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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, held in Offenburg, Germany in May 2014. The 10 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 15 submissions. The book also contains 4 invited papers. The contributions are organized in topical sections named: automotive issues, car-to-car, aviation issues, in-car, and infrastructures.



Automotive Issues

Evaluation of WiFi for Kart Racing Monitoring

The focus of this paper is to study the throughput and jitter performances of the IEEE 802.11-2012 standard based solution for monitoring young kart racing drivers. At the low-level of kart racing, the speed of a kart is about 80 km/h. The PropSim channel emulator is applied to study performance of standard compliant radios in a vehicular environment. We will also study the impact of interference and shadowing on the system performance. The results indicate that it is feasible to use low-cost radios based on the IEEE 802.11 standards for this specific application if the need for bandwidth is not in Mbps.
Harri Viittala, Matti Hämäläinen, Jari Iinatti, Simone Soderi

Automated RF Emulator for a Highly Scalable IEEE802.11p Communication and Localization Subsystem

The IEEE802.11p standard describes a protocol for car-to-X and mainly for car-to-car-communication. In the research project Ko-TAG, which is part of the research initiative Ko-FAS, cooperative sensor technology is developed for the support of highly autonomous driving. The Ko-TAG subsystem improves the real-time characteristics of IEEE802.11p needed for precise time of flight real-time localization while still fitting into the regulatory schemes. A secondary radar principle based on communication signals enables localization of objects with simultaneous data transmission. The Ko-TAG subsystem mainly concentrates on the support of traffic safety applications in intra-urban scenarios. This paper details on the development of a fully automated RF emulator used to test the Ko-TAG subsystem.
The RF emulator includes the physical networking nodes, but models the RF environment using RF-waveguides. The RF emulator allows the controlling of path loss and connectivity between any of the nodes with the help of RF attenuators and programmable RF switches, while it is shielded against its surrounding RF environment in the lab. Therefore it is an inexpensive alternative to an RF absorber chamber, which often is not available or exceeds the project’s budget.
Details about the system definition can be found in earlier papers. Test results are shown in the last part of the paper.
Axel Sikora, Manuel Schappacher, Lars Möllendorf

IEEE 802.15.4 Based Wireless Sensor Network for Automotive Test and Measurement Applications with Predictable Frequency Agility

IEEE 802.15.4 [1] is a standard on which many industrial, commercial and residential applications were based on. Devices designed for this standard are characterized for long battery lifetime, small data bandwidth and low cost.
Test and measurement equipment for automotive applications based on IEEE 802.15.4 have those advantages. Also disadvantages according coexistence towards other wireless technologies in fast moving equipment are discussed and solutions in a test application to measure temperatures on brake disks are presented. Especially for very dynamic measurements a strong increase of reliability can be realized with predictable frequency agility.
Michael Binhack, Gerald Kupris


Context-Aware Retransmission Scheme for Increased Reliability in Platooning Applications

Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of vehicles, where reduced inter-vehicle gaps lead to considerable reductions in fuel consumption. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control data. Considering the difficult radio environment and potentially long distances between communicating platoon members, as well as the random channel access method used by the IEEE 802.11p standard for short-range inter-vehicle communication, those requirements are very difficult to meet. The relatively static topology of a platoon, however, enables us to preschedule communication within the platoon over a dedicated service channel. Furthermore, we are able to set aside parts of the available bandwidth for retransmission of packets in order to fulfil the reliability requirements stated by the platoon control application. In this paper, we describe the platooning framework along with the scheduling algorithm used to assign retransmission slots to control packets that are most likely to need them. This retransmission scheduling scheme offers a valuable tool for system designers when answering questions about the number of safely supported vehicles in a platoon, achievable reductions in inter-vehicle gaps and periodicity of control packets.
Annette Böhm, Magnus Jonsson, Kristina Kunert, Alexey Vinel

An Improved Relevance Estimation Function for Cooperative Awareness Messages in VANETs

According to the current status of European Vehicular Ad- Hoc Network (VANET) standardization, vehicles gather and process Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) sent from their environment. The rate of CAMs received by each vehicle can be high, and due to limited resources in series vehicles their processing is an open challenge. Following previous work, we present an improved relevance estimation function which calculates a relevance value for each received message based on basic information like position, speed, and heading without map data. Other than before, the new function incorporates non-static movement extrapolation of vehicles. We evaluate the newly proposed function using a receiver-centric approach
Jakob Breu, Michael Menth

Evaluation of Performance Enhancement for Crash Constellation Prediction via Car-to-Car Communication

A Simulation Model Based Approach
Active safety systems for advanced driver assistance systems act within a complex, dynamic traffic environment featuring various sensor systems which detect the vehicles’ surroundings and interior. This paper describes the recent progress towards a performance evaluation of car-to-car communication (C2C) for active safety systems - in particular for crash constellation prediction. The methodology introduced in this work is designed to evaluate the impact of different sensors on the accuracy of a crash constellation prediction algorithm. The benefit of C2C communication (viewed as a virtual sensor) within a sensor data fusion architecture for pre-crash collision prediction is explored. Therefore, a simulation environment for accident scenarios analysis reproducing real-world sensor behaviour, is designed and implemented. Performance evaluation results show that C2C increases confidence in the estimated position of the oncoming vehicle. With C2C enhancement the given accuracy in time-to-collision (TTC) estimation is achievable about 110 ms earlier for moderate velocities at TTC range of [0.5s..0.2s]. The uncertainty in the vehicle position prediction at the time of collision can be reduced about half by integrating C2C communication into the sensor data fusion.
Thomas Kuehbeck, Gor Hakobyan, Axel Sikora, Claude C. Chibelushi, Mansour Moniri

