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As future generation information technology (FGIT) becomes specialized and fr- mented, it is easy to lose sight that many topics in FGIT have common threads and, because of this, advances in one discipline may be transmitted to others. Presentation of recent results obtained in different disciplines encourages this interchange for the advancement of FGIT as a whole. Of particular interest are hybrid solutions that c- bine ideas taken from multiple disciplines in order to achieve something more signi- cant than the sum of the individual parts. Through such hybrid philosophy, a new principle can be discovered, which has the propensity to propagate throughout mul- faceted disciplines. FGIT 2009 was the first mega-conference that attempted to follow the above idea of hybridization in FGIT in a form of multiple events related to particular disciplines of IT, conducted by separate scientific committees, but coordinated in order to expose the most important contributions. It included the following international conferences: Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications (ASEA), Bio-Science and Bio-Technology (BSBT), Control and Automation (CA), Database Theory and Application (DTA), D- aster Recovery and Business Continuity (DRBC; published independently), Future G- eration Communication and Networking (FGCN) that was combined with Advanced Communication and Networking (ACN), Grid and Distributed Computing (GDC), M- timedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting (MulGraB), Security Technology (SecTech), Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition (SIP), and- and e-Service, Science and Technology (UNESST).



A Dynamic Interval Scheduling and Congestion Control Scheme for Sensor Networks

This paper introduces a novel interval scheduling and congestion control scheme in wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor network is an event based system with several sensor nodes. Reliable event detection at the sink is based on collective information provided by sensor nodes. But due to the unreliable nature of wireless communication, it is hard to guarantee the end-to-end reliability and timeliness. Hence, we propose a novel dynamic congestion control scheme that ensures the reliable delivery of packets to a base station, and that minimizes congestion within sensor network. This solution includes a congestion control component that serves the purpose of minimizing congestion by burst traffic, data concentration, and link failure. And to achieve energy efficiency, reliability, and timeliness, we introduce the concept of dynamic interval scheduling algorithm that optimizes the data delivery ratio and energy usage for communication.

Sun-Min Hwang, Seung-Min Han, Ga-Won Lee, Eui-Nam Huh

Game Theoretic Packet Scheduling in a Non-cooperative Wireless Environment

In many practical scenarios, wireless devices are autonomous and thus, may exhibit non-cooperative behaviors due to self-interests. For instance, a wireless cellular device may be programmed to report bogus channel information to gain resource allocation advantages. In this paper, we first analyze the impact of these rationally selfish behaviors on the performance of packet scheduling algorithms in time-slotted wireless networks. We further propose a novel game theoretic approach, where a user punishes the selfish user with a probability


, to enforce cooperation among selfish users. Through simulations, we can see the wireless users are scheduled more efficiently and fairly in this non-cooperative environment with our proposed approach.

Zhen Kong, Yu-Kwong Kwok

Security Authentication for U-Health Application Services

This paper reviews RFID health authentication scheme based on location in the hospital. The designed handheld care system is implemented that are RFID reader/tag, an embedded Visual C++4.0, Pocket PC2003 software development kit (SDK) in an 802.11 wireless network. We are confident that the research provides sufficient proof of the usefulness of this ubiquitous health system for the collection of care information. The proposed system consists of a care management module for health diagnosis, a personal record module, a data transport module, and an image information management module for the clinic. System uses an applied security mechanism for critical data, and presents RFID authentication scheme, is accessed and controlled according to the location in the hospital.

Byeong Ho Ahn, Jinkeun Hong, Donghoon Lee

Priority Early Frame Discard Algorithm for TCP-Based Video Streaming

This paper presents novel adaptive frame discard algorithms for TCP-based video streaming over IP networks. The proposed algorithms, termed Priority Early Frame Discard (PEFD) algorithms, reduce the long playback delay for heterogeneous clients having insufficient network bandwidth and/or decoding speed. They discard frames at the server side in accordance with the network bandwidth and computational capabilities associated with the clients. The algorithms have low computational complexity, and can be easily implemented in digital surveillance systems such as IP cameras with only limited computational capacity for realtime video broadcast.

Kai-Fu Chan, Wen-Jyi Hwang, Chih-Peng Lin, Tun-Hao Yu

CDN-Based Video Streaming Using Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation

A novel dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for archived video delivery is presented in this paper. It adopts the generalized Brieman, Friedman, Olshen, and Stone (BFOS) algorithm for optimizing the rate-distortion performance for image delivery. Without feedback from clients, the algorithm is able to find the convex hull in the rate-distortion plane with low computational complexity. It is therefore well-suited for CDN-based media streaming applications with high client variations.

Chih-Peng Lin, Chia-Yi Jan, Wen-Jyi Hwang, Tun-Hao Yu

2-Layered SOA Test Architecture Based on BPA-Simulation Event

This paper presents an implementation case study for business-centric SOA test framework. The reference architecture of SOA system is usually layered: business process layer, service layer, and computing resource layer. In the architecture, there are so many subsystems to affect system performance, moreover they relate with each other. As a result, in the respect of overall performance, it is usually meaningless to measure each subsystem’s performance separately. In SOA system, the performance of the business process layer with which users keep in contact depends on the summation of the performance of the other lower layers. Therefore, measuring performance of the business layer includes indirect measurement of the other SOA system layers. We devised a business-centric SOA test framework in which activities and control primitives in business process managers are simulated to invoke commands or services in a test scenario. That is, in the test framework, a real business process scenario can be replaced to a mimicked business process test scenario, which is executed in a test proxy based on event mechanism. In this paper, we present the concept of BPA simulation, 2-layered test suites model, and reference architecture.

Youngkon Lee

Impacts of Power Ramping for ARQ-Aided Downlink Time Switched Transmit Diversity in the WCDMA LCR-TDD System

In this paper, we investigate the performance of the ARQ-aided downlink Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) in the WCDMA LCR-TDD system, when power ramping is applied. Proposed scheme ramps up the transmission power and then retransmits the data, when the receiver sends the response signal (ACK or NACK signal) to the transmitter and the response signal is NACK signal. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme yields about 0.7dB performance gain in terms of average Eb/N0, compared with the conventional ARQ-aided TSTD when a mobile speed is 3km/h and a frame error rate (FER) is 1%, respectively. In addition, 2.5% of throughput gain is achieved when the average Eb/N0 is equal to 0dB.

Ri-A. Ma, Cha-Eul Jeon, Seung-Hoon Hwang

Active Worm Propagation in Hierarchical Peer-to-Peer Network Management Systems: Modeling and Analysis

Hierarchical peer to peer Network Management Systems are attracting a surge of interest in recent years. However, due to their special characteristics, they are more vulnerable to active worm propagations in comparison to current network management systems. In this paper, we study the speed of active worm propagation in a typical hierarchical P2P based network management system from an analytical point of view. Numerical study of the proposed model then is invoked to analyze the propagation process and study the impact of different factors including system size, node type and connection degree.

