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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a view into the multi-dimensional and multi-contextual nature of community policing. It brings together important conceptual discussions as well as numerous case studies and real-life examples of European community policing practices. It further offers insights into how the (primarily locally focused) concept of community policing fits into an increasingly interconnected world. Our book is intended for professionals working in community policing, academics and policymakers developing community policing procedures. In addition, the book aims to provide information for readers who are new to the subject of community policing. The wide range of examples and case studies make it also an excellent resource for teaching materials.



Chapter 1. Introduction

Community Policing (CP) is embedded in the daily life of European citizens; e.g., when police officers aim to solve local problems to improve the quality of life and ensure a favourable state of security in the community. However, there are still debates about the difference between ‘traditional’ policing and community policing.
P. Saskia Bayerl, Babak Akhgar, Ruža Karlović, Garik Markarian

CP Context and Processes


Chapter 2. Community Policing in Support of Social Cohesion

Community Policing has a significant role in mediating and/or moderating interrelatedness of crime and collective (dis)organisation. This chapter discusses concepts of community cohesion, integration and resilience as well as the role of (in)formal social control in determining the level of community crime rates and safety. Special attention is given to the factors that suppress and promote community cohesion, the general overview of the efficacy of Community Policing programs and how they should be improved in order to more strongly support community cohesion.
Ines Sučić, Ruža Karlović

Chapter 3. ‘One for All and All for One’: Fostering Accountability in Community Policing

The accountability of the police is imperative if the use of their powers is to be seen as legitimate. This chapter will critically examine the concept of police accountability and its application to Community Policing in Europe. It will examine current police oversight systems in Europe in order to assess the extent to which the police are directly accountable to communities. Community policing is defined in this chapter as local policing arrangements whereby, at municipality, commune or neighbourhood level, the police work in partnership with civilian community representatives and other public agencies (such as social services, youth work, schools and businesses), in a shared responsibility to address crime prevention, public order, safety and security problems. The chapter advocates what is essentially a participatory governance and accountability approach where local Community Policing initiatives are managed by the representatives of the agencies constituting the Community Policing partnership. In this framework, the burden of the success or failure of Community Policing will be borne not only by the police alone but the communities also.
Bankole Cole

Chapter 4. Community Policing: The Relevance of Social Contexts

In this chapter, we conceptualize Community Policing (CP) as a partnership between police and communities, which is largely driven by the specific social contexts in which it occurs. We review the different perspectives and meanings of Community Policing across historical and geographical contexts to illustrate our core argument—that there is no one-size-fits-all-approach to CP. By stressing the relevance of legitimacy and trust, we develop a model for Community Policing that accounts for the complex dynamics between police and their communities. We argue that trust and legitimacy is a mutual process between police and communities where Community Policing can only be successful if the police also trusts their communities and considers the involvement of communities in local safety issues as legitimate. We summarize our model in practical recommendations.
Mark van der Giessen, Elisabeth Brein, Gabriele Jacobs

Chapter 5. Community Policing as a Social System and Its Components

Community policing is an approach that emphasizes partnership between community stakeholders and the police in solving local security issues. Community policing is modelled here as a social system that consists of four components: elements, environment, structure and mechanisms. The elements (members) of the Community Policing system constitute the system’s composition. Members can be individual citizens, public agencies, community groups, non-profit organization and private businesses. The system is embedded in an environment that imposes a range of political, economic, legal and social opportunities and constraints. Structure is the set of relations between the system’s elements and their relation to the environment. While trust is the foundation for partnership, key properties of relations consist of various activities between the members such as communication and collaboration. Mechanisms are the processes that keep the system running and through which Community Policing aims to achieve its purposes. The prevailing purpose of Community Policing is the prevention of crime and disorder, which makes problem solving the main mechanism of the system. The model consists of abstract concepts without any specific content unless applied to the analysis of particular Community Policing arrangement. The power of these conceptual tools is demonstrated by exploring how Community Policing is implemented in the city of Helsinki, Finland.
Jarmo Houtsonen, Jari Taponen, Pirjo Jukarainen, Olavi Kujanpää

European CP Practices and Case Studies


Chapter 6. Community Policing and Radicalization: Evaluation and European Examples

The terror attacks in France and Belgium during the years 2015 and 2016 kept the whole of Europe in suspense. More and more cases of radicalization came to light followed by a high amount of individuals that left Europe in order to fight in Syria or Iraq. Law Enforcement Agencies face completely new challenges in combating terrorism, as there has never been before such a quantity and quality in the field of radicalization. This chapter will outline the phenomenon of radicalization along with its factors and mechanisms and will present the concept of Community Policing. This citizen-based approach within traditional policing practices combines the daily police work with the assistance and support of the communities to counter and prevent radicalization and terrorism.
Holger Nitsch, Sarina Ronert

Chapter 7. Police Liaison Approaches to Managing Political Protest: A Critical Analysis of a Prominent UK Example

The case study presented in this chapter focuses on the work of a 15-person Police Liaison Team in relation to a large-scale political protest in the major English city of Sheffield in March 2011. The chapter utilises participant observation and interview data, and initially employs the author’s Flashpoints Model of Public Disorder to emphasise how a combination of contextual factors and dynamic processes—underpinned by a strong Community Policing orientation—were conducive to a highly permissive style of policing, which strove to facilitate the protest’s main objectives. The same body of data is also used to address the cynical suggestion that this particular style of policing actually constitutes a ‘sham’, insofar as it is chiefly designed to secure the protesters’ compliance with the police’s own agenda.
David Waddington

Chapter 8. Community Policing and Public Perception: Belgian Expectations and Images of the Police

The Community Policing model prefers a police organisation in which a policy is developed related to the needs of the community and focusses, amongst other things, on trust-building between the citizen and the community. In order to reach this goal, the police needs to have a clear insight into what people think and expect from the police. 120 citizens of different age groups living in a rural or urban area in Belgium were interviewed. A kaleidoscopic view of expectations and meanings of the police was found and is presented in this chapter.
Isabel Verwee

Chapter 9. Joining Forces for Our Security in Austrian Community Policing

Strengthening and developing closeness and confidence in law enforcement authorities is one of the key concerns and tasks of modern police work. The concept of Community Policing is based on the idea of bringing together public actors to form a ‘community partnership’, which serves as a framework for crime prevention and effective crime control close to the citizens. The idea of a partnership involving citizens in crime prevention and crime control is echoed in the Austrian pilot project ‘Joining forces for our security in Austria’, which is intended to proactively advance a dialogue of equals between citizens, the municipal authorities and the police. This chapter provides an introduction to Community Policing in Austria, expanding on the structure and the communication methods used in the pilot project. Subsequently, it discusses the necessity and the standardization of citizen participation as a fundamental element of Community Policing. In light of these theoretical considerations, the recruitment of security citizens in the test districts of the project and their activity profile are described further on. Finally, further developments and the implementation of the Community Policing project in Austria are examined.
Barbara Pusca, Gerhard Lang, Ricarda Kutschera

Chapter 10. Security as the Basis Behind Community Policing: Croatia’s Community Policing Approach

The function of police in a contemporary democratic society in which the security norms have become a fundamental value, places the emphasis on prevention activities not only on criminal acts, but also on antisocial behaviour. The description of the role of police in the community and of police tasks in legal texts, such as the Police Act and the Act on Police Duties and Authorities, are a very important means for understanding the police as a social institution and service. From the adoption of the strategy on police actions in the community to the present day, the Croatian police have implemented a wide range of activities at the local, national and international level to strengthen and maintain all three dimensions that describe the Croatian approach to Community Policing. Community policing is not simply a technique or police tactic but a strategy that requires commitment and that would gain momentum with increased faith in the police as a community institution. This chapter discusses how the conditions were put into place for Community Policing in Croatia and outlines the implementation and execution of this strategy through the prevention-based EUCPN project.
Ruža Karlović, Ines Sučić

Chapter 11. Community Policing Case Studies: Proposing a Social Media Approach

This chapter explores a selection of Community Policing (CP) case studies in Europe and a proposed social media based approach. The selected case studies were carefully chosen to highlight the need of transformation and evolution of adapted successful models to fulfil the unique local context characteristics. The need for continuous change of existing CP schemas is sourced on both citizens’ and police’s varying needs, new challenges, modern police roles, responsibilities and duties. The digital transformation of the police and community engagement is presented using a selection of test cases from England, while the latest development of police being in social media and using them to reach communities is presented using the funded EU research project INSPEC2T trialled in selected European cities.
Georgios Leventakis, George Kokkinis, George Papalexandratos

