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Über dieses Buch

This book discusses geometric and mathematical models that can be used to study fluid and structural mechanics in the cardiovascular system. Where traditional research methodologies in the human cardiovascular system are challenging due to its invasive nature, several recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid and solid mechanics modelling now provide new and exciting research opportunities. This emerging field of study is multi-disciplinary, involving numerical methods, computational science, fluid and structural mechanics, and biomedical engineering. Certainly any new student or researcher in this field may feel overwhelmed by the wide range of disciplines that need to be understood.

This unique book is one of the first to bring together knowledge from multiple disciplines, providing a starting point to each of the individual disciplines involved, attempting to ease the steep learning curve. This book presents elementary knowledge on the physiology of the cardiovascular system; basic knowledge and techniques on reconstructing geometric models from medical imaging; mathematics that describe fluid and structural mechanics, and corresponding numerical/computational methods to solve its equations and problems.

Many practical examples and case studies are presented to reinforce best practice guidelines for setting high quality computational models and simulations. These examples contain a large number of images for visualization, to explain cardiovascular physiological functions and disease. The reader is then exposed to some of the latest research activities through a summary of breakthrough research models, findings, and techniques.

The book’s approach is aimed at students and researchers entering this field from engineering, applied mathematics, biotechnology or medicine, wishing to engage in this emerging and exciting field of computational hemodynamics modelling.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Computational Haemodynamics—An Introduction

Abstract
Cardiac diseases remain a major cause of ill health and death in our society and thus advancements in current clinical therapies are of significant importance. Due to the aging population and epidemic situation of obesity, the increase in incidence of heart diseases spurs forth the market for therapeutic systems that are computationally based and dedicated to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The shift in computing and flow visualisation technology for cardiac diagnosis has been reported. As such, there will be an increasing demand for Computational Haemodynamic analysis techniques to facilitate the prognosis and diagnosis of a failing heart. Haemodynamic parametrical studies have the potential for clinical study of cardiac patients. The framework can be used to diagnose pre- and post- surgical treatments. In particular, fluid mechanical flow quantification can be adequately documented from simulated cardiovascular flow for diagnosis of the heart, cardiac flow analysis and medical imaging provides an alternative approach to characterize cardiac abnormalities. Future research will look at combining numerical simulations and various medical imaging devices or therapies, and building a more concise report on physiological abnormalities.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

2. The Human Cardiovascular System

Abstract
Before delving into the computational methods of CHD, this chapter provides a preliminary understanding of the circulatory system from a physiological and functional perspective, as well as related terminologies that will be used in the succeeding chapters. This includes descriptions, locations, geometry, and naming conventions for the relevant anatomy. This will facilitate the process of computational reconstruction of the anatomy related to cardiovascular modelling introduced in Chaps. 3 and 4 and establish physiologically correct boundary conditions discussed in Chap. 5. The models arising from this process are linked to haemodynamic analyses that are discussed in Chaps. 7 and 8. Knowledge of the anatomy and its functions provides a smoother transition towards understanding cardiovascular functioning, and its CHD modelling requirements, while also stimulating interest in the reader after having established the background knowledge.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

3. Geometric Model Reconstruction

Abstract
Computational reconstruction of the human cardiovascular structures can be divided into four stages: image acquisition, data conversion, segmentation and surface reconstruction. The development of a model first begins with medical imaging of a human subject which can be obtained from various sources, yet all provide essentially similar information. This includes a 3D matrix (or series of 2D matrices) of volume elements (voxels), in which tissues and structures are distinguished from one another by differences in brightness or greyscale. Two dimensional slices contain data of pixels; while a voxel is the three dimensional analogy of a pixel where the third dimension is the spatial distance between each slice.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

4. Fundamentals of Haemodynamics

Abstract
Haemodynamics is the study of the properties of blood and how it flows. Its physical principles can be described by the same fluid flow equations that derive from classical fluid dynamics however closer inspection of the dynamic nature of blood reveals its complex nature. It is a liquid tissue that under fluid motion necessitates principles of modern fluid dynamics such as rheology and fluid structure interactions to describe its flow behaviour. This chapter introduces both classical principles and modern aspects of fluid mechanics, while Chap. 5 introduces principles of fluid structure interactions.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

5. Computational Fluid Structure Interaction

Abstract
A Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) analysis consists of a structural analysis, with loads coming from a corresponding fluid analysis. The structural deformation results is coupled back and used as boundary conditions in a fluids analysis. The interaction between the two analyses typically takes place at a shared interface where the fluid and solid meet. Force loadings and structural deformation results are passed from one analysis to the other and hence is given the name fluid-structure interaction.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

6. Generation of Computational Mesh for Haemodynamics Analysis

Abstract
A mesh can be viewed as a number of small elements or grid cells that overlays an entire domain geometry. In general the set of fluid and structural equations described in Chap. 5 are applied onto each cell, or finite element. These discrete equations, which calculate the changes or interpolations between cells are solved to yield the corresponding discrete values of the flow and field variables such as the velocity, pressure, temperature, and deformation.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

7. Case Studies of the Human Cardiovascular System

Abstract
Having laid the groundwork to establish a strong theoretical base, this chapter culminates in the foundational knowledge attained by applying the theory and putting them into practice through selected demonstrative applications. From a practical viewpoint, the selected detailed case studies in this chapter will provide the reader with insight and confidence in applying the techniques to a wide range of biomedical engineering applications. The computational model of a human atherosclerotic artery and the heart structures developed and described in Chap. 3 and 4 are used for the case studies herein.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

8. Applications of FSI for Cardiovascular Haemodynamics

Abstract
Computational simulations increase in complexity when it considers blood flow within elastic wall structures of the cardiovascular system. In this chapter we present some applications of fluid-structure interaction in cardiovascular haemodynamics to provide the reader with an overview of some of the latest developments in this emerging field.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

9. Advanced Topics and Future Trends

Abstract
We now look forward by considering the latest research capabilities. Significant progress in computational modelling has been made in the last few decades. These advances along with increased computational power will further enable modelling realistic physiological scenarios of haemodynamic flows. The material presented in this book thus far serve as an introduction to some of the current trends and modeling achievements, and in this chapter we present the latest developments of some research fields of haemodynamics including microflow analysis of blood, medical imaging for flow analysis, advanced medical devices, and heart valves.
Jiyuan Tu, Kiao Inthavong, Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

Backmatter

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