Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Connections are ubiquitous in hydrology. However, understanding the nature and extent of connections in hydrologic systems has and continues to be a tremendous challenge. In recent years, applications of the concepts of complex networks to study connections in hydrologic systems have started to emerge. This chapter aims to offer an overview of the science of complex networks and its applications in hydrology. First, the basic concept of a network, the history of development of network theory, and some important measures of network properties are presented. Next, applications of complex networks in hydrology are reviewed, including studies on spatial connections, temporal connections, and catchment classification. Finally, some remarks on future directions are made.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Bak, P. 1996. How nature works: the science of self-organized criticality, 212 pp. New York: Springer-Verlag. CrossRef
Barabási, A.-L. 2002. Linked: the new science of networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
Barabási, A.-L., and R. Albert. 1999. Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science 286: 509–512. CrossRef
Barnsley, F.M. 2012. Fractals everywhere. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications.
Barrat, A., and M. Weigt. 2000. On the properties of small-world networks. The European Physical Journal B 13: 547–560. CrossRef
Bavelas, A. 1948. A mathematical model for group structure. Human Organization 7: 16–30. CrossRef
Blondel, V.D., J.-L. Guillaume, R. Lambiotte, and E. Lefebvre. 2008. Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. Journal of Statistical Mechanics 2008 (10): P10008. CrossRef
Braga, A.C., L.G.A. Alves, L.S. Costa, A.A. Ribeiro, M.M.A. de Jesus, A.A. Tateishi, and H.V. Ribeiro. 2016. Characterization of river flow fluctuations via horizontal visibility graphs. Physica A 444: 1003–1011. CrossRef
Cayley, A. 1857. On the theory of the analytical forms called trees. Philosophical Magazine, Ser IV 13 (85): 172–176.
Clauset, A., M.E.J. Newman, and C. Moore. 2004. Finding community structure in very large networks. Physical Review E 70 (6): P066111. CrossRef
Clauset, A., C. Rohilla Shalizi, and M.E.J. Newman. 2010. Power-law distribution in empirical data. SIAM Review 51: 661–703. CrossRef
Coffman, D.M., and A.K. Turner. 1971. Computer determination of the geometry and topology of stream networks. Water Resources Research 7 (2): 419–423. CrossRef
Colizza, V., V.R. Banavar, A. Maritan, and A. Rinaldo. 2004. Network structures from selection principles. Physical Review Letters 92 (19): 198701. CrossRef
Czuba, J.A., and E. Foufoula-Georgiou. 2014. A network-based framework for identifying potential synchronizations and amplifications of sediment delivery in river basins. Water Resources Research 50: 3826–3851. CrossRef
———. 2015. Dynamic connectivity in a fluvial network for identifying hotspots of geomorphic change. Water Resources Research 51: 1401–1421. CrossRef
Costa, L.F., F.A. Rodriguez, G. Traviesco, and P.R. Villas Boas. 2007. Characterization of complex networks: a survey of measurements. Advances in Physics 56 (1): 167–242. CrossRef
Dalin, C., N. Hanasaki, H. Qui, D.L. Mauzerall, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. 2014. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (27): 9774–9779. CrossRef
Donges, J.F., Y. Zou, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. 2009. Complex networks in climate dynamics. European Physics Journal 174: 157–179.
Donner, R.V., and J.F. Donges. 2012. Visibility graph analysis of geophysical time series: potentials and possible pitfalls. Acta Geophysica 60 (3): 589–623. CrossRef
Donner, R.V., Y. Zou, J.F. Donges, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. 2010. Recurrence networks—a novel paradigm for nonlinear time series analysis. New Journal of Physics 12 (3): 033025. CrossRef
Donner, R.V., M. Small, J.F. Donges, N. Marwan, Y. Zou, R. Xiang, and R. Kurths. 2011. Recurrence-based time series analysis by means of complex network methods. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 21 (4): 1019–1046. CrossRef
Dooge, J.C.I. 1986. Looking for hydrologic laws. Water Resources Research 22 (9): 46S–58S. CrossRef
Erdös, P., and A. Rényi. 1959. On random graphs, I. Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen 6: 290–297.
———. 1960. On the evolution of random graphs. Publication of Institute of Hungarian Academy of Sciences 5: 17–61.
Estrada, E. 2012. The structure of complex networks: theory and applications. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.
Euler, L. 1741. Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis. Comment Academic Science Petropolitanae 8: 128–140.
Fang, F., B. Sivakumar, and F.M. Woldemeskel. 2017. Complex networks, community structure, and catchment classification in a large-scale river basin. Journal of Hydrology 545: 478–493. CrossRef
Girvan, M., and M.E. Newman. 2002. Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (12): 7821–7826. CrossRef
Gupta, V.K., I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, and E.F. Wood. 1986. Scale problems in hydrology: runoff generation and basin response. Water science and technology library series. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. CrossRef
Halverson, M., and S. Fleming. 2015. Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19: 3301–3318. CrossRef
Horton, R.E. 1945. Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: Hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Geological Society of America Bulletin 56: 275–370. CrossRef
Jeong, H., S. Mason, A.-L. Barabási, and Z.N. Oltvai. 2001. Lethality and centrality in protein networks. Nature 411: 41–42. CrossRef
Jha, S.K., H. Zhao, F.M. Woldemeskel, and B. Sivakumar. 2015. Network theory and spatial rainfall connections: an interpretation. Journal of Hydrology 527: 13–19. CrossRef
Keller, E.F. 2005. Revisiting ‘scale-free’ networks. BioEssay 27: 1060–1068. CrossRef
Kim, D.-H., J.D. Noh, and H. Jeong. 2004. Scale-free trees: the skeletons of complex networks. Physical Review E 70: 046126. CrossRef
Kirkby, M.J. 1976. Tests of the random network model, and its application to basin hydrology. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 1 (3): 197–212. CrossRef
Konar, M., and K.K. Caylor. 2013. Virtual water trade and development in Africa. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17: 3969–3982. CrossRef
Konar, M., Z. Hussein, N. Hanasaki, D.L. Mauzerall, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. 2013. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17: 3219–3234. CrossRef
Latora, V., and M. Marchiori. 2001. Efficient behavior of small-world networks. Physical Review Letters 87 (19): 198701. CrossRef
Leavitt, H.J. 1951. Some effects of certain communication patterns on group performance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46: 38–50. CrossRef
Listing, J.B. 1848. Vorstudien zur Topologie, 811–875. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
Lorenz, E.N. 1963. Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 20 (2): 130–141. CrossRef
Malik, N., B. Bookhagen, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths. 2012. Analysis of spatial and temporal extreme monsoonal rainfall over South Asia using complex networks. Climate Dynamics 39: 971–987. CrossRef
Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Masselink, R.J.H., T. Heckmann, A.J.A.M. Temme, N.S. Anders, H.P.A. Gooren, and S.D. Deesstra. 2017. A network theory approach for a better understanding of overland flow connectivity. Hydrological Processes 31: 207–220. CrossRef
Milo, R., S. Shen-Orr, S. Itzkovitz, N. Kashtan, D. Chklovskii, and U. Alon. 2002. Network motifs: simple building blocks of complex networks. Science 298: 824–827. CrossRef
Montanari, A., G. Young, H.H.G. Savenije, D. Hughes, T. Wagner, L.L. Ren, D. Koutsoyiannis, C. Cudennec, E. Toth, S. Grimaldi, G. Blöschl, M. Sivapalan, K. Beven, H. Gupta, M. Hipsey, B. Schaefli, B. Arheimer, E. Boegh, S.J. Schymanski, G. Di Baldassarre, B. Yu, P. Hubert, Y. Huang, A. Schumann, D.A. Post, V. Srinivasan, C. Harman, S. Thomson, M. Rogger, A. Viglione, H. McMillan, G. Characklis, G. Pang, and V. Belyaev. 2013. “Panta Rhei—Everything Flows”: change in hydrology and society—The IAHS Scientific Decade 2013–2022. Hydrological Sciences Journal 58 (6): 1256–1275. CrossRef
Moon, J.W. 1980. On the expected diameter of random channel networks. Water Resources Research 16 (6): 1119–1120. CrossRef
Newman, M.E.J. 2001a. Scientific collaboration networks: II. Shortest paths, weighted networks, and centrality. Physical Review E 64: 016132. CrossRef
———. 2001b. The structure of scientific collaboration networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 404–409. CrossRef
———. 2006. Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices. Physical Review E 74: 036104. CrossRef
Newman, M.E.J., and M. Girvan. 2004. Finding and evaluating community structure in networks. Physical Review E 69: 026113. CrossRef
O’Bannon, C., J. Carr, D.A. Seekell, and P. D’Odorico. 2014. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18: 503–510. CrossRef
Paluš, M., D. Hartman, J. Hlinka, and M. Vejmelka. 2011. Discerning connectivity from dynamics in climate networks. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 18 (5): 751–763. CrossRef
Paola, C., E. Foufoula-Georgiou, W.E. Dietrich, M. Hondzo, D. Mohrig, G. Parker, M.E. Power, I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, V. Voller, and P. Wilcock. 2006. Toward a unified science of the Earth’s surface: opportunities for synthesis among hydrology, geomorphology, geochemistry, and ecology. Water Resources Research 42: W03S10. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004336. CrossRef
Passalacqua, P. 2017. The Delta Connectome: A network-based framework for studying connectivity in river deltas. Geomorphology 277: 50–62. CrossRef
Phillips, J.D., W. Schwanghart, and T. Heckmann. 2015. Graph theory in geosciences. Earth-Science Reviews 143: 147–160. CrossRef
Pons, P., and M. Latapy. 2006. Computing communities in large networks using random walks. Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications 10 (2): 191–218. CrossRef
Raghavan, U.N., R. Albert, and S. Kumara. 2007. Near linear time algorithm to detect community structures in large-scale networks. Physical Review E 76: 036106. CrossRef
Rinaldo, A., J.R. Banavar, and A. Maritan. 2006. Trees, networks, and hydrology. Water Resources Research 42: W06D07. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004108.
Rinaldo, A., R. Rigon, J.R. Banavar, A. Maritan, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. 2014. Evolution and selection of river networks: Statics, dynamics, and complexity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111 (7): 2417–2424. CrossRef
Salas, J.D., J.W. Delleur, V. Yevjevich, and W.L. Lane. 1995. Applied modeling of hydrologic time series. Littleton, Colorado: Water Resources Publications.
Scheidegger, A.E. 1967. On the topology of river nets. Water Resources Research 3 (1): 103–106. CrossRef
Serinaldi, F., and C.G. Kilsby. 2016. Irreversibility and complex network behavior of stream flow fluctuations. Physica A 450: 585–600. CrossRef
Shreve, R.L. 1966. Statistical law of stream numbers. Journal of Geology 74: 17–37. CrossRef
———. 1967. Infinite topologically random channel networks. Journal of Geology 75: 178–186. CrossRef
———. 1969. Stream lengths and basin areas in topologically random channel networks. Journal of Geology 77: 397–414. CrossRef
Sivakumar, B. 2008. Dominant processes concept, model simplification and classification framework in catchment hydrology. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 22 (6): 737–748. CrossRef
———. 2011a. Global climate change and its impacts on water resources planning and management: assessment and challenges. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 25 (4): 583–600. CrossRef
———. 2011b. Water crisis: from conflict to cooperation–an overview. Hydrological Sciences Journal 56 (4): 531–552. CrossRef
———. 2015. Networks: a generic theory for hydrology? Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 29: 761–771. CrossRef
———. 2017. Chaos in hydrology: bridging determinism and stochasticity, 394 pp. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. CrossRef
Sivakumar, B., and F.M. Woldemeskel. 2014. Complex networks for streamflow dynamics. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18: 4565–4578. CrossRef
———. 2015. A network-based analysis of spatial rainfall connections. Environmental Modelling and Software 69: 55–62. CrossRef