Zahra Zohoor Saadat, Saleh Yousefi, Mahmood Fathy

Security Enhancement on an Improvement on Two Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

In 2004, Ku et al. proposed an improved efficient remote authentication scheme using smart cards to repair the security pitfalls found in Chien et al.’s scheme, in which only few hashing operations are required. Later, Yoon et al. presented an enhancement on Ku et al.’s scheme. Recently, Wang et al. showed that both Ku et al.’s scheme and Yoon et al.’s scheme are still vulnerable to the guessing attack, forgery attack and denial of service (DoS) attack. Then, proposed an efficient improvement over Ku et al.’s and Yoon et al.’s schemes with more security. In this paper, we state that Wang et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to the impersonation attack and parallel session attack. A modification to enhance the security of Wang et al.’s scheme is proposed. Our scheme is suitable for applications with high security requirement.

HanCheng Hsiang, TienHo Chen, WeiKuan Shih

Improving the Performance of Beacon Safety Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks Using Kalman Filter Estimation

This paper proposed an estimation method based on Kalman filter to decrease the number of disseminated beacon safety messages in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). The ultimate goal is to reduce the number of packet collisions which in turn results in fresher information to be available for vehicles. The proposed method is implemented in application layer and thus applicable to any MAC layer including IEEE 802.11p (the MAC of DSRC standard). In the proposed algorithm, each vehicle estimates its location ahead for several intervals and sends them out along with actual current position. During the time that estimated information is available, there are no fresh transmissions unless some estimation error is detected. Also adaptive parameters exist in the algorithm. Results of extensive simulation study show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the QoS of the beacon safety application which leads to increasing safety level in vehicular networks.

Mohammadreza Armaghan, Mahmood Fathy, Saleh Yousefi

Media-Oriented Service Overlay Network Architecture over Future Internet Research for Sustainable Testbed

The Future Internet Research for Sustainable Testbed (FIRST) is an experimental project in South Korea aimed at creating future internet platforms and investigating innovative ideas on developed platforms. The primary goal of the project is research and development for a media-oriented service overlay network architecture. From 2009 to 2014, dynamic media-oriented service composition technologies using virtualized network environments will be constructed, and results will be shared globally. In this paper, we explained the motivation for the FIRST project, and introduced the project itself.

Sungwon Lee, Sang Woo Han, Jong Won Kim, Seung Gwan Lee

Monotonically Increasing Bit Vector for Authenticated Anonymous Routing

Anonymous routing where data packets can be routed efficiently while hiding the topology of the network from all nodes is a crucial part of achieving anonymity in an efficient anonymous network. Traditional routing protocols leak network topology information to nodes while existing anonymous routing protocols do not provide authentication for routing information. A malicious node can arbitrarily reduce the path cost value carried in an anonymous route announcement message for the purpose of negatively influencing routing efficiency or facilitating launching various attacks such as eavesdropping or man-in-the-middle attacks. In this paper we propose a generic scheme and a concrete instantiation to transform a routing protocol into an authenticated one in the sense that the path cost cannot be reduced by a malicious node.

Roman Schlegel, Duncan S. Wong

Avoid Unnecessary Handovers in a High Dense Environment

In this paper we propose a new efficient handover algorithm across overlapped macro and home eNodeBs in emerging LTE systems. More home eNodeBs are anticipated so it is important to find out a good handover algorithm in a high dense environment. Our algorithm focuses on maximizing cell duration. Our implementation and simulation results show that the proposed strategy reduces the number of handover as well as keeps suitable signal level.

Ara Cho, Navrati Saxena, Abhishek Roy, Swades De, Hari M. Gupta

Adaptive Beamforming in Wireless Sensor Network in the Presence of Interference Sources

In adaptive beamforming, the beam produced by sensor network is cumulative result of all sensor nodes in that network. To use beamforming in sensor network, phase synchronization and delay synchronization are the parameters that need to be addressed. In this paper we propose an adaptive algorithm that helps to achieve phase synchronization in order to produce collaborative beamforming in the presence of noise and interference in sensor network. The results show that adaptive filter is computationally efficient, works in the presence of noise and operates in such an environment where the actual beam pattern is known at the receiver side. It has also been noted that the filter produces output which is very close to its optimum value. It has further been shown that when the number of sensors increases, the noise power at the receiver decreases and that the interference power depends upon the ratio between the number of sensors and the number of interference sources.

Husnain Naqvi, Muhammad Sulayman, Mehwish Riaz

Performance Analysis of Collaborative Communication with Imperfect Frequency Synchronization and AWGN in Wireless Sensor Networks

Collaborative communication produces high power gain, if the frequency and phase synchronization is achieved. In this paper a novel architecture is proposed for a collaborative communication system in the presence of AWGN and frequency offsets. The mathematical expressions are derived and verified through simulation for received power and bit error rate (BER) of the system. It is analyzed that using this collaborative communication model, the significant power gain and reduction in BER can be achieved even though the system is with imperfect frequency synchronization. The analysis of the model is performed using the parameters of off-the-shelf products. The analysis revealed that power gain decreases and BER increases as the frequency offsets (errors) are increases.

Husnain Naqvi, Stevan Berber, Zoran Salcic

The Performance Improvement of Searching a Moving Vehicle on Fisheye CCTV Image Using Inverse Diffusion Equation

When we are collecting traffic information on CCTV images, we have to install the detect zone in the image area during pan-tilt system is on duty. An automation of detect zone with pan-tilt system is not easy because of machine error. So the fisheye lens attached camera or convex mirror camera is needed for getting wide area images. In this situation some troubles are happened, that is a decreased system speed or image distortion. This distortion is caused by occlusion of angled ray as like trembled snapshot in digital camera. In this paper, we propose two methods of de-blurring to overcome distortion, the one is image segmentation by nonlinear diffusion equation and the other is deformation for some segmented area. As the results of doing de-blurring methods, the de-blurring image has 15 decibel increased PSNR and the detection rate of collecting traffic information is more than 5% increasing than in distorted images.

In-Jung Lee

Scheduling Algorithm for Beacon Safety Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

Beacon safety message dissemination in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) suffers from poor reliability especially in congested road traffics. The main origin of this problem is CSMA nature of Dedicated ShortRangeCommunications (DSRC) in MAC layer. In this paper, a scheduling algorithm in the application layer is proposed to alleviate the problem. We first divide the road into a number of geographical sections. In each section, we form a cluster between moving vehicles. Then we perform a scheduling algorithm including two levels. In the first level, nonadjacent clusters can transmit at the same time. While the second level of scheduling deals with inside of each cluster in which we implement a TDMA-like approach. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves the reliability in beacon message dissemination. Moreover, the accuracy of the information which each vehicle can obtain from its neighboring vehicles is significantly increased. Thus the proposed scheduling scheme leads to considerable enhancement of the safety level provided by Beacon Safety Messages (BSMs).

Vahid Sadatpour, Mahmood Fathy, Saleh Yousefi, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Eun-suk Cho, Min-kyu Choi

Influence of Low-Pass Filtering on Perceived Quality of Asymmetrically Coded Stereoscopic Images

Measurement of visual quality is of fundamental importance for numerous stereoscopic image and video processing applications. The effect of distortions on the perceived stereoscopic images quality already been investigated. But few works focus on the weight preference between distortion types. This paper firstly analyzed the weight preference of stereoscopic images between distortion types. The results show that human rating on quality of stereoscopic image will be insensitive, when the quality of left view image keep constant and the right view is Gaussian blurred. Secondly, this paper investigates whether low-pass filtering on JPEG compressed stereoscopic image can enhance the stereoscopic perceptual quality. The results of the experiments show that low-pass filtering may be used to enhance the perceived quality of stereoscopic images in which the right view image is JPEG compressed at an extent of distortion. Furthermore, the enhancement is image content dependent.

Xu Wang, Mei Yu, You Yang, Gangyi Jiang

Module-Based Finite Automata: A Scalable and Memory-Efficient Architecture for Multi-pattern Matching in Deep Packet Inspection

Multi-pattern matching is a critical technique for building high performance Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) and Deep Packet Inspection System (DPIS). Given a set of signature database, multi-pattern matching compares packet against patterns to detect the known attacks. Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA) is widely used for multi-pattern matching in NIDS for its constant matching speed even in the worst case. Existing DFA-based works have claimed to achieve a high speed throughput at expenses of extremely high memory cost and logic complexity, so it fails to meet the memory space requirements of embedded system or high performance routers. In this paper, we propose a novel a memory-efficient multi-pattern matching acceleration scheme called Module-based Finite Automata (MB-FA) which could achieve a great acceleration with little memory duplication. The basic idea of MB-FA is to store the original DFA in independent modules with a delicate algorithm so that inter-flow parallelism can be exploited to its largest scale. A full systematic design of MB-FA is presented, and support for rule update is also introduced. Evaluation experiments show that without any optimization, MB-FA can achieve an average speed-up of 20 times when the memory cost is almost the twice of original DFA.

Junchen Jiang, Yi Tang, Xiaofei Wang, Bin Liu

Architecture of Personal Healthcare Information System in Ubiquitous Healthcare

Due to recent development in Ubiquitous Healthcare now it’s time to build such application which can work independently and with less interference of Physician. In this paper we are try to build the whole architecture of personal Healthcare information system for ubiquitous healthcare which also included Middleware, existing between application GUI and data source. To build this application we studied several existing application and ongoing projects and tried to build an architecture which can be appropriate to handle necessary information related to healthcare of individuals. We already succeed to design a prototype of Ubiquitous Healthcare Data Analysis and Monitoring Using Multiple Wireless Sensors for Elderly Person at home. Our proposed architecture will also provide diagnoses report to the doctors for further instructions. The diagnoses report will consist of healthcare data analysis results and history of patient. We have considered healthcare data like ECG, Accelerometer and temperature for experiment, which are important as a basic health need.

Mangal Sain, Sachin Bhardwaj, HoonJae Lee, Wan-Young Chung

BcN Deployment Strategies in Korea

UBcN (Ultra-Broadband Convergence Network) is the next generation network with high speed, on which broadband multiple play services are supported safely and seamlessly. Developing UBcN as the common infrastructure for converged services is considered to be essential for increasing the power of competition of IT industries. The Korea government is going to establish UBcN by 2013 with the speed of up to 1Gbps for 46 million fixed and wireless subscribers. They also have a multi-year plan to discover and stimulate new converged services for UBcN. In this paper, we discuss Korea’s development plan of UBcN and their strategies.

Hyongsoon Kim, Eun-Young Lee

Communication Delay Prediction of Pipelined Circuit Switching in Mesh-Based Networks

Several analytical performance models for Pipelined Circuit Switching (PCS) in




-cubes have been reported in literature over the recent years. However, the inherent asymmetry of the mesh topology renders derivation of an analytical model for this class of networks more challenging. This paper proposes the first analytical performance model for 2-D mesh networks employing PCS with virtual channels. Simulation results show that this model is able to predict message latency with a good degree of accuracy.

Farshad Safaei, Mohammad Mahdi Gilak

The Distance-Power Consumption Tradeoff for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

Cooperative communication is known for its various advantages, such as robust to fading, improved diversity gains, capacity gains and increased power consumption performance. It allows for the achievement of effects of the virtual MIMO, so that diversity gain can be obtained from just merely one antenna for each node. However, conventional cooperative communication has low data rates when diversity gain increases. If we do not consider diversity gain to avoid this, we cannot achieve diversity gain. In addition, increasing the number of relays makes networks consume more power. This is one of the most important issues that increase power consumption performance in terms of WSN. Therefore, we propose an appropriate scenario which would increase the number of relays for optimal power consumption in a Wireless Sensor Network in consideration of the data rate, studying the tradeoff between distance (from Source to Destination) and power consumption to determine the optimal power consumption for a network.

Inwhee Joe, Sungmoon Chung

Research on Rule-Based AR System for Users’ Situation Awareness

Recently, more researches have been done on a new interface which induces reactions based on user behavior patterns through augmented reality (AR) agent design to which context-aware technology is applied. Most researches are still in an early stage and insufficient for recognizing/utilizing information of context between reality and virtual reality. This study, therefore, analyzes profiles and behavior patterns of users by developing a health management-based scenario and combines it with an AR system. At the same time, a user is allowed to induce interaction with an AR system in order to prevent unnecessary exposure of information and provide additional data. To that end, this research analyzes context-aware patterns and marker information-aware patterns, which examine user behavior patterns, so as to activate AR information with the data provided as the result of the analysis. The system suggested in this research can be applied to educational contents. Learned context information and AR analysis are expected to make data delivery and communications with customers more effective.

Jae-gu Song, Sungmo Jung, Seoksoo Kim

Automatic Web Service Detection in Oil and Gas

Semantic described web services are proposed to leverage automatic web service discovery. The proposed framework is suggested for use within the oil and gas domain to simplify data flow between collaborating partners, but could easily be adapted to other similar business domains. Instead of having a direct, hardcoded mapping between each and every systems it is suggested to provide information throughout web services which partners easily can connect to. The Web services are semantically described using the unified oil and gas ontology, which constitutes on ISO 15926. Smart agents’ reason upon web service descriptions and find web services based on the processes the web services offer.

Kari Anne Haaland Thorsen, Odd Frode Torbjørnse, Chunming Rong

Eperfi: Design and Implementation of End-to-End Network Performance Measurement and Diagnosis System for High-Speed Networks

This paper presents the design and implementation result of


(the end-to-end network performance measurement and diagnosis system) in high-speed networks.


offers 1)the measuring and diagnosing mechanism to find out the cause of the low data transmission rate from link layer to application layer for all nodes on an end-to-end path, 2)the measuring and diagnosing mechanism to inspect whether a bulk data transfer tool such as






is the cause of low throughput, 3) the graphical view representing real-time network traffic flow and information based on






. By using


, end-users can not only adjust their system to achieve more fast data transmission but also choose a more efficient data transfer tool to fine-tune their system into high-speed networks. Additionally, a network manager can offer an enhanced network service to an end-user by adjusting efficiently their managed network.

Young-Ju Han, Min-Woo Park, Jong-Myoung Kim, Yoonjoo Kwon, Tai-Myoung Chung

FIST: A Framework for Flexible and Low-Cost Wireless Testbed for Sensor Networks

Setting up a wireless sensor network for an experiment is both time and effort intensive. Sometimes, the time required to set up the experimental framework is even more than that of the experiment itself. Many existing fixed testbeds manage nodes using gateways and require a lot of support and maintenance. Changing the deployment place – especially if it is a crowded area – is difficult. We propose a framework for implementing a


lexible and low-cost w


reless for


ensor network


estbed (FIST). Downloading the experimental code, reprogramming, testbed control, logging and collecting experimental results and synchronization are all carried out by the sensor motes wirelessly. Thus the testbed can be easily and quickly deployed anywhere. We present our framework and also a case study using FIST.

