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Über dieses Buch

This book contains all refereed papers that were accepted to the sixth edition of the « Complex Systems Design & Management Paris » (CSD&M Paris 2015) international conference which took place in Paris (France) on November 23-25, 2015.These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of complex systems sciences & practices from an industrial and academic perspective, including the main industrial domains (aeronautics & aerospace, defense & security, electronics & robotics, energy & environment, health & welfare, software & e-services, transportation), scientific & technical topics (systems fundamentals, systems architecture & engineering, systems metrics & quality, systems modeling tools) and systems types (artificial ecosystems, embedded systems, software & information systems, systems of systems, transportation systems).The CSD&M Paris 2015 conference is organized under the guidance of the CESAMES non-profit organization, address: CESAMES, 8 rue de Hanovre, 75002 Paris, France.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Erratum to: Designing Systems with Adaptability in Mind

Haifeng Zhu

Regular Papers

Frontmatter

Lessons Learnt in System Engineering for the SESAR Programme

The SESAR 1 programme, which aims at improving Air Traffic Management in Europe, is entering into its seventh and last year of life. After two years, it reached a cruise regime, with simplified System Engineering and Management processes, to deliver each year a set of “SESAR Solutions”, ready for industrialisation. Along with the management of the ongoing Program, the SESAR Joint Undertaking (SJU) prepared a following programme SESAR 2020, to continue the development and validation of next improvements organized to benefit from the lessons learnt during SESAR 1: Coarser granularity,Better and more integrated “strategic information” management,More systematic management of System Engineering data, including Requirements, Validation Objectives, Validation results and Architecture models,Strict monitoring of maturity progress of each SESAR Solution with predefined maturity criteria,Focusing on annual Releases of mature Solutions.These lessons learnt can be applied to any System of Systems Research and Development programme, where coordinated System Engineering is a key issue.

Alfredo Gomez, Benoit Fonck, André Ayoun, Gianni Inzerillo

Co-Engineering: A Key-Lever of Efficiency for Complex and Adaptive Systems, Throughout Their Life Cycle

Thales Group designs, develops, produces, supports, operates innovative solutions in large and various domains (Aerospace, Space, Defence, Aerospace, Ground Transportation, Security, etc.) where the operational performances are more and more critical. In this context, to ensure competitiveness and remain leader on the market, Thales has investigated in an extension of the recommended Integrated Product and Process Development approach (see [DoD IPPD], [INCOSE SE HB], [CMMI]), applied for Co-Development towards a “Co-Engineering approach” addressing all stages and concerns of the operational system as a key lever of efficiency and SE benefits achievement. This paper presents the implementation in Thales of this Co-Engineering approach identifying major principles to be mutually agreed and applied (on Technical and Organisational aspects) per System Life Cycle stage, necessary changes to be led, and finally, an illustration by typical scenarios as Returns of Experience.

Anne Sigogne, Odile Mornas, Edmond Tonnellier, Jean-Luc Garnier

Simplification Principles in the Design of Cyber-Physical System-of-Systems

Systems-of-systems are built by the integration of autonomous existing systems, called constituent systems (CS), in order to provide new synergistic services and improved economic processes. When integrating cyber-physical systems (CPSs), the interactions among the constituent systems are not confined to the exchange of messages in cyber space but are also realized by a stigmergic information flow in the physical world. The size of the CPSs and the multitude of the interactions among the CPSs lead to an enormous cognitive complexity of the behavior of the CP-SoS and make it difficult to reason about the correct operation of a cyber-physical system of systems (CP-SoS). It is the objective of this paper to present some simplification principles that help to reduce this cognitive complexity of a CP-SoS.

Hermann Kopetz

System Readiness Assessment (SRA) a Vade Mecum

As the complexity of systems increases, it is critical to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the development status, or readiness, of the system to aid more informed system-level technical and management decisions throughout the life cycle. Lack of comprehensive system thinking at the onset and failure at the integration points are two of the primary causes for unsuccessful system development. To measure system readiness, a greater emphasis must be placed on integration. This paper provides a vade mecum or handbook for System Readiness Assessment (SRA). It provides system-level metrics that give visibility over the development life cycle into the entire system and its interfaces. The SRA assessment criteria are described and an example is provided. The intended users include Program Managers, Systems Engineers, Independent Review Teams, and developers. The goal is to provide a fundamental understanding of how to conduct an SRA, as well as assist experienced users in maximizing the benefits of SRAs.

Marc F. Austin, Donald M. York

Designing and Integrating Complex Systems: Be Agile Through Liveness Verification and Abstraction

Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is recognised as a strong way to develop high-quality systems, and specifically reactive systems. Within MDA, models are in the center of a stepwise development based on extensions, refinements and transformation. Systems Engineering addresses the problem of complex system development in a holistic way, however, there is a lack of tools to verify models from a behavioural point of view at the earlier stage of the development, taking into account that the specifications are evolving during the system development. We propose IDF, a framework for Incremental Development of Compliant Models, which is constituted with a set of relations based on the verification of liveness properties. It is computed on abstract models automatically set up from behavioural specifications of the system or its component. These relations detect non-conformance of models during their evolution (extension or refinement) such as the non-interoperability of sub-components belonging to an architecture.

Thomas Lambolais, Anne-Lise Courbis, Hong-Viet Luong, Thanh-Liem Phan

Model-Driven IVV Management with Arcadia and Capella

In the field of Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE), this paper describes the use of engineering models to drive and secure Integration Verification Validation (IVV) phases of an engineering lifecycle. The illustration uses the Arcadia engineering method and its supporting modelling workbench Capella. The methodological, tool-agnostic concepts are presented, alongside with tool features easing the application of the approach.

Jean-Luc Voirin, Stéphane Bonnet, Véronique Normand, Daniel Exertier

How to Make Sure the System Level Conformity Assessment: Case of Japanese Consortia in Automotive Communication Protocol

Standards developing organizations (SDOs) have recently emphasized the importance of the system level conformity assessment (SLCA) which is free from the interoperability problems of complex product systems. The objective of this paper is to show how to establish the dependable SLCA and what kind of co-operation among the actors is needed to the establishment of the SLCA. For this purpose, I am dealing with, as the case study, the standard setting process of the conformance test specifications of the automotive network system in Japanese industrial consortium. The case reveals that if a society demands a highly dependable SLCA, vertical co-operation among actors should be designed for drafting the conformance test specifications while horizontal co-operation should be oriented for restricting the universality of the specifications among actors.

Akio Tokuda

Analysis of Implementation of Care Coordination in a Multi-level Care Provider Organization: A Need for Systems Approaches

Better care coordination is a crucial objective to answer to the rising complexity of healthcare and the associated increase in costs. Process-based organizations is a widely recommended method for achieving this goal. In this article an initiative of implementing a care process in a French public hospital group is analyzed. The procedure to design the care process is documented and the official care process is compared to the current situation in a hospital. This analysis shows how important local parameters are in such projects. The shortcomings of the approach are identified and propositions to overcome these issues are made.

Guillaume Lamé, Tu-Anh Duong, Marija Jankovic, Julie Stal-Le Cardinal, Oualid Jouini

Computational Intelligence Based Complex Adaptive System-of-System Architecture Evolution Strategy

There is a constant challenge to incorporate new systems and upgrade existing systems under threats, constrained budget and uncertainty into systems of systems (SoS). It is necessary for program managers to be able to assess the impacts of future technology and stakeholder changes. This research helps analyze sequential decisions in an evolving SoS architecture through three key features: SoS architecture generation, assessment and implementation through negotiation. Architectures are generated using evolutionary algorithms and assessed using type II fuzzy nets. The approach accommodates diverse stakeholder views, converting them to key performance parameters (KPPs) for architecture assessment. It is not possible to implement an acknowledged SoS architecture without persuading the systems to participate. A negotiation model is proposed to help the SoS manger adapt his strategy based on system owners’ behavior. Viewpoints of multiple stakeholders are aggregated to assess the overall mission effectiveness of an architecture against the overarching objectives. A search and rescue (SAR) example illustrates application of the method. Future research might include group decision making for evaluating architectures.

Siddhartha Agarwal, Cihan H. Dagli, Louis E. Pape

How Do Architects Think? A Game Based Microworld for Elucidating Dynamic Decision-Making

How do we think? A puzzling question given that humans may employ various actions, tactics and strategies during complex decision making tasks. Not to mention the influence of personality, style and intentions on judgment and decision-making. In this paper we focus on modeling Dynamic Decision Making (DDM) by utilizing actual in-game observations. We developed a ‘game based microworld’ through which we can capture and analyze players’ reasoning behaviors. The use case is a bid for a complex system, in which we are interested in the contractor architects’ DDM. Further, we explore various methods for game analytics that can be used to understand human reasoning. We conclude with several applications where game analytics may be utilized such as knowledge engineering, business intelligence, and training.

Johan de Heer

EMI: Engineering and Management Integrator

The impact of systems engineering on program cost has been recognized for over a decade. From the very early stages, careful management of the relationships between the product design and the project plan is crucial to the success of any project that aims to deliver a defined product. Failure to closely manage the intricate web of resource constraints emanating from the two domains, the project scope and the product scope may lead to inadequate product performance or overruns in project schedule and budget. Identifying and managing the relationship between these two domains are at the heart of our challenge to combine project management (PM) and systems engineering (SE). We present a new approach, called EMI, which integrates SE and PM methodologies. These include the EMI mathematical foundation, implementation in architectural optimization and project management tools, and a detailed use case for development of the Doors Management System for commercial aircraft.

Michael Masin, Yael Dubinsky, Michal Iluz, Evgeny Shindin, Abraham Shtub

Property Model Methodology: A First Application to an Operational Project in the Space Domain

The purpose of this paper is to provide a feedback on a Model Based Systems Engineering application to a space domain project. In the core of the paper, and after a synthetic presentation of the systems engineering methodology called Property Model Methodology (PMM), the case study, coming from the space domain, is described. In this context, PMM has been used in order to validate a top-level textual specification and to define the verification scenarios and verification cases aiming at establishing the correctness and the completeness of the physical system developed according to this top-level textual specification. The paper provides first feedbacks about PMM utilization. The conclusion summarizes the benefits and also the limitations that are identified today, and includes a presentation of the future works.

Erwann Poupart, Jean-Marie Wallut, Patrice Micouin

A Model-Driven Approach to Enable the Distributed Simulation of Complex Systems

The increasing complexity of modern systems makes their design, development and operation extremely challenging and therefore new Systems Engineering and Modeling and Simulation (M&S) techniques, methods and tools are emerging, also to benefit from distributed simulation environments. In this context, one of the most mature tools is the IEEE 1516-2010—Standard for M&S High Level Architecture (HLA). However, building and maintaining distributed simulations components, based on the IEEE 1516-2010 standard, is still a challenging and costly task. To ease the development of full-fledged HLA-based simulations, the paper proposes the MONADS method that, according to the model-driven systems engineering paradigm, allows one to generate the HLA-based simulation code from SysML models by the use of a chain of model-to-model and model-to-text transformations. The effectiveness of the method is shown through a case study that concerns an Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) approaching and docking to the International Space Station (ISS).

Paolo Bocciarelli, Andrea D’Ambrogio, Alberto Falcone, Alfredo Garro, Andrea Giglio

Maintenance as a Cornerstone for the Application of Regeneration Paradigm in Systems Lifecycle

The circular economy is an economy, firstly, considering the natural resources as finite and the non-existence of waste, secondly, assimilating the industrial system as a natural system and, finally, emphasizing the paradigm of regeneration. Nevertheless, this paradigm is not clearly defined and this paper aims to found it by proposing solutions to its implementation in the industrial world. The proposal is based on a comparison between the natural system and the industrial system by using the trophic organization model and their elements. Then, the maintenance process is seen as a key element of regeneration. Finally, the notion of nutrient is studied and taken into account in an industrial process.

Laëtitia Diez, Pascale Marangé, Frédérique Mayer, Eric Levrat

A Case Study of Applying Complexity Leadership Theory in Thales UK

Organisations with core capabilities in systems engineering solution development often fail to meet delivery expectations in terms of cost and timeframe. This outcome is viewed as an emergent property of the development organisation, which can be considered a Complex Adaptive System (CAS). The context needed to support complex technical innovation within the organisational CAS appears to be in conflict with a hierarchical bureaucracy in development organisations, whose methods and approaches are best suited to simple and complicated contexts. The paper identifies Complexity Leadership Theory (CLT) as a framework that may offer a way forward in this space. The paper describes two industry-based case studies that sought to practically apply CLT, and provides insights that may be useful to other industrialists interested in applying CLT within their contexts.

Dawn Gilbert, Laura Shrieves, Mike Yearworth

A NAF-Based Proposition to Leverage System Engineering Change Management in Systems-of-Systems Acquisition Project Teams

A key issue in systems-of-systems acquisition agencies is enforcing effective use of System Engineering at the scale of project teams. Usual change management strategies would not bypass the high cost of architecture modelling at the scale of a system. This article proposes a pragmatic approach to minimize this investment by gradually incorporating engineering works from specific domains, in order to constitute a NAF-based technical-oriented referential. Use cases and a case study highlight how such a referential can be exploited to fuel technical analyses, then the decision-making process of the acquisition project, and thus providing incentive to the team to get leverage for System Engineering change management.

Thomas Rigaut

System Engineering Applied on Electric Power System for PHEV Applications

This article deals with the systems engineering approach applied to the Electric Power System (EPS) of the vehicle. We define how to characterize a system and how to describe the system following an analysis framework. This framework is applied to the EPS for PHEV application to give some systemic elements throw the Operational, Functional and Logical view. Despite some difficulties in the concrete application, the new paradigm brings benefits such as quality, complexity management and to improvements in the solutions’ efficiency.

Benoît Beaurain, Ahmid El Hamdani, Joël Adounkpé

Operational Analysis of Virtual IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Through a Model-Based Architectural Framework

Telecom/IT convergence is transforming network architectures and cost structures. Lack of methodological support within an equipment provider organization hinders heavily the possibility of efficient transitions from traditional monolithic to virtual architectures and their market insertion. For any evolutions, especially innovation, operational analyses have a vital importance. We propose to base our approach for a systematic operational analysis upon the following metaphors: (1) an adapted Architectural Framework (in our case, inspired by SAGACE), incorporated with (2) PESTEL (environmental) and subsequently FURPSE (software characteristics) analyses frames, (3) leveraging on Model-Based Systems Engineering. A common consistent language and format for structuring and relating system’s operational, functional and physical views allow handling in a holistic and integrated manner evolutions and complexities of the system and its environment throughout decisions spectrums and levels. We case study virtual IP Multimedia Subsystem (essential for communication services across networks). Identified operational invariants are inputs of critical importance for iterative functional and decisions trade-off analyses in accordance to market, technological and other perspectives.

Arevik Gevorgyan, Peter Spencer

Urban Lifecycle Management: System Architecture Applied to the Conception and Monitoring of Smart Cities

At date, there is no standardized definition of what a smart city is, in spite many apply to propose a definition that fit with their offer, subsuming the whole of the city in one of its functions (smart grid, smart mobility…). Considering the smart cities as an ecosystem, that is to say a city that has systemic autopoeitic properties that are more than the sum of its parts, we develop an approach of modeling the smartness of the city. To understand how the city may behave as a sustainable ecosystem, we need a framework to design the interactions of the city subsystems. First we define a smart city as an ecosystem that is more than the sum of its parts, where sustainability is maintained through the interactions of urban functions. Second, we present a methodology to sustain the development over time of this ecosystem: Urban Lifecycle Management. Third, we define the tasks to be carried out by an integrator of the functions that constitute the smart city, we assume public administration has to play this role. Fourth, we present what should be a smart government for the smart city and the new capabilities to be developed.

Claude Rochet

Designing Systems with Adaptability in Mind

Designing a complex cyber-physical or manufactured system requires a significant amount of effort. A good design needs to be adaptable to requirement changes, however should also avoid unbounded margins that can be costly. Achieving this fine balance is difficult. This paper presents a design process that takes adaptability into consideration. By exploring the missions a system can support within a specified limit of additional engineering costs, we are able to characterize this system’s adaptability. Such a characterization inherits the original meaning of adaptability in ecosystems that describes a system’s ability of maintaining the original goals even when facing ongoing changes, and allows it be computable in industry. A new design process for a product family is then established to identify designs that support the most missions while controlling costs. An HVAC example is used to illustrate such a design process that helps maximize mission performance and reduce costs.

Haifeng Zhu

Posters

Frontmatter

Analysis of the INCOSE Rules for Writing Good Requirement in Industry: A Tool Based Study

The Requirements Engineering (RE) discipline has been promoted, implemented and deployed for more than 20 years through standardization agencies (ISO/IEC, IEEE) and national/international organizations (such as INCOSE). Ever since, despite an increasing maturity, RE remains a discipline unequally understood and implemented, even within the same organization. Problems found in current Systems Engineering projects with focus in RE could be mitigated using quality metrics in the process. Quality metrics aids in the process of writing good requirements by following a reference guide. INCOSE has promoted and published a guide for writing good requirements, with support of several industrial and academic partners. The more correct, complete and consistent a requirement is, the best performance it will have, and fewer errors will occur in system developments and operation. This paper presents a study where a set of the published INCOSE rules have been implemented in a tool for assessing requirements quality.

José M. Fuentes, Anabel Fraga, Gonzalo Génova, Jose Álvarez, Juan Llorens

Implementing Model Semantics and a (MB)SE Ontology in Civil Engineering and Construction Sector

In the period from 2010 to 2015, the Danish Building Construction Sector has implemented basic parts of Systems Engineering as the new ‘common language’ in the building construction sector. The project is anchored in the public and EU supported “cuneco project”. www.cuneco.dk develops the common basis for digitalized cooperation in construction, operation and maintenance to increase efficiency and productivity through enhanced exchange of information. To allow maximum simplicity yet unlimited flexibility, systems and their constituents are first classified and then identified individually to be used consistently over the lifecycle of the component, suitable for IT support. The system-of-systems principle is a fundamental approach to achieve unambiguous identification based on the Reference Designation System principles as defined in ISO/IEC 81346 standard series, which originally is designed for modelling and labelling of any kind of industrial plant. Currently, the Danish result is used to update some parts of the 81346 standard series, and thereby introducing Systems Engineering to the building construction sector.

Henrik Balslev

E-vehicle Service Architecture for Logistic Systems

Until the year 2020, Germany has established a national development plan with the goal to push one million fully electric vehicles into use. Part of the plan is to establish a number of federally funded research projects, which investigate and tackle domain specific problems, e.g. the limited driving range of electric cars. Freight traffic is especially hampered by those range restrictions. The Smart City Logistik project (www.armor.uni-jena.de/www.smartcitylogistik.de) strives for a practical and short-term solution to this problem in the concrete context set by the city of Erfurt, Germany. The focus is on ICT-support for currently available, small and medium sized, fully electric vehicles that provide for the “last mile” in freight handling. This poster provides the first results of on going work to construct an architecture managing these requirements with a special focus on how to handle the wide range of interfaces.

Sebastian Apel, Volkmar Schau

EGNOS V3: Engineering the Future of GPS and Galileo Augmentation Over Europe

EGNOS provides today augmentation services based on GPS. It allows getting improved performances in a wide range of navigation applications, in particular for aeronautical approaches in the civil aviation domain. In parallel, GPS, Galileo and other constellations are evolving, and new services are identified to serve European users communities, answering to the emergence of new end-users applications needs, finally calling for the EGNOS V3 generation. In the area of navigation, EGNOS is designed to support Safety of Life applications, with stringent aeronautical performance requirements. In the same time, continuity of the EGNOS service to end users when evolving and security aspects of the solution shall be ensured, and furthermore, the solution is required to have improved operability and reduced lifecycle cost, that implies to pay specific attention in operations design. This paper provides an overview on how the Thales Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) methodology and tools are tailored and applied to support EGNOS V3 engineering objectives. A tooled-up environment is set-up to support concurrent engineering on a common design reference and to contribute to the consolidation and justification of the EGNOS V3 system architecture design and requirements. The resulting work organization and interactions between system engineering team and engineering domain specialists (safety, security, operations…) are presented. Finally, this paper is providing lessons learned and success stories of a model based approach to federate concurrent engineering activities, identifying the main outcomes and benefits.

Jean-Alexandre Gicquel, David Arnaudy, Philippe Gouni

Integrating the ISO/IEC 15288 Systems Engineering Standard with the PMBoK Project Management Guide to Optimize the Management of Engineering Projects

As economic pressure continues to mount worldwide, cooperation between people, companies and even countries is becoming increasingly needed. At the same time, the scale of project is being revised upwards daily. In order to ensure the success of large scale projects, the manner in which cooperation is set up between different teams, such as systems engineers and project managers, is becoming an important issue. Cooperation between systems engineering and project management is now key in this respect. On the other hand, it is widely recognized that the use of standards can improve the success ratio. Thus, integration using standards or guides from systems engineering and project management can help companies improve their competitiveness. A host of standards or guides have already been published in both domains. The purpose of this paper is to choose those most frequently used standards or guides from the systems engineering and project management in order to compare and build a bridge between them and provide a view shared by systems engineers and project managers enabling them to carry out the project effectively.

Rui XUE, Claude Baron, Philippe Esteban, Li Zheng

Taking Handicap into Account: Systemic Features

The approach of handicap must resolutely be systemic. At least because the matter of handicap obviously and immediately addresses the question of social link, which is reciprocal by definition. Also because handicap as a fact is far from being marginal: one European out of ten is concerned by handicap; nearly 10 million of disabled persons (in a broad sense) can be counted in France. Only 15 % of disabled persons contract handicap at birth, so, any valid person may contract a handicap any day. Differences, also diversity, factors of complexity, demand a systemic approach. Lastly, handicap needs compensation (sensory or motor aid…, desk fitting out…): it is the environment which adapts itself to the disabled person!In practice, and, generally speaking, in the society, individualism takes the lead over “living together”. Stereotypes on disabled persons (deemed less performative, generating extra costs…) become widespread among people both in everyday life and at work. Answers provided by some elected members or administrators are not sufficient because they are fragmentary (for example limiter to training), while a set of consistent and complementary answers are needed.The whole of those answers must include time factor; the point of view on disabled persons must be educated from childhood, from primary education. So, a systemic treatment of handicap implies coordinated actions in the following fields: children (welcome, education…), companies and employment (competences acknowledgement, recruitment…), administration (welcome and support, recognition of disabled worker status…), training (of disabled people, nursing staff, but also recruiting people and employers…), accessibility (to housing, buildings, transports, cultural and associative life, and of course cure and care), right to compensation (of sensory or motor handicap…). Even the component cure and care is of systemic nature: the person must be treated in her whole (therapeutic education, medicine acting at each step of the care path, care directed towards the transition to social and occupational rehabilitation, disabled person acting throughout her path…). Associations dedicated to handicap, who treat, educate, train, insert, support, and those who, in their sports, cultural or artistic activities, include a handicap part, obviously play a major role in that approach.Unexpected spin-offs of the compensation of handicap can be seen: the adaptability of some space (building, transport) to the needs and constraints of a person with a loss of autonomy is not a simple respect of law as regards accessibility, but is broadened to the quality of use of “life spaces” for everybody, taking into account the needs and constraints of the whole of people: the disabled person often appears to enlighten the needs of the whole (example: access platforms to busses). Considering system engineering vocabulary, that amounts to speaking of taking into account the needs and constraints of all the stakeholders, which is an essential condition of secure outcome of a project.The adaptation of the environment to the disabled person, in the very scope of the February 11th 2005 French law, as well as the claim of her full citizenship (schooling, employment…), with its consequences onto the whole of people is not the least surprise arisen from thinking about handicap.Considering the systemic features of the question of disability would make it possible for some elected or administration people not to immediately focus on solutions, often fragmentary, without any care of other relations between the actors of the field and their environment, but on the contrary tackle the question as a whole, and think about the benefits induced on “valid” people, major part of the population.

Patrick Farfal

A Feedback Experience on Delta SR: A Smart Tool to Compare Complex SCADE Models

The signaling railway system company Ansaldo STS develops, with the formal language SCADE, a Carborne Controller for a SIL 4 CBTC (a management system for communicating urban trains). The Carborne Controller SCADE model is a critical software, embedded in the trains, of the CBTC system: 1026 SCADE operators to implement 1323 system requirements and 17 levels for the depth. To be compliant with the standard CENELEC EN 50128, Critical Code Reviews are mandated for the Carborne Controller SCADE model. Without support solution for Critical Code Reviews on complex SCADE models, we have developed a tool: Delta SR. Developed with TCL language, thanks to a heuristic based on textual, syntactic and semantic analyses, it computes a classification of differences between two SCADE models and exhibits the functional impacts of changes. The paper presents a feedback on Delta SR and on its added value for the Critical Code Reviews on SCADE models.

Stéphane Fechter, Myriam Marchand

A Systems Approach to Improve Performance in Supply Chain: Case Study in a Procurement Process in the Aeronautical Industry

Supply Chains (SC) are becoming more complex by the interaction of various elements, and decisions must be taken at different levels to accomplish their objectives. Several approaches propose performance improvements but there is a lack of application of systemic approach to maximize the value creation. In this work, we apply a method called SCOS’ (Systemic for Complex Organizational System) which focuses in reaching new objectives in terms of value creation (performances as economic, quality, time and environment) for each phase of the life cycle, and each stakeholder of the system (procurement process), then processes are developed to meet these finalities. A case study is used to model value creation in an SC as an improvement expected by stakeholders, and it is validated by industrial experts. Then recommendations are given to simulate and quantify these improvements through system dynamics.

Denis Olmos-Sanchez, Jean-Claude Bocquet, Marie-Agnès Forman

CoDA—A Model-Based Platform to Deal with the Inherent Complexity of Automation Systems Development

Automation Systems in AREVA are highly versatile, often reactive, systems that provide information treatment and control tasks to nuclear industry processes. These systems are inherently complex, as they involve many interconnected elements which behavior is not always well understood or predictable. Furthermore, they can also be considered as complex regarding their development process, as they demand a strong involvement of several stakeholders. The CoDA method and platform proposes a set of open and interoperable tools addressing Automation Systems’ inputs Analysis, Design, Implementation and Verification and Validation activities. The integrated method and tools reduce time spent on impact analysis and provide proof of the proper consideration of requirements. This poster details the main propositions and results of the deployment of the CoDA platform in AREVA.

Juan Navas, Patrick Herbert, Gilles Boussaroque

Contingency Factors for Relationships in Complex Product Creation Environments

Current approaches to systems design and management are at the limits of applicability in modern complex product design environments. The collaborative nature of design activity is increasingly difficult to manage, where multi-disciplinary teams must share knowledge and co-ordinate the integration of technologies across different platforms and architectures. This paper describes a qualitative study to explore the critical factors in building and sustaining relationships across cross-functional teams in complex product creation environments. The study was undertaken in the Automotive sector, where market pressures demand swift integration of new technologies across platforms. A number of contingency factors have been identified and three strategic priorities for managers are suggested.

Donna Champion

Siting Nuclear Power Plants Incorporating Strategic Flexibility

Nuclear power is an important energy source for generating electricity in consideration of CO2 emissions and global warming. Siting nuclear power plants is a challenging issue nowadays due to the volatility of long-term electricity demand, as well as public acceptance of nuclear technology. In the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster, it is understood that public acceptance of nuclear technology plays a central role in the decision-making process regarding systems operations and capacity deployment policies, even outside of the country where the incident occurred. For example, Germany decided to close half of its plants after the catastrophic events of March 2011, and will close the remainder by 2022. Other countries, however, depend on nuclear technology, or a considering it as a viable alternative for sustainable power generation. Typical efforts on capacity deployment and siting of nuclear power systems in the literature do not account well for long-term (e.g., 40+ years) uncertain drivers. This work introduces a novel approach to nuclear power systems design and capacity deployment under uncertainty that exploits the idea of flexibility and managerial decision rules. Flexibility in engineering design—also referred as real option in design—is promoted as a means to deal pro-actively with uncertainty, and has been shown in many contexts to improve life cycle performance significantly as compared to standard design and systems evaluation methods. Decision rules can be described as “IF-THEN-ELSE” statements, and are captured in the model via non-anticipative constraints. New design and deployment strategies are developed and analyzed through a multi-stage stochastic programming framework based on sample average approximation. The proposed solution considers flexibility in terms of phased capacity deployment, in-site capacity expansion, and life extension, subject to demand and public acceptance uncertainty. The numerical analysis shows that the flexible design benefits from life extension flexibility most significantly. Flexible phased deployment and capacity expansion are also important when electricity demand is the main uncertainty driver considered.

Michel-Alexandre Cardin, Sizhe Zhang, William J. Nuttall

System-Level Modeling and Simulation with Intel® CoFluent™ Studio

Intel® CoFluent™ Studio is a visual model-driven development (MDD) solution for creating executable specifications of complex systems. It can be used at any point of the project lifecycle for modeling and validating any electronic or information systems in any application domain: hardware block, software stack, System-on-Chip (SoC), mixed hardware/software embedded system, networked/distributed system, end-to-end Internet-of-Things (IoT) infrastructure and Big Data networks. Intel CoFluent Studio can predict performance data from the application and use cases model execution on a multicore/multiprocessor platform model. Intel CoFluent Studio is a system modeling and simulation toolset based on Eclipse. Models are captured in graphical diagrams using Intel CoFluent optimized domain-specific language (DSL) or standard UML notations—a combination of SysML and the MARTE profile. ANSI C or C++ is used as action language to capture data types and algorithms. Non-functional system requirements or model calibration data such as execution durations, power, or memory values, are added through model attributes. Models are translated into transaction-level modeling (TLM) SystemC code for execution. The SystemC code is instrumented and generates traces that can be monitored with various analysis tools. Fast host-based simulations allow designers to observe the real-time execution of their application models on multiprocessor/multicore platform models. Performance figures such as latencies, throughputs, buffer levels, resource loads, power consumption, memory footprint, and cost can be extracted.We will present this system-level technologies and associated methodology with a poster. The scope of the poster is related to the two following topics in technical and scientific methods:Systems architecture (needs capture, requirements development, systems modelling, simulation, optimization, sizing and specification, architectural frameworks).Systemic tools (configuration management, system behaviour analysis tools, modeling and simulation tools, test management).

Anthony Barreteau

A Systemic Meta-Model for Socio-Environmental Systems

We propose a systemic meta-model for the sustainable simulation of socio-environmental complex systems. The approach presented integrates data uncertainty management, for both representing and manipulating rigorously quantities which may have a finite number of possible or probable values with their interdependencies. We also provide an operationalization of such models for both data retrieving, via an object-relational mapping, and model simulation, via series of triples, which are linked to examples in the field of agriculture.

Jérôme Dantan, Yann Pollet, Salima Taibi

The Smart Door: An Example of System Engineering in Building Industry

Systems Engineering is now becoming mandatory to master complexity but also to develop innovative systems. Application of Systems Engineering requires the use of a methodology upon tool set. This paper is about the application of a Systems Engineering methodology from CESAMES on a small but complex system: an automatic sliding door in a building. We all experienced it: automatic doors have tendency to open inadvertently for example when pedestrian just walks by with no intention to enter the room. This is due to an old technological design: easiest way to decide to open the door is to detect a person in a trigger zone. With a system approach, the door could be nicely improved with great potential developments. This document explains how, and the method used to do it.

Gauthier Fanmuy, Arnaud Durantin, Hugo Messicat, Bertrand Faure

Architecture Approach for Managing System Complexity Using System Dynamics

Complex systems are defined by their behavior such as being adaptive, non-linear, or emergent. According to System Dynamics, the behavior and capabilities of a complex system are based on the dynamics of the underlying system structures. The interaction (information exchanges) among the various underlying structures, the feedback among them and the information processing delays involved along those interactions determine thus the system behavior. Accordingly, changes in the system structure impact its complex behavior and changes in system behavior requires changes to the underlying structures. The current approach argues that capturing the dependency between structural changes and system behavior can enable a better system design and management. That is, managing the structural complexity of a system (managing the number of elements used, their variety and level of dependency) can enable a better management of the system complex behavior. Introducing an additional architecture view to the system design that captures system structural complexity enables the depiction of the behavioral-structural dependency and a better evaluation of different system designs and management approaches from a structural complexity perspective.

Wael Hafez

We Choose MBSE: What’s Next?

When the decision is made to choose MBSE or the task is given to investigate whether MBSE is worth the investment, a long journey begins. The journey that requires knowledge, patience, and guidance to make the paradigm shift (from document-centric to model-based SE) rewarding. The final destination of this journey is prove that MBSE is rewarding in the context of a particular organizational. There are many barriers on the way, such as rumours about unsuccessful applications, too little information available how to proceed, disbelief, and a cultural change. Nowadays, MBSE is enabled by Systems Modelling Language (SysML). However, SysML is neither an architecture framework nor a method. This opens discussions of how to start, how to structure the model, what views to build, which artefacts to deliver and in what sequence. This paper summarizes the experience of different MBSE adoption projects in a form of a new framework for MBSE. The framework is organized in a matrix view and intends to help MBSE pioneers to answer the question “what’s next?”

Aurelijus Morkevicius, Lina Bisikirskiene, Nerijus Jankevicius

Towards Smart City Energy Analytics: Identification of Consumption Patterns Based on the Clustering of Daily Electric Consumption Curves

This paper presents the application of clustering algorithms to daily energy consumption curves of buildings. Our aim is to identify a reduced set of consumption patterns for a tertiary building during one year. These patterns depend on the temperature throughout the year as well as the type of the day (working day, work-free day and school holidays). Two clustering approaches are used independently, namely the K-means algorithm and the Expectation-Maximization algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Model (EM-GMM). The clustering results obtained with the two algorithms are analyzed and compared. This study represents the first step towards the development of a prediction model for energy consumption.

Fateh Nassim Melzi, Mohamed Haykel Zayani, Amira Benhamida, François Stephan, Allou Same, Latifa Oukhellou

Model Identity Card (MIC) for Simulation Models

Modeling a complex system implies the integration of different simulation models in various fields of expertise. These models should communicate with each other to simulate the behavior of the whole system. In this multidisciplinary context, the actors involved in the modeling process should deal with three main problems. Firstly, in order to reduce ambiguity, they need a common vocabulary and format to describe their models in a less informal way. Secondly, in order to reduce the cost of lately correction, any potential incompleteness and inconsistency problems related to the models should be identified in the early phases of creation and integration of models. Thirdly, the characterization of simulation models should allow actors to reuse existing models more efficiently. In this poster, we propose a common framework called Model Identity Card (MIC) to specify and characterize simulation models contents and interfaces. This new concept is implemented in arKItect (a MBSE tool) to facilitate the knowledge sharing between different actors. It allows users to reduce time to get a correct model by checking the completeness and consistency of their models throughout the modeling process. An industrial test-study in automotive industry is presented to illustrate the interest of the proposed approach.

Saïna Herssand, Eric Landel, Jean-Marc Gilles, Joe Matta

From City- to Health-Scapes: Multiscale Design for Population Health

Reconciling the growing proportion of the global population that lives in urban centers with the goal of creating healthy cities for all poses one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century. Genetics has accounted for only 10 % of diseases, and the remainder appears to be from the interaction of multiple socio-environmental causes that potentially determine epigenetic changes leading to diseases. Therefore, quantifying the dynamics of socio-environmental factors and the environment-disease linkages is extremely important for understanding, preventing and managing multiple diseases simultaneously considering population and individual biological information of exposed and non-exposed individuals. This is particularly important for the aim of reprogramming health-trajectories of populations and developing/managing cities with a quantitative health-based design. Here we show how complex systems models, and specifically, dynamic network factor analysis (DNF), and global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis can map the exposome-genome-diseasome network (i.e., the macrointeractome), determine network factor metrics useful for urban design, and assess probability distribution of comorbidities conditional to exposure in space and time, respectively. These probabilities are useful to make syndemic predictions by for design of socio-technical and ecological systems and intervention strategies in existing cities. As a case study, we use the SHIELD study in Minneapolis focused on measuring children’s exposures to multiple environmental stressors and related effects on respiratory health and learning outcomes. Results show the very high degree of directional interaction among exposure factors and their spatial heterogeneity coupled to bi-directionally interacting diseases. We find non-linear conditional probabilities of disease co-occurrence and context-dependent dose-response curves that manifest large health disparities in populations. We show that macro socio-environmental features are much more important than biomarkers in predicting disease patterns with a particular focus on respiratory diseases and learning outcomes. Urban texture results as the most important factors, thus, such metric should be clearly considered in the design of socio-environmental systems via a minimization of the systemic health risk.The developed probabilistic models are extremely flexible for the analysis of big data, city health-scape predictions, and optimal management of communicable and non-communicable diseases in socio-ecological systems via systems design. The understanding of linkages between structural, architectural, social, and environmental factors at the population scale will allow designers, architects, engineers, and scientists to design communities—from the material to the city scale—in which population health is the central objective of the design process.

Matteo Convertino
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