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Über dieses Buch

This book explores and evaluates accounts and models of autistic reasoning and cognition from a computational standpoint. The author investigates the limitations and peculiarities of autistic reasoning and sets out a remediation strategy to be used by a wide range of psychologists and rehabilitation personnel and will also be appreciated by computer scientists who are interested in the practical implementation of reasoning.

The author subjects the Theory of Mind (ToM) model to a formal analysis to investigate the limitations of autistic reasoning and proposes a formal model regarding mental attitudes and proposes a method to help those with autism navigate everyday living. Based on the concept of playing with computer based mental simulators, the NL_MAMS, is examined to see whether it is capable of modeling mental and emotional states of the real world to aid the emotional development of autistic children. Multiple autistic theories and strategies are also examined for possible computational cross-overs, providing researchers with a wide range of examples, tools and detailed case studies to work from.

Computational Autism will be an essential read to behavioral specialists, researcher’s, developers and designers who are interested in understanding and tackling the increasing prevalence of autism within modern society today.



Chapter 1. Introduction: Phenomena of Autistic Reasoning

In this book we evaluate the accounts and models of autistic reasoning and cognition from the computational standpoint. We propose a new conceptual reasoning model for autism in which the core deficits, and other related symptoms, emerge as a result of a basic problem with symbolic reasoning. Our model attempts to provide the developmental mechanism required to explain why primary deficits related to social orientation may be the cause for autism and its broader features, and why intensive early intervention by means of stimulating reasoning about mental attitudes frequently helps to improve autistic reasoning.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 2. Computational Models of Autism

Before we proceed to autistic reasoning, we survey an existing computational models of autism. We start with autistic deficits, outline tests for autistic reasoning and cognition, focus on neural network and game-theoretic models, and proceed to accounts of autism. Having presented the linguistci issues of autism we formulate the account of autism addressed in this book: from reasoning engine to behavior.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 3. Intuitive Theory of Mind

We explore the Theory-of-Mind, how people ascribe mental states to other people and use mental states and actions to explain and predict that of other people. We survey the foundations and recent advancement in ToM, treat human activity in the mental world as emphasizing and systemizing, compare ToM with other accounts of autism and review the physiological foundations of ToM. In this Chapter we consider ToM with a psychological and philosophical angle, revealing its limitations and prepare to treat it concisely, computationally in the next Chapter.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 4. Formalizing Theory of Mind

To approach the problem of autistic reasoning and remediation from a solid background, Theory-Of-Mind needs to be formalized. We represent it from the standpoint of a logical multiagent system, formalizing beliefs, desires and intentions of agents. Basic mental entities are introduced and the rest including communicative actions and emotional states are defined in this basis. The definitions heavily rely on meta-reasoning. Once mental states and actions of ToM are defined, we formalize scenarios of multiagent interaction as sequences of mental states and actions, explore its properties and propose a machine learning framwework for them.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 5. Theory of Mind Engine

We build an automated reasoner for the mental world, which approximates human reasoning about mental states and actions. The Theory-of-Mind engine takes an initial mental state and deduces the most plausible consecutive mental states of multiple possibly conflicting agents. The engine is implemented as a logic program – based simulator and serves as a reasoning benchmark to assist with remediation of autistic reasoning about the mental world.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 6. Reasoning Beyond the Mental World

Having considered autistic reasoning about the mental world, we now focus on other reasoning domains: probabilistic and counterfactual, adjustment of actions, and its nonmonotonic features. Default reasoning of children with autism handling conflicting rules is also explored.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 7. Autistic Learning and Cognition

The focus of this chapter is autistic learning and cognition. We explore the difficullties humans and machines share in learning the external world and focus on how it happens in case of autism. Firstly, the framework of active learning is introduced which is the basis of our model for autistic adaptation. We start with a hypersensitivity of an autistic learning system and explain how it leads to repetitive patterns, stereotypy and ignorance behavior. We then introduce hybrid deductive, inductive and abductive reasoning system Jasmine and reproduce the scenarios of autistic learning.
Boris Galitsky, Igor Shpitsberg

Chapter 8. Rehabilitating Autistic Reasoning

Having introduced the autism account of this book “reasoning engine -> behavior” we now focus on how to cure reasoning and evaluate the results. We introduce training scenarios, show how to construct mental formulas, leverage a literature search system, and train adjustment of actions. We also focus on emotional remediation, language improvement and outline an assessment methodology.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 9. From Reasoning to Behavior in the Real World

Having presented the reasoning rehabilitation strategy, we now explore how to observe and evaluate the improved reasoning skills and the resultant behavior. We will apply the integrated rehabilitation strategy which relies on acquired and corrected reasoning to linguistic and communication skills, school and work.
Boris Galitsky

Chapter 10. Conclusions

We conclude this book with showing the contribution of the introduced account “reasoning engine → behavior” to understanding the nature of autistic reasoning on one hand and a fruitful strategy of rehabilitation of reasoning on the other hand.
Boris Galitsky
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