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The book compares different approaches to urban development in Singapore and Seoul over the past decades, by focusing on community participation in the transformation of neighbourhoods and its impact on the built environment and communal life. Singapore and Seoul are known for their rapid economic growth and urbanisation under a strong control of developmental state in the past. However, these cities are at a critical crossroads of societal transformation, where participatory and community-based urban development is gaining importance. This new approach can be seen as a result of a changing relationship between the state and civil society, where an emerging partnership between both aims to overcome the limitations of earlier urban development. The book draws attention to the possibilities and challenges that these cities face while moving towards a more inclusive and socially sustainable post-developmental urbanisation. By applying a comparative perspective to understand the evolving urban paradigms in Singapore and Seoul, this unique and timely book offers insights for scholars, professionals and students interested in contemporary Asian urbanisation and its future trajectories.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Without Abstract
Cho Im Sik, Blaž Križnik

Chapter 2. Developmental Urbanisation in Singapore and South Korea

Abstract
The chapter discusses the origins and rise of the developmental state in Singapore and South Korea during and after the 1960s and its impact on urban development. In pursuing growth-first economic policy, the developmental state has initially seen urban development as an instrument of rapid economic growth, which also applies to transformation of residential areas. The early housing projects of the Housing and Development Board in Singapore and Joint Redevelopment Project in Seoul are compared in this chapter to better understand developmental urbanisation in each city. These cases reveal important differences between transformation of residential areas in Singapore and Seoul. Developmental state in Singapore has firmly controlled urban development and provided housing for the vast majority of the population, where the Housing and Development Board played the key role. In this way, urban development became an instrument of social integration and has strengthened political legitimacy of the state. While urban development in South Korea was also important for the rapid economic growth of the country, it was less controlled, largely driven by the market and with little concerns about social integration. Joint Redevelopment Project in Seoul, which was based on alliance between the developmental state and large corporations, has become a source of social tensions and economic polarisation in the city. Despite these differences, developmental state in Singapore and South Korea has largely excluded citizens and civil society from taking part in urban development. This seems to be a major characteristic and similarity between developmental urbanisation in Singapore and South Korea.
Cho Im Sik, Blaž Križnik

Chapter 3. Singapore and Seoul as Neo-Developmental Cities

Abstract
The chapter compares neoliberalisation of urban development in global Singapore and Seoul, and its consequences on the improvement of substandard residential areas in both cities. The Housing and Development Board’s upgrading programmes and New Town Development initiative are discussed as cases of what can be called neo-developmental urbanisation in Singapore and Seoul respectively. By comparing consequences of these two approaches on built environment, communal life and civic participation, this chapter looks into differences and similarities between neo-developmental urbanisation in Singapore and Seoul. Moreover, Wangsimni New Town in Seoul is taken as a case study to better understand how market-driven urban development becomes embedded in a particular locality, how the local state facilitates such projects, what their consequences are on localities, and, finally, how the residents responded to such speculative transformation of their neighbourhood. In this way Wangsimni New Town reveals limitations of neo-developmental urbanisation in Seoul, including demolition of old neighbourhoods, evictions and displacement of residents and small businesses, destruction of local economies, decline of communal life and culture as well as growing social conflicts among the residents and local government. In Singapore, neo-developmental urbanisation was less speculative and the role of real-estate market on transformation of residential areas was smaller compared to Seoul. In both cities the national and local government, nevertheless, tried to involve citizens and civil society in transformation of residential areas, although their role in affecting decisions of the state and urban development was very limited.
Cho Im Sik, Blaž Križnik

Chapter 4. Community-Based Approaches to Urban Development in Singapore and Seoul

Abstract
The chapter discusses community-based approaches emerging in Singapore and Seoul, which are opening new possibilities for alternative urban development through participatory planning. Neoliberalisation of urban development in the past decade has led to significant changes in social demands and subsequent political transformation, culminating in an important paradigm shift over the recent years. There has been an increasing advocacy for greater participation and stakeholdership in the planning process and as a result, the current political atmosphere in Singapore and Seoul exhibits greater support for citizen participation. A number of projects involving community participation in transformation and improvement of residential areas are emerging in both cities, which indicates a gradual shift towards a more inclusive and mutual partnership between the state and civil society. In Singapore, policymakers have deliberated including the community in designing public housing estates since the 1990s and in early 2000s. Hello Neighbour is taken as a case study of a recent participatory planning in Singapore to understand the attempts to implement mechanisms for active involvement of residents and stakeholders in transforming the living environment. Meanwhile, the Seoul Metropolitan Government has been experimenting with various community-based urban regeneration projects since 2000 and has recently introduced new initiatives and policies, which aim to radically redefine the role of civil society in urban development. Rather than directly comparing these cases of community-based urban development in Singapore and Seoul, which often differ in terms of planning approach, stakeholders involved or institutional frameworks, this chapter focuses on their consequences on built environment, communal life and civic participation, where some meaningful comparison between Singapore and Seoul can be made. This comparison suggests a shift from a neo-developmental towards what could be called a post-developmental city.
Cho Im Sik, Blaž Križnik

Chapter 5. Towards a Post-developmental City: An Emerging Partnership Between the State and Civil Society

Without Abstract
Cho Im Sik, Blaž Križnik
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