Granular filter design should rely not only on process evaluation but also on overall economic considerations. A logical model is introduced for optimizing a deep bed filter and minimizing experimentation. The model consists of two stages, a process stage and an economic stage. Conventional filtering materials as well as basalt and tuff are evaluated in single, dual, and mixed media configurations. Tests were performed in a pilot plant treating Lake Kinneret water. It is concluded that the optimization process should involve a process optimization stage followed by an economic optimization stage. The filter process parameters, run length and produced water volume per run do not provide enough data for an economic evaluation of different filter beds. Single deep bed filters of basalt or tuff can remove turbidity as efficiently as single, dual, and mixed media filters containing conventional filtering materials, and produce cheaper water. Determination of optimal media parameters should be carried out at the optimal mode of backwashing and chemical treatment. Process efficiency indicators, such as volume of produced water per filter run, are poor economic indicators and should be used carefully.
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- Combined Design, Operation and Economic Optimization of Contact Filtration
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg