology has become the dominant display technology within the world-wide market, as well as the possible threat to this dominance. This conversation includes the basic structure and function of these displays, including their important performance characteristics. We see at their heart LCDs are light modulators, manipulating the light provided by a backlight to impart an image. The robustness of this process affects many of the performance parameters of this technology. Finally, we look at advances in integrating high performance backlights into these displays to create higher quality images, improving the quality and power consumption of these displays. These innovations permit LCDs to compete with the LED-based displays we will discuss in the upcoming chapter.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 6. LED Display Technologies

Abstract
Although LCD modulates the light from a backlight , LED displays permit light to be emitted only where it is necessary. There are two categories of LED display technologies, including Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and inorganic Light Emitting Diode (iLED) displays. Although the manufacturing constraints for displays formed from each of these technologies differ significantly, many of the general electrical and light emission characteristics are similar. As we have already discussed many of the general performance characteristics of iLEDs in Chap. 3 when we were discussing lighting, this chapter focuses on OLED displays. However, the use of iLEDs to form displays are discussed. Interestingly each of these technologies suffer significant manufacturing challenges which must be addressed if they are to replace LCDs across the entire display market. We will also see that the manufacturing challenges associated with large format OLEDs has led to the development of multi-primary OLEDs to permit this technology to compete in the large screen television market.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 7. Display Signal Processing

Abstract
The focus of this chapter is on display signal or image processing. Specifically, this chapter focuses on accepting images encoded in a standard format, such as sRGB , and manipulating the image data to be presented on a display. The base image processing algorithms discussed seek to render the image as a metameric match to the original scene. That is, these algorithms seek to render image information using various combinations of display primaries which have equivalent chromaticity coordinates to information in the original scene. While this is not sufficient to insure that the rendered image will match the information in the original image for any given user, it should approximate the colors of the original scene, permitting the users to learn and estimate the color in the original scene. Steps for rendering images as a metameric match is first discussed for RGB images and then for multi-primary displays. Although the focus of the chapter is on providing a metameric match, it is acknowledged that departures from this assumption can provide higher quality images on the same display under certain conditions and, therefore, methods to depart from the metameric match to harvest some of these advantages are discussed. However, these departures are designed to provide the advantages with a minimum of color distortion. The discussion of multi-primary displays begins with a series of assumptions which make the accurate conversion from an RGB image to a RGBW multi-primary image simple. These assumptions are relaxed and the algorithm is extended to include a broad range of multi-primary displays. Finally, rendering HDR images on multi-primary displays is discussed.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 8. Spatial Attributes of Multi-primary Displays

Abstract
In most Multi-Primary displays it becomes necessary to replace the three colors of light-emitting elements with four or more colors of light-emitting elements. Of course, changes in the spatial quality of the display occur as a result. As we will discuss, at times the use of multi-primary displays may require more light-emitting elements to be built into the display than would be necessary for an RGB display. However, conditions are discussed in which the number of light-emitting elements might actually be reduced in multi-primary displays as compared to RGB displays having equivalent image quality. In addition to discussing light emitting elements and rendering algorithms to form high quality multi-primary displays, we discuss methods to evaluate the image quality of multi-primary displays. The ability to predict the impact of incorporating various arrangements of light-emitting elements and associated image processing which is necessary to avoid unnecessary risk when designing multi-primary displays.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 9. The Multi-primary Advantage

Abstract
The tradeoff between narrow and broad bandwidth emitters and filters permeates the discussion of multi-primary displays. The color saturation offered by narrow bandwidth emitters and filters provides an important display characteristic, permitting highly saturated colors to be rendered appropriately. However, broad bandwidth emitters and filters often provide higher energy efficiency, greater eye sensitivity, and a reduction in the likelihood of metameric failure. In RGB displays, the attributes enabled by narrow bandwidth emitters and filters are always in competition with the attributes enabled by broad bandwidth emitters and filters. In this chapter we illustrate how additional primaries, having either broad bandwidth or narrow bandwidth emission, eliminates this competition, opening the door to higher energy efficacy, reduced metameric failure, and the enablement of new display configurations. It is the removal of this competition which creates the multi-primary advantage.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 10. Virtual and Augmented Reality Displays

Abstract
While most of our discussion of the imaging system and the role of multi-primary displays has been relatively display agnostic, the majority of this book has been written with a dominant focus on direct view displays. However, there are some peculiar attributes of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality displays which are relevant to the multi-primary display discussion. This chapter focuses on some attributes of virtual and augmented reality displays that are particularly relevant to the multi-primary display discussion. The later portion of this chapter will focus on some challenges of virtual and augmented reality displays within the larger imaging system. These challenges will in some cases go beyond concerns relevant to multi-primary displays, but there are notable interactions that should be considered if one is considering the application of multi-primary technology in VR or AR displays.
Michael E. Miller

Chapter 11. Multi-primary Displays, Future or Failure?

Abstract
A final review of the progress in multi-primary displays and a final overview of the system impacting the application of multi-primary displays are provided. We look beyond the technical advantages, issues and concerns to understand some of the market forces which will likely influence the multi-primary advantage. Finally, we look back at history in an attempt to forecast the future of multi-primary displays, completing our foray into these kinds of displays.
Michael E. Miller

Backmatter

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