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Über dieses Buch

This book critically examines the environmental hazards posed by global warming with regard to future food security, which will depend on a combination of stresses, both biotic and abiotic, imposed by climate change; variability of weather within a growing season; and the development of cultivars that are more sensitive to different ambient conditions. Furthermore, the ability to develop effective adaptive strategies which allow these cultivars to express their genetic potential under changing climate conditions will be essential.
In turn, the book investigates those plant species which are very closely related to field crops and have the potential to contribute beneficial traits for crop improvement, e.g. resistance to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses, enriching the gene pool, and ultimately leading to enhanced plant yield, known as “Crop Wild Relatives” (CWRs). CWRs hold tremendous potential to sustain and enhance global food security, contributing to human well-being. Accordingly, their development, characterization and conservation in crop breeding programs have assumed great practical importance.
Professor Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair is an internationally acclaimed agricultural scientist, with over three decades of experience in Europe, Africa and Asia, holding some of the most prestigious academic positions, including the National Chair of the Science Foundation, The Royal Society, Belgium. A Senior Fellow of the world renowned Alexander von Humboldt Research Foundation of The Federal Republic of Germany, he is best known, globally, for having developed a revolutionary soil management technique, known as "The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept", which, while questioning the scientific fallacies of the highly soil extractive farming, euphemistically known as the "green revolution", has opened up an alternative path for sensible and scientific soil management

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Global warming is a reality man has to live with. This is a very important issue to recognize, because, of all the parameters that affect human existence, on planet earth, it is the food security that is of paramount importance to life on earth and which is most threatened by global warming.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 2. Wild Cereal Cultivation in Israel—Global Warming: An Important Link

Abstract
That the Israeli climate has undergone a sea change during the last three decades is beyond dispute.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 3. Climate-Evolution—The Interrelationship

Abstract
The ability of plants to adapt to different climatic conditions under natural selection can be found through an analysis of genetic variation among wild populations from different environments.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 4. The Adaptation Range of Wild Crop Species to Fluctuations in Climate Change

Abstract
The major staple food crops, such as rice, wheat, maize, potato, barley and sorghum, and grain legumes, oilseeds, and many vegetable crops are variously adapted to current climatic zones around the world. All of these crops differ in optimum temperatures for growth and harvestable yield, and, also in temperature limitations for critical growth phases, such as pre-anthesis grain filling in cereals.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 5. Importance of Crop Wild Relatives

Abstract
In a plant evolutionary time scale, running to millions of years, with a very constrained genetic bottleneck in the selection of rare mutations for domestication traits (reduced shattering, reduced seed dormancy, and increased seed size) and natural selection under a generally mild environment without frequent extremes, crop diversification during the past 10000 years, comparatively, has been relatively recent.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 6. A Crop-Wise Comparison of Domestic Gene Pool with Wild Relatives on Ecogeographic Diversity

Abstract
Bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, is a hexaploid comprising an “A” genome from the wild diploid Triticum urartu (Au genome), a “B” genome most likely from Aegilops speltoides, and a “D” genome from Triticum tauschii.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 7. Relevance of Wild Relatives in Other Crops in Plant Breeding Programs

Abstract
When comparisons are made between domestic crops and their wild relatives, it must be recognized that both are from different origins of distribution, which vary by crop, and specific consideration of the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 8. Conservation Research and Crop Wild Relatives Use

Abstract
How does climate change affect Crop Wild Relatives (CWR)?
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 9. The Threats to Crop Wild Relatives

Abstract
In addition to climate change, there are several other threats to CWRs, such as, their loss, degradation, and fragmentation of their natural habitats, deforestation, logging, plantation and industrialized agriculture, forestry, dryland destruction and desertification, fire, urbanization, mining and quarrying, and, massive invasive species.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 10. Gene Flow Between Cultivated Plants and Their Wild Relatives

Abstract
More often than not, farmers, if they are in the know of things, tolerate the presence of CWR on the farms because they recognize their value in providing beneficial traits to their standing crops.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 11. In Situ Conservation Research in CWR

Abstract
The preferred approach in CWR conservation is in situ research.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 12. Ex Situ Conservation Research in CWR

Abstract
Both in situ and ex situ conservation research must be looked at as complementary to each other (Dulloo 2011).
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 13. Utilizing CWRs in Major Food Crops to Combat Global Warming

Abstract
It is almost a century back that attempts to use genes from crop wild relatives (CWRs) to improve crop production were initiated. However, it is during the past six to seven decades that the rate of release of cultivars containing genes of wild relatives was exploited in crop breeding programs to impart resistance and/or tolerance to biotic factors such as diseases and pests.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 14. The CWR of Minor Fruit Crops

Abstract
The commonly used term “fruit” denotes edible botanical fruit, frutescens, (Latin word, meaning twiggy, bushy), and seed of wild and cultivated species of woody or herbal plants.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 15. Ecosystem Services of Crop Wild Relatives

Abstract
Agricultural sustainability will, increasingly, in the course of time, depend on using crop wild relatives to combat the ravages of global warming.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 16. Predictive Characterization of CWRs

Abstract
Within the CWR population diversity, the principal components are richness, size, spatial distribution, and differentiation (Luck et al. 2003). The distribution of population sizes determines whether a CWR is characterized by a single large population, many small populations, or several similarly sized populations.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 17. CWR and Pre Breeding in the Context of the International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA)

Abstract
On the basis of a broad definition of CWR, as any taxon belonging to the same genus as a crop, it has been estimated that there are 50–60,000 CWR species worldwide.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 18. Pre Breeding by Utilizing CWR

Abstract
It has been the beaten track, for over decades now, by those involved in plant breeding, to use the limited number of parental lines to develop varieties of major food crops like rice and wheat.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 19. Economics of CWR Under Climate Change

Abstract
Despite difficulties involved in precisely quantifying the undeniable economic value of CWR, it can never be underestimated. CWR is a treasure house of genetic material which can provide immense benefits to agriculture when integrated into cultivated crop varieties. CWR species have been used in crop breeding to introduce genes into cultivated varieties to impart traits, such as, drought and frost tolerance, resilience to insect pests and diseases, and, specific abiotic stress like soil acidity and salinity.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 20. Conservation Economics of CWR

Abstract
While analyzing the economic value of CWR, the costs of conserving them should also be taken into consideration, because, without foolproof conservation, the inherent value of a CWR might simply be lost.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 21. The Millennium Seed Bank—Their Conservation Roles and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Abstract
According to FAO statistics (FAO 2010), more than 2500 botanical gardens and 1750 gene banks exist worldwide.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair

Chapter 22. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Abstract
The SGSV was officially inaugurated in February 2008. It offers a unique possibility for exposure concerning issues of conservation of plant genetic resources.
Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair
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