Cheng Guo, R. Venkatesha Prasad, JiangJie He, Martin Jacobsson

A Novel Energy Optimization Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

Energy efficiency is one of the determining factors for survivability and lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, an energy optimization approach based on cross-layer for wireless sensor networks is proposed, which consider the joint optimal design of the physical, medium access control, and routing layer. The approach focuses on the computation of optimal transmission power, routing, and duty-cycle schedule that optimize the WSNs energy-efficiency. The approach is validated on a CROSSBOW’s MicaZ mote platform, and evaluated using the TOSSIM simulator, the simulation results show that it is an energy-efficient approach and able to achieve significant performance improvement as well.

Lianhe Luo, Yuebin Bai, Wei Wu

Intrusion Detection Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are vulnerable to different types of security threats that can degrade the performance of the whole network; that might result in fatal problems like denial of service (DoS) attacks, routing attacks, Sybil attack etc. Key management protocols, authentication protocols and secure routing cannot provide security to WSNs for these types of attacks. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a solution to this problem. It analyzes the network by collecting sufficient amount of data and detects abnormal behavior of sensor node(s). IDS based security mechanisms proposed for other network paradigms such as ad hoc networks, cannot directly be used in WSNs. Researchers have proposed various intrusion detection systems for wireless sensor networks during the last few years. We classify these approaches into three categories i.e. purely distributed, purely centralized and distributed-centralized. In this paper, we present a survey of these mechanisms. These schemes are further differentiated in the way they perform intrusion detection.

Ashfaq Hussain Farooqi, Farrukh Aslam Khan

A New Routing Protocol Based on Fuzzy Combination Model for Predicting Link Stability of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

In this article, we proposed a new routing protocol based on fuzzy combination model for link stability prediction-FCMSP. In this protocol, the fuzzy combination model was introduced to predict the move path of nodes and calculate the distance between nodes at next moment which was a measure of link stability. The geographical position of nodes was gotten by GPS. In addition, through predicting the link is to be unstable at next moment, we could do early start routing beforehand repair mechanisms before link failure in order to avoid link frequent fracture. Simulation was done on a NS2-based platform for comparing the properties of the new protocol presented and conventional AODV protocol. The simulation results showed that the packet delivery ratio, the average end-to-end delay and the normalized routing overhead have all improved better.

Yi Sha, Xing-zi Wei, Yan Yang, Li Huang, Guang-xing Wang

Experiments on an Election Algorithm for Decision Element Failures in 4D Future Internet Architecture

A novel 4D architecture has been presented in [1], [3] for the future Internet, advocating a decomposition of network control functions into three distinct planes: decision, dissemination, and discovery, along with a streamlined data plane, to achieve more predictable network performance. An underlying concern with the 4D architecture is that the decision making is centralized at a single entity called Decision Element (DE), whose failure may disrupt the whole network [2]. A simple approach has been proposed to increase the reliability of the system by attaching a few hot stand-by DEs to the network. These hot stand-by DEs collect information from other network elements and perform computation in the same manner as the master DE. In this work, we have created a set of experiments to verify the performance of the election algorithm based on the prototype of the 4D architecture, and experimentally evaluate the re-convergence time required for the election algorithm after a failure of the master DE.

Songqing Yue, Yang Xiao, Geoffrey G. Xie

A Study on Broadcasting Video Quality by Routing Protocols in the IPTV Network

As multimedia contents rapidly spread and high-speed broadband IP network technologies develop, development of wire and wireless technologies, multimedia and image process technologies through IP network enables various types of service such as IPTV and VoIP. Individual service of communication companies and broadcasters coexist and evolve into a convergence service. Typical broadcast/communication convergence service, IPTV is the strongest application model in this service. As IPTV-like services increase, high-definition data processing through Internet protocol emerges as the main issue of the communication industries that should implement various Internet services.

This paper provides network build-up methods for the effective IPTV services by implementing the standard routing protocol RIP used in small-sized area and the link state routing protocol OSPF used in large autonomic network, implementing the present network IPv4 and next generation internet protocol IPv6 in each routing protocol, measuring the PSNR of real-time broadcasting picture quality and measuring and evaluating the performance of IPv4 and IPv6 based on the values.

Mi-Jin Kim, Jong-Wook Jang

A Study on Effective RS Deployment in Mobile WiMAX MMR

IEEE 802.16j aims to enhance the coverage, per user throughput and system capacity of IEEE 802.16e. Compared with base station (BS), RS does not need a wire-line backhaul and has much lower hardware complexity. Using RSs can significantly reduce the deployment cost of the system. In this paper, the optimal relay station (RS) location and the bandwidth allocation for RS in fixed RS based radio cooperation system are investigated to maximize the data rate when the RS adopts amplify -forward (AF) scheme. For maximum achievable data rate, the MS selectively accesses BS or RS and the optimal RS location is obtained to maximize the system capacity for relaying system with three sectors within which there is one fixed RS. And then the optimal bandwidth allocation for the RS is gotten by calculating the percentage of MS which accesses RS and SNReff(the composite of SNRsr + SNRrd) and SNRsd. Simulation is implemented to find the optimal RS location and bandwidth allocation for RS in IEEE 802.16j based relay system.

M. H. Bae, B. Otgonbayar, Ghishigjargal, J. W. Jang

Architecting Adaptable Security Infrastructures for Pervasive Networks through Components

Security management for pervasive networks should be fundamentally flexible. The dynamic and heterogeneous character of these environments requires a security infrastructure which can be tailored to different operating conditions, at variable levels of granularity, during phases of design, deployment, and execution. This is possible with a component-based security architecture. We illustrate the benefits of this approach by presenting AMISEC, an integrated authentication and authorization middleware. Through the component paradigm, AMISEC supports different network topologies of TTPs, cryptographic algorithms, protocols, or trust management strategies, resulting in a fully

à la carte

security infrastructure.

Marc Lacoste

Software Verification and Validation of Graphical Web Services in Digital 3D Worlds

Software verification and validation (SVV) are major ingredients of current software engineering projects. Among the available methods to solve this problem, one of the most promising approaches is that based on Petri nets. This paper discusses somme issues regarding the application of Petri nets to SVV from a hybrid mathematical/computational point of view. The paper also describes a


package developed by the author for a class of Petri nets, which is applied to address the SVV problem in the context of graphical semantic web services based on virtual agents evolving in digital 3D worlds.

Andrés Iglesias

Analysis of Priority Queue-Based Scheme to Alleviate Malicious Flows from Distributed DoS Attacks

In this paper, we focus on defending the DDoS attacks since they have caused many famous websites enormous losses in recent years. We propose a Priority Queue-Based scheme to analyze the interval of arrival time of the incoming packet to distinguish malicious traffic from normal traffic and to take care of malicious attacks clogging the network. We use the network simulator, NS2, to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The proposed Priority Queue-based scheme not only effectively decreases the flows of malicious packets from DDoS attacks with various packet rates, but also provides smooth and constant flows for packets sent by normal users. Furthermore, our priority queue-based scheme performs much better than other schemes when the number of the DDoS nodes becomes large.