CP in an Interconnected World


Chapter 12. New Crime Landscapes and New Technologies for Community Policing

The chapter underlines how Community Policing can use new technologies such as GIS and open source information together with technological innovation to improve the quality of life in the community as well as in crime prevention. Also, the manner in which new technologies are currently being used by police agencies in order to provide more efficient community oriented police work is discussed. Among others, the author emphasizes the importance of strengthening the European Union Cooperation in Community Policing and in the fight against crime through formal and informal international contacts.
Bogdan Vasile Diţu

Chapter 13. Social Media: Facilitator and Stimulator of Community Policing

This chapter shows why social media are critical for successful Community Policing. It elaborates on the characteristics of social media as well as the role of social media in implementing and performing Community Policing and also elaborates on the implementation of social media for security purposes in general. It provides a wide range of case examples and best practices mostly from the Netherlands in how to fit social media into operational police tasks according to a Community Policing philosophy. Overall, this chapter illustrates how social media bring benefits for Community Policing, despite undeniable dilemmas and challenges.
C. C. M. T. Broekman, A. de Vries, M. A. A. Huis in ’t Veld, R. Mente, J.H. Kerstolt

Chapter 14. Mobile Communications for Community Policing

In this chapter we provide an overview of the existing wireless communication solutions and discuss their usage in Community Policing (CP) applications. We conclude that it is highly probable that Community Policing will be utilising the existing emergency services solutions and that there will be no dedicated CP networks. The existing emergency services networks we classify as infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less networks and within this classification analyse TETRA, 3G, LTE and ad hoc mesh solutions. We demonstrate that no single solution could meet all the requirements and that various operational scenarios will require diverse mobile communication solutions. Therefore, the most interesting solutions such as LTE and ad hoc wireless networks are described in greater details.
Garik Markarian, V. C. da Rocha, D. Zvikhachevsky, M. L. M. G. Alcoforado

Chapter 15. Importance of Cyber Security

As Community Policing (CP) is closely correlated with the daily lives of citizens, it can be affected by the cyber threats in the same way as the citizens it is supposed to support. Furthermore, combating cybercrimes or dealing with its aftermaths could become integral part of CP operations. Therefore, it is essential to understand the main concepts of cyber security together with existing and emerging threats it possesses. This chapter clarifies common terms and techniques from hacking and ransomware to the dark web and cryptocurrencies and makes them accessible to a wider audience. More importantly the chapter outlines why cyber-criminals have embraced these technologies, how they use them and how law enforcement—and more specifically Community Policing—can realistically investigate and operate in this new age.
Alex Tarter

Chapter 16. Applying Computational Intelligence to Community Policing and Forensic Investigations

Community Policing operates in an interconnected world and as such could benefit from the latest technological advances such as computational or artificial intelligence. In this chapter, we describe a new method for applying computational intelligence to Community Policing and forensic investigation based on heterogeneous data. To illustrate the proposed method, we apply it to the well-known VAST Challenge 2014. Experimental results show how the proposed method can reduce the process of investigation in finding anomalies in heterogeneous data. The integration of data with the proposed method can simplify the tedious and time consuming job of processing huge amount of data and assist the human expert in making decision and analysis.
Azliza Mohd Ali, Plamen Angelov

Chapter 17. Evaluating the Design and Implementation of CP-Support Technologies: A Participatory Framework

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly used to support Community Policing in order to strengthen, facilitate and accelerate the communication between citizens and police. In this chapter we present a participatory framework that can help to make the development and implementation of ICTs more effective. We base our evaluation framework on five main methodological characteristics: consecutive piloting, longitudinal perspective, multi-stakeholder view, multi-level approach and finally the triangulation of findings from various outcome levels. We argue for a short-, mid- and long-term evaluation approach with consecutive pilots to account for the interdependent nature of the technology and its social context. Next to this we give concrete examples for evaluation criteria of the functionality, acceptance and impact evaluation of a tool. Finally, we summarize our chapter with recommendations for ICT evaluations in complex context in general.
P. Saskia Bayerl, Gabriele Jacobs

Chapter 18. Concluding Remarks

In 1829 Sir Robert Peel formulated his nine basic principles of policing. Amongst them can be found the following instruction: “To maintain at all times a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and that the public are the police, the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.”
Babak Akhgar, P. Saskia Bayerl, Garik Markarian, Ruža Karlović
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