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01.10.2020 | Original Article | Ausgabe 19/2020

Environmental Earth Sciences 19/2020

Comparison of sandstone and mudstone with different methods for assessing toxic element contamination in the Early–Middle Jurassic sediments of Gümüşhane (NE Turkey)

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 19/2020
Autoren:
Çiğdem Saydam Eker, Uğur Volkan Arı
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Abstract

To investigate the vertical changes of toxic elements in Jurassic sediments, sampling was performed in four sites. Samples were collected from sandstones and mudstones/marls and analyzed for some toxic elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Ni and V). Results exhibited that the sediment grain size played a significant role in controlling the concentrations of the toxic elements in the sediments. The mean toxic element contents of mudstones/marls were higher than those of sandstones (except Cu). The contamination level of toxic elements was detected by enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), potential ecological risk index (Eir), pollution index (Pi) and united pollution index (PIn). The low EF, Igeo, Eir, Pi and PIn for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V in the sandstones and Cu, Zn, Ni in the mudstones/marls exhibited an absence of clear these elements pollution. The high EF, Eir, Pi and PIn for As (9.7, 73, 7 and 29, respectively, as mean values) in the sandstones and for As (49.3, 222, 22 and 75, respectively, as mean values) Pb (8.8, 24, 5 and 19, respectively, as mean values), V (8.3, 15, 7 and 39, respectively, as mean values) in the mudstones/marls indicated significant contamination. Additionally, according to the potential ecological risk (RI) values, the sandstones had low potential ecological risk for the toxic elements (RI < 150) and the mudstones/marls had moderate potential ecological risk (150 ≤ RI ≤ 300). The potential ecological risk As, Pb, V (especially As) were higher in urban areas than in agricultural activities. Therefore, the source of As, Pb, V could be gasoline combustion, burning coal and vehicle exhausts. The contents of these elements generally increased from bottom to top of the measured stratigraphic sections, which indicated transported by atmospheric conditions.

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