Chu-Hsing Lin, Jung-Chun Liu, Chien-Ting Kuo, Chi Lo

A Heuristic Network Bandwidth Measurement with Domain-Based Model on Grids

Recently, Grid computing is more and more widespread. Therefore, there exists a common issue, i.e., how to manage and monitor numerous resources of grid computing environments. In most cases, we use Ganglia and NWS to monitor Grid nodes’ status and network-related information, respectively. Due to users’ diverse requirements, the information provided by these services is not sufficient in some scenarios. Therefore, we propose a heuristic QoS measurement constructed with domain-based information model that could provide more effective information to meet users’ requirements. We hope users could manage and monitor numerous resources of grid environments more effectively and efficiently.

Chao-Tung Yang, Chih-Hao Lin, Shih-Chi Yu

Analyzing VoIP Capacity with Delay Guarantee for Integrated HSPA Networks

Voice over IP (VoIP) is a key driver in the evolution of voice communications, and the high transmission rate property of High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is expected to satisfy the strict delay requirements of VoIP. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of VoIP service in HSPA network. This paper presents a mathematical model for VoIP capacity in HSPA under the constraints of delay threshold and voice quality requirements. This study also analyzes the impact of scheduling schemes, the user’s channel quality, and variations in packet bundle size on VoIP performance. These results are derived from simulation results, which also validate the correctness of the proposed analysis model and show that VoIP performance is limited by uplink transmission technology. Based on the E-model, this study concentrates on each VoIP connection’s quality in HSUPA network.

Shin-Hua Yang, Shun-Ren Yang, Chien-Chi Kao

Cross-Layering between Physical Layer and Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

Routing is a key issue in wireless ad-hoc networks. The goal of an efficient routing strategy is to set up routes so that the overall quality of communications will be the best possible. While the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model advocates for a clear separation of routing, access, and physical layers, in this paper we show that in scenarios with faded communications, cross-layer interactions have to be carefully considered. More precisely, we compare the performance of the Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm with that of one of its physical layer-oriented variants, denoted as AODV


. It will be clearly shown that no single routing strategy is always optimal and that an intelligent adaptation should be performed.

Jean Michel Dricot, Gianluigi Ferrari, Philippe De Doncker

Matlab-Based Add-On for Generating and Rendering IFS Fractals

Fractals are among the most exciting and intriguing mathematical objects ever discovered. Although there is a wealth of programs and tools to generate fractals by computer, none of them is able to yield high-quality graphical output to be readily embedded into standard


source code in a text-like form. This paper introduces a new and freely available

add-on, developed in


, to generate


-readable code so that image files are no longer invoked nor required. The resulting files are astonishingly small when compared with their image file counterparts, thus leading to higher compression ratios than other conventional formats such as JPEG, GIF, PNG, EPS and the like. This paper describes our program and gives some examples to illustrate the excellent performance of our approach.

Akemi Gálvez, Andrés Iglesias, Setsuo Takato

Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimization (CLPSO)

In this work, we propose a Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimization (CLPSO) based weighted clustering algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. It finds the optimal number of clusters to efficiently manage the resources of the network. The proposed CLPSO based clustering algorithm takes into consideration the ideal degree, transmission power, mobility, and battery power of the mobile nodes. A weight is assigned to each of these parameters of the network. Each particle contains information about the cluster-heads and the members of each cluster. The simulation results are compared with two other well-known clustering algorithms. Results show that the proposed technique works better than the other techniques especially in dense networks.

Waseem Shahzad, Farrukh Aslam Khan, Abdul Basit Siddiqui

On Multipath Balancing and Expanding for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Multiple disjointed paths have been demonstrated to be effective in delivering multimedia traffic in wireless sensor networks, and improving the network performance in terms of bandwidth aggregation, reliability and network lifetime. In this paper, we investigate the use of directional geographical routing for multipath construction for multimedia data dissemination, and identify the challenging issue of achieving multipath balancing in proximity to the source/sink. While our previous work addresses the multipath expanding problem efficiently, this paper presents a novel scheme to achieve the paths balancing distribution to alleviate the contention between the paths when close to the sink. The path construction is divided into expanding phase, parallel phase and converging phase in the proposed scheme, which includes two key algorithms, i.e., the detection algorithm for path construction phase and the deviation angle adjustment algorithm. Simulation results that verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme are presented.

Min Chen, Victor C. M. Leung, Lei Shu, Han-Chieh Chao

Reeling in Cognitive Radio: The Issues of Regulations and Policies Affecting Spectrum Management

One of today’s most important developing wireless technologies is Cognitive Radio (CR). In our current fixed-assignment spectrum management policy, much of the available frequencies go unused. CR aims to make use of this unutilized space to provide wireless broadband services. This paper aims to give a background to CR and describe the key players in standardization and allocation of the unused spectrum. Furthermore, it discusses the policies and policy makers that are guiding the future of CR.

Tae (Tom) Oh, Young B. Choi, Michael Guthrie, Kristi Harold, Daniel Copeland, Tai-hoon Kim

Privacy Issues for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks are networks of communication between vehicles and roadside units. These networks have the potential to increase safety and provide many services to drivers, but they also present risks to privacy. Researching mechanisms to protect privacy requires two key ingredients: 1. a precise definition of privacy that reflects citizens’ concerns and perceptions, and 2. an understanding of the type of attacks in VANETs. In this research, we formulate a workable definition of privacy, and focus on tracking attacks, which we found to be lacking. Although considerable research has been performed in tracking none of the published solutions ensures full protection. We propose to combine a set of published solutions, namely: Mix Zones, Silent Periods, and Group Signatures in order to improve the privacy of drivers. Vehicles enter a region where, vehicles change their pseudonyms (Mix Zone) as well as network addresses; next enter the silent period, and then use one group key for communication. It could help make tracking more difficult and increase the safety and confidence of drivers using VANETs.

Hang Dok, Ruben Echevarria, Huirong Fu

Load-Similar Node Distribution for Prolonging Network Lifetime in PMRC-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper, the energy hole problem in Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC)-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is studied. We first analyze the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs. Based on the analysis, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL) scheme to solve the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy significantly prolongs network lifetime than uniform node distribution and an existing nonuniform node distribution strategies. The analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy have the potential to be applied to other multi-hop WSN structures.

Qiaoqin Li, Mei Yang, Yan Jin, Jun Zheng, Yingtao Jiang, Jiazhi Zeng

Density-Aware Route Design for Ferry-Based DTNs Using Partitive Clustering Algorithms


Delay Tolerant Networks

(DTNs) generally contain relatively sparse nodes that are frequently disconnected.

Message Ferrying (MF)

is a mobility-assisted approach which utilizes a set of mobile elements to provide communication services in ferry-based DTNs. In this paper, we propose a

Density-Aware Route Design

(DARD) algorithm using partitive clustering algorithms along a validity index for identifying the suitable node clusters and assigning ferries to these clusters. In the proposed algorithm, unlike using multiple ferries in a single route (SIRA algorithm) or dividing the deployment area into grid as static (NRA and FRA algorithms), the manner of node’s distribution and their density are regarded as clustering metric. Evaluation results for comparing our scheme demonstrate that DARD either minimizes message delivery delay or by preserving message delay, it reduces resource requirements in both ferries and nodes resulting in increasing ferries efficiency.

