Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Endemic corruption has been a destructive legacy of the communist rule inherited by most successor states of the Soviet Union. While some post-Soviet states have managed to significantly reduce corruption, others are still among the worst performing countries. Armenia is one of them. Corruption is one of the defining characteristics of Armenian politics described by strong patronage client networks, by a lack of separation between private business and public office, as well as by the overlap between political and business elites. The judiciary and the police considered as crucial actors to combat corruption are themselves plagued by it. All of these undermine the successful implementation of anti-corruption efforts. As Armenia is doing poorly on the legal framework of an anti-corruption agenda, the application of legislative measures and rules is of particular importance in order to strengthen the legal and regulatory regimes to fight corruption in the country. The lack of political will to combat corruption is another main obstacle to overcome. The chapter explores the extent and effect of corruption in Armenia with a primary focus on political corruption and the role of civil society in combating it. Another crucial part of the chapter focuses on the United Nations Convention against Corruption which signifies the role of civil society in the anti-corruption measures. At first glance, Armenia has made some progress by taking the very first steps in order to harmonize domestic legislation in compliance with the provisions of the Convention. However, Armenia has not adopted many of the legislative and other measures mentioned in it which are essential for successful prevention and fight against corruption. Thus, the second part of the chapter reflects on the implementation of the convention in the country, reveals existing gaps, and develops recommendations for Armenia’s enforcement of some articles of the convention which are particularly important for crippling political corruption. It also offers some recommendations on how to make civil society’s engagement in the fight against corruption more active in the Armenian context and within the Convention in particular.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aghalaryan, K., & Baghdasaryan, E. (2016). Mihran Poghosyan: the Armenian General Who Mastered the Ins and Outs of Panama’s Offshore Zone. In hetq.am. http://hetq.am/eng/news/66918/mihran-poghosyan-the-armenian-general-who-mastered-the-ins-and-outs-of-panamas-offshore-zone.html. Accessed 7/07/2017.
Amundsen, I. (1999). Political corruption: An introduction to the issues. (Working Paper 1999:7). Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute-Development Studies and Human Rights.
Anheier, H. (2004). Civil society: Measurement, evaluation, policy. Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications.
Armenia: Internal Instability ahead: Europe Report Nr 153. (2004). International crisis group. Brussels.
Asatryan, V., et al. (2015). State of the fight against corruption in the South Caucasus. European Policy Brief. https://ec.europa.eu/research/social-sciences/pdf/policy_briefs/cascade_pb-0815.pdf. Accessed 18/12/2016.
Asbarez. Armenian government approves new anti-corruption bill. http://asbarez.com/157253/armenian-government-approves-new-anti-corruption-bill/. Accessed 2/10/2017.
Aslanian, K. (2017). More European Support for Judicial Reform in Armenia. https://www.azatutyun.am/a/28785039.html. Accessed 15/09/2017.
Armenian Lawyers’ Association. Civil society has influenced the formation of anti-corruption Agenda in Armenia. Success Story. http://armla.am/en/1785.html. Accessed 12/08/2017.
Bailey, B. (2008). Promotion of participatory policymaking among targeted groups (anti-corruption accent) – outcome evaluation-UNDP Armenia. https://erc.undp.org/evaluation/documents/download/2166. Accessed 5/06/2016.
Becquart-Leclercq, J. (1984). Paradoxes of political corruption: A French view. In A. Heidenheimer, M. Johnston, & V. LeVine (Eds.), Political corruption: A handbook (pp. 191–210). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers third printing 1993.
Bertelsmann Transformation Index. Bertelsmann transformation index 2003: Armenia. http://bti2003.bertelsmann-transformation-index.de/fileadmin/pdf/laendergutachten_en/gus_mongolei/Armenia.pdf. Accessed 21/08/2017.
Caucasus Research Resources Centers. 2010. Armenia corruption survey of households. http://old.crrc.am/index.php/en/159/. Accessed 9/9/2016.
Corruption Perceptions Index. (2016). https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016. Accessed 26/08/2016.
Country Review Report of Armenia by Lithuania and the Kyrgyz Republic of the implementation by Armenia of Articles 15 – 42 of Chapter III “Criminalization and law enforcement” and Articles 44 – 50 of Chapter IV “International cooperation” of the United Nations Convention against Corruption for the review cycle 2010 – 2015. https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/CountryVisitFinalReports/Armenia_UNCAC_Implementation_Report.pdf. Accessed 3/06/2016.
Croissant, A., & Merkel, W. (2004). Introduction: Democratization in the early twenty-first century. Democratization, 11(5), 1–9. CrossRef
Darden, K. (2001). Blackmail as a tool of state domination: Ukraine under Kuchma. East European Constitutional Review., 10(2–3), 67–71.