Aviation Issues

Performance Evaluation of an Ethernet-Based Cabin Network Architecture Supporting a Low-Latency Service

Aircraft cabin data network is a key element in today’s aircraft, where several functionalities of the cabin are grouped in four different security domains. In todays architectures, each domain is normally separated from the others and uses different standards, ranging from ARINC based standards to customized Ethernet. We present here a future of cabin data network, where the main key principle is the use of a common Gigabit full-duplex Ethernet backbone, shared by all domains. As this new network has to be compliant with existing applications and their requirements, a specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) architecture is investigated in this paper. The contributions of this paper are the description of a new network architecture for cabin networks, and the introduction of a scheduling algorithm called Time-Aware Deficit Round Robin (TADRR) enabling an ultra low-latency time-triggered service. We show the benefits of this new architecture via a performance evaluation carried out with the simulator OMNeT++.
Fabien Geyer, Stefan Schneele, Wolfgang Fischer

Aeronautical Ad Hoc Network for Civil Aviation

Aeronautical communication systems are constantly evolving in order to handle the always increasing flow of data generated by civil aviation. In this article we first present communication systems currently used for en-route aircraft. We then propose Aeronautical Ad hoc NETwork (AANET) as a complementary communication system and demonstrate its connectivity and assess the throughput by simulations based on real aircraft trajectories over the French sky and over the Atlantic ocean.
Quentin Vey, Alain Pirovano, José Radzik, Fabien Garcia

A DDS-Based Middleware for Cooperation of Air Traffic Service Units

Air traffic is by nature crossing borders and organizations. The supporting infrastructure represents a federative distributed system of independent Air Traffic Service Units, typically each with its own proprietary system architecture. Interaction between the centers is taking place over dedicated protocols, often organized as a mesh of 1:1 bilateral data exchanges.
This contribution gives an overview of the ongoing efforts to standardize this data exchange. At the core is a data-centric view, using a shared virtual Flight Object as the IT counterpart of a real flight. It permits a uniform way to access and update a flight’s static and dynamic attributes. A middleware is presented that implements this abstraction and maps it onto a physical level, employing DDS (Data Distribution Service) technology for the 1:N dissemination of flight data.
Erwin Mayer, Johannes Fröhlich


Reliability Analysis of ZigBee Based Intra-Vehicle Wireless Sensor Networks

Reliability is one of the key issues in intra-vehicle wireless sensor networks, which is a promising research area due to the increasing demand of various safety and convenience applications in the vehicle. Most of the works about this mainly focus on wireless, sensor and computer networks. However, the reliability analysis on intra-vehicle wireless sensor networks is not similar to others because of the complex environment created by a large number of parts inside the vehicle. In this paper, we analyse the reliability for single link between a base station and a sensor node based on ZigBee standard. A robust system design can be achieved by utilizing the experimental analysis.
Md. Arafatur Rahman

Attack Potential and Efficient Security Enhancement of Automotive Bus Networks Using Short MACs with Rapid Key Change

A number of successful attacks on automotive bus systems has been published recently. However, only a limited amount of detailed studies about attack surfaces as well as efficient security mechanisms have been proposed. Therefore, a general study of possible attacks regarding content manipulation on popular automotive bus systems is provided in this work. Additionally, a new authentication scheme for bus messages is proposed, which overcomes some of the limitations imposed by previously suggested technologies. Thereby, a combination of the upcoming SHA-3 standard with standard HMAC authentication is used to achieve a highly secure system, while keeping the introduced overhead very low.
Sebastian Bittl


Optimization for Wireless Vehicular Network System in Urban Area

This paper aims to optimize the usefulness of the next generation vehicular network system so call WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicle Environment) especially in urban areas that have heavy traffic density and high potential traffic accidents. The wireless vehicular technology is mainly based on DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) technology defined by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.) and ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute). The WAVE system is going to be used for safety and comport of vehicle mobility, for example, to avoid collision of car to car, car to other mobility and car to pedestrian and to reduce traffic congestion. In order to achieve those purposes, WAVE system is installed in vehicles as OBU (On Board Unit) and set at road side as RSU (Road Side Unit). Therefore, it is important how to set RSUs appropriate position. Authors analyze traffic condition and traffic accident condition of typical urban metropolitan area such as Tokyo and provide RSU setting guide from urban development point of view.
Tsutomu Tsuboi, Tatsuya Sekiguchi

LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway communication-based applications. The micro-cell deployment is compared with a classical macro-cell deployment in terms of transmission performance. Simulation results show a capacity improvement in the micro-cell deployment and its positive impact on critical (safety) and non-critical applications.
Aleksander Sniady, Mohamed Kassab, José Soler, Marion Berbineau

Live Video Streaming in Vehicular Networks

The coming years will see the adoption of IEEE 802.11p equipment, which enables broadband vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside connectivity. The design and validation of prospective safety and infotainment applications in VANETs (Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks) are currently areas of dynamic research. In this paper we introduce novel vehicular applications that are based on video transmission and targeted at improving road safety, efficiency and public security. We argue the case for the practical feasibility of the proposed applications in terms of the number of vehicles that can be supported with acceptable visual quality in VANETs environment.
Alexey Vinel, Evgeny Belyaev, Boris Bellalta, Honglin Hu


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