Behrouz Jedari, Rouhollah Goudarzi

A Distributed Deterministic and Resilient Replication Attack Detection Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

To detect replica nodes in a wireless sensor network, we propose a distributed, deterministic and resilient (DDR) replica detection protocol developed from a witness node based strategy. In DDR, while a location claim message of each node is sent towards the designated verification location in the network, the consistency of the messages is verified at intermediate nodes en route to its final destination. Compared with previous replication attack detection protocols, DDR achieves better computation and communication performance due to the use of symmetric key cryptography only and early replica detection.

Chano Kim, Chanil Park, Junbeom Hur, Hanjin Lee, Hyunsoo Yoon

Adaptive Quality-Aware Replication in Wireless Sensor Networks

Typical sensor network deployments are usually built for long-term usage. Additionally, the sensor nodes are often exposed to harsh environmental influences. Due to these constraints, it is mandatory for applications to be able to compensate the failure of nodes. Providing a persistent storage even in the presence of failing nodes demands for replication within the sensor network. However, recent work in the field of replication in sensor networks often does not consider the suitability of the sensor nodes to store replicas in terms of e.g. available storage, energy or connectivity. In this paper, we envision an adaptive quality-aware replication scheme which enables the storage of replicas based on a scoring system reflecting the suitability of a replica node. Furthermore, we propose an adaptable data migration strategy using a weighting function to achieve an adequate placement for the replicas. A resilient storage strategy enables the survival of replicas after migration despite unpredictable node failures. We expect that our replication scheme highly increases the availability of sensor network data despite of node failures and network partitioning requiring only a small number of replicas within the network.

Jana Neumann, Christoph Reinke, Nils Hoeller, Volker Linnemann

Weaknesses and Improvements of Kuo-Lee’s One-Time Password Authentication Scheme

Authentication of communicating entities and confidentiality of transmitted data are fundamental procedures to establish secure communications over public insecure networks. Recently, many researchers proposed a variety of authentication schemes to confirm legitimate users. Among the authentication schemes, a one-time password authentication scheme requires less computation and considers the limitations of mobile devices. The purpose of a one-time password authentication is to make it more difficult to gain unauthorized access to restricted resources.This paper discusses the security of Kuo-Lee’s one-time password authentication scheme. Kuo-Lee proposed to solve the security problem based on Tsuji-Shimizu’s one-time password authentication scheme. It was claimed that their proposed scheme could withstand a replay attack, a theft attack and a modification attack. Therefore, the attacker cannot successfully impersonate the user to log into the system. However, contrary to the claim, Kuo-Lee’s scheme does not achieve its main security goal to authenticate communicating entities. We show that Kuo-Lee’s scheme is still insecure under a modification attack, a replay attack and an impersonation attack, in which any attacker can violate the authentication goal of the scheme without intercepting any transmitted message. We also propose a scheme that resolves the security flaws found in Kuo-Lee’s scheme.

Mijin Kim, Byunghee Lee, Seungjoo Kim, Dongho Won

News Event Tracking Using an Improved Hybrid of KNN and SVM

News event tracking is the task of associating incoming stories with events known to the system. A tracking system’s goal is to automatically assign event labels to the subsequent news stories. The paper presents an improved fusion algorithm for news event tracking based on the combination of the KNN and SVM. The improved KNN utilizes density function to select some cluster centers from negative examples and the improved SVM uses sigmoid function to map the SVM outputs into probabilities. The problem of effective density radius selection is discussed, and the performance differences between the event tracking method proposed in this paper and other methods are compared. The experimental results with the real-world data sets indicate the proposed method is feasible and advanced.

Zhen Lei, Yanjie Jiang, Peng Zhao, Jue Wang

Query Based Approach Model for Mobile Commerce Applications in Manet

The mobile commerce is ability to conduct commerce using mobile devices. This paper describes a detailed mobile commerce framework based on the customer query. The proposed model finds customer requirements based on query, which is made by the customer over the network. The system finds the customer product information and sends to the intended customer. The customer can choose the product, which he/she wants and based on that, the transaction has executed. Both the customer and vender will execute their transaction in a secured manner through the mobile phones.

G. Varaprasad

A Security Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

This paper presents an overview of the various issues and requirements of Wireless Sensor Network (‘WSN’) deployments, and explores the unique network architecture of WSNs and the security issues involved. It is determined that in order to provide adequate security there is a need for the integration of security services into the existing routing protocols. To this end, an extension of the ‘Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy’ (‘LEACH’) network routing protocol called, the ‘Security Enabled - Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy’ (‘SE-LEACH’) is proposed. This proposed protocol provides security services, such as data confidentiality, key management, data integrity and data freshness in the form of a flexible and extendable framework, thereby overcoming the security issues of existing WSN protocols.

Stuart Stent

Security in Tactical MANET Deployments

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (‘MANET’) are a developing technology for the transfer of data between moving groups of devices. Due to the restrictions imposed by the operational requirements and hardware limitations of MANETs, the implementation of data communications and security for these networks presents several challenges, especially when deployed as a ‘tactical network’. This paper examines the unique requirements of MANETs in tactical environments, the routing protocols proposed for use in such deployments and the possible attacks on these networks. On examination of these requirements it was found that a Source-Initiated On-Demand, multicast-capable, routing protocol is required in tactical deployments. Two routing protocols meeting these requirements were examined and their security services and suitability for use in tactical MANETs were evaluated. The SEAMAN protocol was found to provide the best security implementation; however, there are concerns about the overall performance and scalability of the protocol. An extension to the Multicast Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (‘MAODV’) protocol, called Tactical – Multicast Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (‘T-MAODV’) is proposed. T-MAODV extends MAODV through the integration of the security services necessary for the tactical deployment of MANETs, such as forward and backward secrecy and data confidentiality, while taking into account their unique operational requirements and hardware limitations.

Stuart Stent

VLSI Architecture for the Fuzzy Fingerprint Vault with Automatic Alignment Module

Biometrics-based user authentication has several advantages over the traditional password-based systems for standalone authentication applications. However, security of biometric data is particularly important as the compromise of the data will be permanent. In this paper, we explain the fuzzy fingerprint vault system combining geometric hashing-based fingerprint authentication and fuzzy vault to protect fingerprint templates. Also, we propose the FPGA-based fuzzy fingerprint vault system for real-time processing. Based on the experimental results, we confirmed that the proposed system takes 0.11(0.51) second with 29 real minutiae and 100(400) chaff minutiae.

Sung Jin Lim, Seung-Hoon Chae, Deasung Moon, Yongwha Chung, Namil Lee, Sung Bum Pan

A Study on the Korean Banknote Recognition Using RGB and UV Information

Since the utilization of finance self-service is getting increment, bank and financial institutions has provided various services using automatic banking systems. For better efficiency of utilization of automatic banking system, banknote recognition, performing banknote classification and counterfeit detection, is getting more important. This paper used color and UV information of bankonte for banknote recognition. We have improved the accuracy of banknote classification by classify the candidate of the kind of banknote and then applying size information of the banknote. Counterfeit detection is performed to comparing UV information of reference and input image after banknote classification. Our experimental results show that the performance of banknote classification and counterfeit detection are 99.1% and 98.3%.

Seung-Hoon Chae, Jong Kwang Kim, Sung Bum Pan

Performance of a Forwarding Layer for Mesh Network

In this paper, we introduce our experience with implementation of an ad hoc network. The routing algorithm uses in-band traffic to distribute the routing information instead of providing a separate routing protocol. A 4 hop straight line topology ad hoc network is established for measuring the throughput in terms of hops. The experimental results show that the throughput reduces exponentially approximately by 60% for every hop increment. The delay seems to increase linearly for every hop increment. We have also compared the throughput and delay when the routing protocol is applied with those when it is not, to see how much the routing protocol affects the performance for one hop link connection. We have found that the routing protocol indeed consumes network resources such that the throughput reduces by 6.45% and the delay by 95.8%. The cause of the performance degradation for this specific routing protocol has been analyzed.

Woonkang Heo, Mina Lee, Chohee Kim, Minseok Oh

Design and Performance Analysis of Automatic Wireless Routing Mechanism for the Effective Formation of IMR (Integrated Meter Reading) Network

To secure the communicaton reliability of an integrated meter reading network consisting of BPL and RF networks, the communication route may be changed between both networks automatically when the communication environment changes. This paper not only designed the automatic wireless routing mechanism to create the wireless meter reading terminal route and communicate with the BPL terminal next to it but also verified the communication performance of the developed mechanism via a verification test. Such verification test revealed a meter reading success rate that was 11% higher than the existing BPL-based integrated meter reading system which is not adopted automatic wireless routing mechanism.

Moonsuk Choi, Seongho Ju, Yonghun Lim, Jong-mock Baek

An Improved Shock Graph-Based Edit Distance Approach Using an Adaptive Weighting Scheme

Matching and recognition of shape is one of the important issues in the field of image processing. In this paper, we focus on one of the skeleton based representations of shapes, called

shock based

representation. For the matching part, to find the best correspondence between two shapes, we will apply

edit cost

measure with taking into consideration the weights of the shock points of the skeleton. This reduces the number of sample points as well as the computational complexity and gives the correct match in the presence of some visual transformations. Here we consider the binary shape as a simple closed curve for unrooted graph. We will investigate the previous results of different skeleton based approaches to realize why the improvement on shock graph based approach is necessary to recognize and classify shapes efficiently.

Solima Khanam, Seok Woo Jang, Woojin Paik

Design of an Object-Based Video Retrieval System Using SCA and Invariant Moments

In recent years, it has become more important to process multimedia data efficiently. Especially, in the case of multimedia information, the user interface technique and retrieval technique are necessary. Video information takes large portion among the multimedia information. In this paper, we present a video retrieval system. For the video retrieval, we propose SCA (Single Colorizing Algorithm) and CSB (Color- and Spatial-based Binary) tree map algorithm. The SCA reduces the dimensions of the color features. The CSB tree map is a kind of clustering algorithm that increases the number of groups by binary tree structure, and determines suitable numbers of the group to extract optimized objects. In addition, we apply invariant moments to above pre-processed images. Through experiments, the proposed video retrieval system presents high performance comparing with existing retrieval methods.

Jang-Hui Kim, Dae-Seong Kang

Configurations of Dual RAID System

The RAID system is used to get the high performance and reliability of disk system. The many RAID system concerned the disk failure, and have the recover policy. But the probability of the RAID system failure is not lower than that of the disk failure. To implement the robust RAID system, the redundancy of RAID controller is also needed. In this paper, we provide three configurations of Dual RAID system. And we consider the characteristics of each Dual RAID system.

Bongen Gu, Yun-Sik Kwak, Seung-Kook Cheong, Jung-Yeon Hwang, Kijeong Khil

Efficient Data Transmission Scheme among Multi-devices

Existing serial interface using a point to point connection, if it is used in complex system, shows decreased efficiency and increased complexity. Therefore, we will use the link switch for high speed data transmission protocol so that communication among various devices in the mobile environment can be performed by packet switching.

Sang-Bong Byun, Byungin Moon, Yong-Hwan Lee

Shape Recovery by Focus Based Methods Using Low Pass Filter

Estimating the relative 3D shape of the object is an important research topic in the area of computer vision, and is being used in a wide range of applications such as robot vision, computer games, animations, broadcast, and many more. Several active and passive methods have been proposed for recovering 3-D shape of the objects from their 2-D images. Passive methods like Shape from Focus (SFF), Shape from Defocus (SFD), Shape from Shading (SFS) etc are cheap and more effective, requiring stack of images by a single camera. In this paper, we have developed a simple and fast algorithm for SFF to calculate depth. The pixel intensities in the image sequences are modified by subtracting the maximum of first or last frame in the image sequence. A low pass filter is applied on these modified values to eliminate the noise. The proposed algorithm is fast and precise, as compared to earlier SFF methods.

S. M. Mannan, Husna Mutahira, Tae-Sun Choi

An Ant Colony Optimization Approach for the Preference-Based Shortest Path Search

In this paper, a modified ant colony system (ACS) algorithm is proposed to find a shortest path based on the preference of links. Most of the shortest path search algorithms aim at finding the distance or time shortest paths. However, these shortest paths are not surely an optimum path for the drivers who prefer choosing a less short, but more reliable or flexible path. For this reason, we propose the preference-based shortest path search algorithm which uses the properties of the links of the map. The properties of the links are specified by a set of data provided by the user of the car navigation system. The proposed algorithm was implemented in C and experiments were performed upon the map that includes 64 nodes with 118 links.

Seung-Ho Ok, Woo-Jin Seo, Jin-Ho Ahn, Sungho Kang, Byungin Moon

A Study on the Composite Power Line Communication Network

The existing Power Line can be used as Communication Medium by using Power Line Communication (PLC). PLC can be adopted as a main Communication Means, and other wired/wireless technologies can be adopted as second means. In order to this, the Medium Voltage PLC has to be used as a long distance Communication Network. In our study, the Routing Algorithm is also fit for PLC on the basis of Power Distribution Line. It is designed more useful in case of accidents when roundabout Routes are requested. It makes Power Distribution Network more efficient as Communication Network. In case of accidents, we suggest the Intelligent Composite Communication System for optimal roundabout routes in Communication Network, and verify its performance and reliability in the real Test Field.

Duckhwa Hyun, Younghun Lee, Youngdeuk Moon

FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) for Maintenance of Mail Sorting Machine

This paper describes the diagnosis item and cycle update for maintenance of mail sorting machine based on FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis). We show the FMEA deployment step, result, and statistics analysis for maintenance of mail sorting machine. There is the update method of diagnosis item and cycle using RPN (Risk Priority Number) which was calculated by severity, occurrence, and detection value. There is also the maintenance status such as failure cause, failure step, and failure parts of 150 mail sorting machines on 30 mail distribution centers in nationwide, Korea. The proposed maintenance system will be adapted for safety and efficient operation and maintenance of mail sorting machine.