Darden, K. (2008). The integrity of corrupt states: Graft as an informal state institution. Politics & Society, 36(1), 35–59. CrossRef
Dell, G., & Terracol, M. (2014). Using the UN convention against corruption to advance anti-corruption efforts: A guide. Transparency International and UNCAC Coalition.
Diamond, L. (1999). Developing democracy: Toward consolidation. Baltimore/London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dwivedi, O. (1967). Bureaucratic corruption in developing countries. Asian Survey., 7(4), 245–253. CrossRef
Elliott, R., & Timulak, L. (2005). Descriptive and interpretive approaches to qualitative research. In J. Miles & P. Gilbert (Eds.), A handbook of research methods for clinical and health psychology (pp. 147–160). New York: Oxford University Press.
Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing., 62(1), 107–115. CrossRef
Friedrich, C. (1972). The pathology of politics: Violence, betrayal, corruption, secrecy, and propaganda. New York: Harper and Row.
Galstyan, S. (2016a). Interview of G. Mamikonyan conducted on October 14, 2016. Unpublished.
Galstyan, S. (2016b). Interview of K. Harutyunyan conducted on October 15,2016, Unpublished.
Global Integrity Report 2011: Armenia. http://www.globalintegrity.org/research/reports/global-integrity-report/global-integrity-report-2011/gir-scorecard-2011-armenia/. Accessed 28/09/2016.
Gray, C., & Kaufmann, D. (1998). Corruption and development. Finance and Development, 35, 7–10.
Harutyunyan, K., & Hoktanyan, V. (2013). Enforcement of anti-corruption laws: Armenia UNCAC Civil Society Review 2013. Transparency International Armenia and the UNCAC Coalition. http://transparency.am/files/publications/uncac_cso_report.pdf. Accessed 5/10/2016.
Heidenheimer, A., et al. (1993). Political corruption: A handbook. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Heywood, P. (1997). Political corruption: Problems and perspectives. Political Studies, 45(3), 417–435. CrossRef
Holden, P. & Sahakyan, V. (2005). Issues Related to Promoting a Competitive Business Environment in Armenia. Working Paper No. 05/10. Armenian International Policy Research Group.
Howard, M. (2003). The weakness of civil society in post-communist Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Iskandaryan, A. (2016). Armenia. https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/NiT2016%20Armenia.pdf. Accessed 5/12/2016.
Johnson, M. (2005). Civil society and corruption: Mobilizing for reform. Lanham [u.a.]: Univ. Press of America.
Liebert, S., Condrey, S., & Goncharov, D. (2013). Public administration in post-communist countries: Former soviet union, central and Eastern Europe, and Mongolia. Boca Raton/London/New York: CRC Press. CrossRef
Martirosyan, A. (2009). Institutional sources of corruption in the case of Armenia: Is it rules, blood and culture, or punishment? (This grant project was implemented within the framework of a CRRC–MAAC fellowship – the Exploratory Research Based on the 2008 Armenia Corruption Household Survey).
McDevitt, A. (2015). The state of corruption: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. In Transparency international. https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/the_state_of_corruption_armenia_azerbaijan_georgia_moldova_and_ukraine. Accessed 5/08/2016.
Minasyants, A. (2014). Civil Society in Armenia: Challenges and opportunities, the Armenian Weekly. https://armenianweekly.com/2014/12/24/civil-society-armenia-challenges-opportunities/. Accessed 7/09/2017.
Moreno, A. (2002). Corruption and democracy: A cultural assessment. Comparative Sociology, 1(3–4), 495–507. CrossRef
National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia. Criminal procedure code of the Republic of Armenia. http://www.parliament.am/law_docs/010998HO248eng.pdf?lang=eng. Accessed 20/09/2016.
Nye, J. (1967). Corruption and political: A cost-benefit analysis. In A. Heidenheimer, M. Johnston, & V. LeVine (Eds.), Political corruption: A handbook (Vol. 1993, pp. 963–983). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, third printing.
Obermeier, F., et al. The Panama Papers: The Secret of Dirty Money. In Süddeutsche Zeitung. http://panamapapers.sueddeutsche.de/articles/56febff0a1bb8d3c3495adf4/. Accessed 11/08/2017.
Olken, B., & Pande, R. (2011).Corruption in developing countries. (Working Paper 17398).
Open Society Foundations-Armenia. Partnership for open society. Report implementation of selected articles of ICCPR and UNCAC in Armenia: 2014–2015. http://www.osf.am/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Reporting-on-ICCPR-and-UNCAC_POS_Armenia.pdf. Accessed 25/07/2016.
Open Society Foundations-Armenia. Thematic summary on monitoring of MPs property and income declarations 2016 Yerewan.
Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe. Recommendation1916. (2010) Final Version: Protection of “whistle-blowers. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17852&lang=en. Accessed 27/11/2016.
Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe. Resolution 1729 (2010) Final Version: Protection of’whistle-blowers. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-DocDetails-en.asp?FileID=17851&lang=en. Accessed 27/11/2016.
Paturyan, Y. (2009). Perceptions of the Role of Armenian Civil Society in Countering Corruption: Research Project Report. Caucasus Research Resource Centers – ARMENIA. http://www.crrc.am/hosting/file/_static_content/fellows/corruption/Yevgeniya_Paturyan.pdf. Accessed 5/12/2016.
Paturyan, Y., & Gevorgyan, V. (2014). Armenian civil society after twenty years of transition: Still post-communist? Yerewan.
Payaslian, S. (2011). The political economy of human rights in Armenia. New York, NY: I.B. Tauris and Co LtD.
Policy Forum Armenia. Corruption in Armenia: A State of the Nation Report (2013). http://www.pf-armenia.org/sites/default/files/documents/files/PFA_Corruption_Report.pdf. Accessed 10/12/2016.
Sahakyan, A. Panama Papers’ Armenia disclosures could help the country address graft. In Huffingtonpost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/armine-sahakyan/panama-papers-armenia-dis_b_9684784.html. Accessed 5/08/2017.
Shahnazarian, S. (2012). Police reform and corruption in Georgia, Armenia, and Nagorno-Karabakh. PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 232.
Shleifer, A., & Vishny, W. (1993). Corruption. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(1), 599–617. CrossRef
Stefes, C. (2006). Understanding post-soviet transitions: Corruption, collusion and clientelism. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Stefes, C. (2008). Governance, the state, and systemic corruption: Armenia and Georgia in comparison. Caucasian Review of International Affairs, 2(2), 73–83.
Svenssen, J. (2005). Eight questions about corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), 19–42. CrossRef
Synovitz, R. (2015). Armenian police target journalists in violent crackdown. In Radio free Europe/Radio Liberty. https://www.rferl.org/a/armenia-police-target-journalists-in-breaking-up-protest/27089374.html. Accessed 6/07/2017.
Tanzi, V. (1998). Corruption around the world: Causes, consequences, scope, and cures. 45(4). (International Monetary Fund Staff Papers), pp. 559–594. CrossRef
Transparency International. Global Corruption Barometer 2013. http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/in_detail. Accessed 30/10/2016.
Transparency International. How do you define corruption? http://www.transparency.org/whoweare/organisation/faqs_on_corruption#defineCorruption. Accessed 29/10/2016.
United Nations. Economic and Social Council resolution 1996/31. http://www.un.org/esa/coordination/ngo/Resolution_1996_31/. Accessed 25/11/2016.
United Nations UN General Assembly., United Nations Convention against Corruption, 31 October 2003, A/58/422. https://www.unodc.org/documents/brussels/UN_Convention_Against_Corruption.pdf. Accessed 7/05/2016.
UNODC. Rules of procedure for the conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption. https://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/conventioncosp/07-80230_Ebooke.pdf. Accessed 10/25/2016.
UNODC (2007). Rules of procedure for the conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption. https://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/convention_corruption/cosp/07-80230_Ebooke.pdf. Accessed 25/10/2016.
UNODC (2013). Conference of the States Parties o the United Nations Convention against Corruption. Statement submitted by Transparency International, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council and by the Transparency and Accountability Network, a non-governmental organization not in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council. CAC/COSP/IRG/2013/1. https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/WorkingGroups/ImplementationReviewGroup/27-31May2013/V1383237.pdf. Accessed 15/11/2016.
USAID (2015). CSO sustainability index for central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia (2015). https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1861/Europe_Eurasia_CSOSIReport_2015_Update8-29-16.pdf. Accessed 7/08/2017.
Voicu, M., & Voicu, B. (2003). Volunteering in Romania. In P. Dekker & L. Halman (Eds.), The values of volunteering: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 143–159). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Wickberg, S. (2013). Anticorruption helpdesk providing on-demand research to help fight corruption: Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Armenia. In Transparency international. https://www.transparency.org/files/content/corruptionqas/Overview_of_corruption_in_Armenia_1.pdf. Accessed 7/05/2016.
World Bank. (2009). Republic of Armenia: Country procurement assessment report. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, Report No. 49975-AM. http://imagebank.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2009/10/05/00033 3037_20091005002008/Rendered/PDF/499750ESW 0AM0P1IC0disclosed01011191.pdf. Accessed 09/10/2017.
World Bank. Defining civil society. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/CSO/0,,contentMDK:20101499~menuPK:244752~pagePK:220503~piPK:220476~theSitePK:228717,00.html. Accessed 20/06/2016.
- Combating Political Corruption: The Case of Armenia in the Context of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia