Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The surface of the earth is the intersection of distinct parts of the climate system. Understanding the different parts or components of the climate system is critical for modeling (or simulating) the system. This chapter describes the basic parts of the Earth that comprise the climate system, and the key scientific principles and critical processes necessary to model each of these components. These components include the Atmosphere, Ocean, Ice and Land. The climate system is typically represented as a set of building blocks, with individual processes collected into a model of one component of the system. The components are coupled to other components to represent the entire climate system. Understanding and then representing the interactions between processes and between components is critical for being able to build a representation of the system: a climate model.
Kasting, J. F., & Siefert, J. L. (2002). “Life and the Evolution of Earth’s Atmosphere.” Science, 296(5570): 1066–1068.
The Kelvin temperature scale has the same increment as the Celsius scale but starts at absolute zero, while Celsius starts at the freezing point of water and can be negative. The Fahrenheit scale has a smaller increment and the freezing point of water is 32 °F. So 1 °K = 1 °C = 9/5 °F. Scientists use °K, the United States uses °F and most other countries use °C. We will typically provide °F and °C.
Strictly speaking, the analogy is not correct: The glass in a greenhouse also prevents air from escaping, and simply being transparent in the visible and restricting air motion is sufficient to keep a greenhouse warm. The actual “greenhouse” effect for glass is a small part of it.
For a more detailed treatment of the energy budget, see Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., & Kiehl, J. (2009) “Earth’s Global Energy Budget.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(3): 311–323.
For a good basic overview of the ocean and climate, see Vallis, G. K. (2012). Climate and the Oceans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
For a primer on sea ice, see Marshall, S. J. (2011). The Cryosphere. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Values are from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html.
Hays, J. D., Imbrie, J., & Shackleton, N. J. (1976). “Variations in the Earth’s Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages.” Science, 194(4270): 1121–1132.
- Components of the Climate System
Richard B. Rood
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Chapter 2