Jeong-Hyun Park, Hoyon Kim, Jong-Heung Park

Advanced Integrated Model-Driven Development Tool for USN Applications in Pervasive Computing Environment

In sensor networks, nodes should often operate under a demanding environment such as limited computing resources, unreliable wireless communication and power shortage. And such factors make it challenging to develop ubiquitous sensor network (USN) applications. This article presents a model-driven development tool for USN applications. USN applications are programs that are installed into nodes which consist in sensor networks. The presented tool automatically generates applications for nodes from the sensor network model. Users can develop USN applications by first developing a model for the sensor network and then designing applications by setting the values of the predefined attributes. The source code for applications is automatically generated from the model. The tool will help users can easily develop a large number of validated USN applications even if they do not know the details of low-level information.

Woo-jin Lee, Jang-Mook Kang, Yoon-Seok Heo, Bong-Hwa Hong

MSMAP: A Study on Robust Multiple Selection Scheme of Mobility Anchor Point in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks

In Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 networks, how a mobile node selects an appropriate mobility anchor point (MAP) has a vital effect on the overall network performance. In this paper, we evaluate the performances of MAP selection schemes: the furthest MAP selection scheme, the nearest MAP selection scheme, the mobility-based MAP selection scheme, and the adaptive MAP selection scheme. The dynamic schemes can achieve load balancing among MAPs, where the adaptive MAP selection is better than the mobility-based MAP selection scheme. We also discussed our proposed scheme which is called the Multiple Selection of MAP in HMIPv6 (MSMAP-HMIPv6). We will show the comparison of performance analysis of HMIPv6 and our propose scheme, based on the assumptions of the new scheme, we can minimize the signaling of the mobile node and based on the pre-binding update research can minimize the handover latency.

Randy S. Tolentino, Kijeong Lee, Minho Song, Yoon-Su Jeong, Yong-Tae Kim, Byungjoo Park, Gil-Cheol Park

A Personalization Recommendation Service Using Service Delivery Platform in IMS Networks

In this paper, we wish to propose method to provide personalization recommendation service that is optimized to user using Service Delivery Platform in IMS environment. So we studied method to create personalization recommendation service base on web service. Creation process of personalization recommendation service for user must analyze user basis information and service use pattern in IMS Environment. And we can create and offer suitable personalization recommendation service with this. I can provide integration service using SDP that is development to provide more effective personalization recommendation service in IMS environment. And we are thought to provide order style service to user according to recommendation algorithm and Guideline.

Youn-Gyou Kook, Jae-Oh Lee, Jin-Mook Kim, Hwa-Young Jeong, Yoon-Seok Heo, Bong-Hwa Hong

Enhanced SVD Based Watermarking with Genetic Algorithm

In this paper, we propose an enhanced robust watermarking algorithm based on singular vector decomposition(SVD). Previous SVD based watermarking algorithms have a problem of false-positive detection. For solving this problem, our algorithm performs an extra verification job for watermark using reference images. To find optimal scaling factors in the algorithm which satisfy both robustness and high quality of the watermarked image, we employed the genetic algorithm(GA).

Heechul Jung, Moongu Jeon

Analysis and Comparison of Multicast Routing Protocols for Mobile IPTV

Recently, Many people are using IPTV(Internet Protocol Television) services because it provide various contents when they want. And it can send a real-time request to the service provider. So we can utilize various services in IPTV such as shopping, banking, SMS(Short Message Service), education, etc. But recent IPTV services are provided in the home only because it use wired network. Therefore future IPTV will be changed mobile IPTV using mobile network technology. If the mobile IPTV is commercialized, we will enjoy the various IPTV services anytime and anywhere because it can communicate in various heterogeneous networks. But recent throughput of mobile network technology is not enough. So we need analysis the various multicast routing protocols. In this paper, we analyze existing multicast routing protocols of mobile network and compare it for mobile IPTV.

Yu-Doo Kim, Il-Young Moon

Monitoring-Control System Using Multi-modal Interaction Agent in Ubiquitous Environment

Multi-modal is a technology which can convert information to suitable format for the optimum communication between the system and the user. We should represent as modalities to contexts with the user and the environment for improved monitoring-control system in ubiquitous environment. Also, we need to context-awareness and multi-modal technologies for understanding contexts and providing suitable services. User’s actions then are used as main information of context-awareness and multi-modal service. In order to constrain user’s actions as basic ones and provide a good service by grasping each user’s situation through context model, there needs a multi-modal interface and it makes for an agent with this to provide a multi-modal interaction service. Therefore, this paper presents a more improved monitoring-control system using a multi-modal interaction agent than existing one.

Sungdo Park, Jeongseok Kim, Hyokyung Chang, Bokman Jang, Euiin Choi

Two Stage Demosaicing Algorithm for Color Filter Arrays

This paper proposes an efficient two stage demosaicing method to interpolate color filter array images. The proposed method based on the edge sensing technique improves the interpolation performance by adopting the color difference model for a green channel as well as a red/blue channel. In particular, the green channel interpolation method with a new concept includes the gradient operator, which uses the total amount of slope changes in adjacent color information, and the missing green color estimation, which uses Approximated Directional Line Averages. Comparing with various comparative experiments between the conventional results and the proposed ones, the performances of the proposed method in this paper outperform to existing algorithms in terms of visual performance both in numerical and visual aspects. Our method of demosaicing improves the standard performance by8.927dB on the average in comparison of other methods in MSE(Mean square Error).

Hyeon-Mi Yang, Sea-Ho Kim, Yang-Ki Cho, Joo-Shin Lee, Hi-Seok Kim

Face Recognition Using Region-Based Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

This paper presents a new method of the face recognition using the nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and division of face into several regions. The proposed method divides facial images into 6 sub-regions, and then apply NMF to each sub-region producing basis images and encoding matrices. To recognize a target face, we compare the encoding coefficients of the target image with the encoding coefficients of training images. Test results show that our method is more robust to changes of illumination and facial expression, and occlusions than other methods, and that recognition with 3 sub-regions gives the best result.

Wonmin Byeon, Moongu Jeon

Analysis of On-Chip Antennas with Multi-band due to Change the Slot Size in the Silicon Substrate

This paper has design and analysis on-chip antennas with multi-band in UWB (Ultra Wide Band). Also, to adjust the frequency of each bands, we made the small slots in the Si wafer substrate. Then, this paper suggests be moved each of the bands in the direction to increase the frequency as for increasing the number of slot. We have chosen HRS (High Resistivity Silicon) Si wafer in order to integrate a wireless micro-system. Also we insert SiO


layer between patch and substrate to increase effects of antennas.

DongHee Park, IlJun Choi, Baekki Kim, Yoonsik Kwak

Closely Spaced Multipath Channel Estimation in CDMA Networks Using Divided Difference Filter

We investigate time delay and channel gain estimation for multipath fading code division multiple access (CDMA) signals using the second order divided difference filter (DDF). We consider the case of paths that are a fraction of chip apart, also knwon as closely spaced paths. Given the nonlinear dependency of the channel parameters on the received signals in multiuser/multipath scenarios, we show that the DDF achieves better performance than its linear counterparts. The DDF, which is a derivative-free Kalman filtering approach, avoids the errors associated with linearization in the conventional extended Kalman filter (EKF). The numerical results also show that the proposed DDF is simpler to implement, and more resilient to near-far interference in CDMA networks and is able to track closly spaced paths.

Zahid Ali, Mohamed A. Deriche, M. Adnan Landolsi


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