At automated container terminals, containers are transshipped from one mode of transportation to another. Automated vehicles transport containers from the stack to the ship and vice versa. Two different types of automated vehicles are studied in this paper, namely automated lifting vehicles and automated guided vehicles. An automated lifting vehicle is capable of lifting a container from the ground by itself. An automated guided vehicles needs a crane to receive and deliver a container.
In designing automated container terminals one have to consider the choice for a certain type of equipment. The choice for a certain type of equipment should be made by performing a feasibility and economic analysis on various types of equipment. In this paper, we examine effects of using automated guided vehicles and automated lifting vehicles on unloading times of a ship, with simulation studies. In choosing a certain type of equipment we have considered criteria such as unloading times of a ship, occupancy degrees and the number of vehicles required. 38% more AGVs need to be used than ALVs. From this specific study, we conclude that, by observing only purchasing costs of equipment, ALVs are a cheaper option than AGVs.
To obtain an accurate analysis we have performed a sensitivity analysis. It can be concluded that the design of the terminal and technical aspects of quay cranes impact the number of vehicles required and as a result the choice for a certain type of equipment.