Smart, J.S. 1970. Use of topologic information in processing data for channel networks. Water Resources Research 6 (3): 932–936. CrossRef
Smart, J.S., and C. Werner. 1976. Applications of the random model of drainage composition. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 1: 219–233. CrossRef
Steinhaeuser, K., and A.A. Tsonis. 2014. A climate model intercomparison at the dynamics level. Climate Dynamics 42: 1665–1670. CrossRef
Steinhaeuser, K., N.V. Chawla, and A.R. Ganguly. 2011. Complex networks as a unified framework for descriptive analysis and predictive modeling in climate science. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining 4: 497–511. CrossRef
Steinhaeuser, K., A.R. Ganguly, and N.V. Chawla. 2012. Multivariate and multiscale dependence in the global climate system revealed through complex networks. Climate Dynamics 39: 889–895. CrossRef
Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 38: 913–920. CrossRef
Tamea, S., P. Allamano, J. Carr, P. Claps, F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi. 2013. Local and global perspectives on the virtual water trade. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17: 1205–1215. CrossRef
Tamea, S., J.A. Carr, F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi. 2014. Drivers of the virtual water trade. Water Resources Research 50: 17–28. CrossRef
Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula-Georgiou. 2015a. Delta channel networks: 1. A graph-theoretic approach for studying connectivity and steady state transport on deltaic surfaces. Water Resources Research 51: 4019–4045. CrossRef
———. 2015b. Delta channel networks: 2. Metrics of topologic and dynamic complexity for delta comparison, physical inference, and vulnerability assessment. Water Resources Research 51: 3998–4018. CrossRef
Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, R. Caldwell, D.A. Edmonds, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula-Georgiou. 2016. Quantifying the signature of sediment composition on the topologic and dynamic complexity of river delta networks and inferences toward delta classification. Geophysical Research Letters 43: 3280–3287. CrossRef
Tokunaga, E. 1978. Consideration on the composition of drainage networks and their evolution. Department of Geography/Tokyo Metropolitan University 13: 1–27.
Tsonis, A.A., and P.J. Roebber. 2004. The architecture of the climate network. Physica A 333: 497–504. CrossRef
Tsonis, A.A., and K.L. Swanson. 2008. Topology and predictability of El Niño and La Niña networks. Physical Review Letters 100: 228502. CrossRef
Tsonis, A.A., K.L. Swanson, and P.J. Roebber. 2006. What do networks have to do with climate? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 (5): 585–595. CrossRef
Tsonis, A.A., K.L. Swanson, and G. Wang. 2008. Estimating the clustering coefficient in scale-free networks on lattices with local spatial correlation structure. Physica A 387: 5287–5294. CrossRef
Tsonis, A.A., G. Wang, K.L. Swanson, F.A. Rodrigues, and L.F. Costa. 2011. Community structure and dynamics in climate networks. Climate Dynamics 37: 933–940. CrossRef
Wasserman, S., and K. Faust. 1994. Social network analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Watts, D.J. 1999. Small worlds: the dynamics of networks between order and randomness. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Watts, D.J., and S.H. Strogatz. 1998. Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks. Nature 393: 440–442. CrossRef
Werner, C. 1982. Analysis of length distribution of drainage basin parameter. Water Resources Research 18 (4): 997–1005. CrossRef
Yamasaki, K., A. Gozolchiani, and S. Havlin. 2008. Climate networks around the globe are significantly affected by El Niño. Physical Review Letters 100: 228501. CrossRef
Young, P.C., and M. Ratto. 2009. A unified approach to environmental systems modeling. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 23: 1037–1057. CrossRef
- Complex Networks and Hydrologic Applications
Carlos E. Puente
Mahesh L. Maskey
in-adhesives, MKVS, Zühlke/© Zühlke