Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This ?ve-volume set was compiled following the 2006 International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications, ICCSA 2006, held in Glasgow, UK, during May 8–11, 2006. It represents the outstanding collection of almost 664 refereed papers selected from over 2,450 submissions to ICCSA 2006. Computational science has ?rmly established itself as a vital part of many scienti?c investigations, a?ecting researchers and practitioners in areas ranging from applications such as aerospace and automotive, to emerging technologies such as bioinformatics and nanotechnologies, to core disciplines such as ma- ematics, physics, and chemistry. Due to the shear size of many challenges in computational science, the use of supercomputing, parallel processing, and - phisticated algorithms is inevitable and becomes a part of fundamental theore- cal research as well as endeavors in emerging ?elds. Together, these far-reaching scienti?c areas contributed to shaping this conference in the realms of state-- the-art computational science researchand applications, encompassing the fac- itating theoretical foundations and the innovative applications of such results in other areas.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Workshop on Ubiquitous Web Systems and Intelligence (UWSI 2006)

Message Transport Interface for Efficient Communication Between Agent Framework and Event Service

The multi-agent techniques have been continuously evolving as ubiquitous computing emerges as a key post-Internet paradigm. An agent dynamically executes its operations and has capabilities of self-growing and self-adaptive in open environments. Various distributed applications need to exchange asynchronous requests using an event-based execution model. To support the requests, the OMG defined a CORBA Event Service component in the CORBA Object Services (COS). Efficient interoperability between the agent framework and event service is important for achieving high performance ubiquitous applications. In this paper we propose the MTI (Message Transport Interface) for supporting such interoperability. An experiment validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme compared to the existing omniEvent service.

Sang Yong Park, Hee Yong Youn

An Ontology-Based Context Model in a Smart Home

This paper introduces an ontology-based context model in ubiquitous computing environment. We describe a Getting up scenario to show whether the model is valuable for description of context information in a home domain. We modeled context metadata as well as context information. Context metadata are defined for the use of additional context information such as probabilistic or fuzzy logic reasoning, rich understanding, or efficient context information collection. In addition we developed a context ontology server that manages and processes context information and metadata, and it is based on the ontology-based context model which is introduced in this paper. We used OWL (Web Ontology Language) for modeling the context, and extended the OWL language to represent context metadata.

Eunhoe Kim, Jaeyoung Choi

Service Mobility Manager for OSGi Framework

The Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi) attempts to meet the ubiquitous computing environment by providing a managed, extensible framework to connect various devices in a local network such as in a home, office, or automobile. By defining a standard execution environment and service interface, the OSGi promotes the dynamic discovery and collaboration of devices and services from different sources. The OSGi offers a unique opportunity for ubiquitous computing as a potential framework for achieving interoperability between various sensors, home appliances, and networked devices. The OSGi framework supports a remote installation of a bundle, which is a unit that installs and deploys services. However, in order for the service in execution to move, a specific form of bundle such a mobile service manager is needed, one which is able to move through a heterogeneous network.This paper proposes a method that can manage bundles for supporting dynamic service’s mobility between frameworks, in order to ensure the mobility of services in a multiple the OSGi framework environment. For our purposes, we have designed the mobile service management system for managing the lifecycle of the bundle and for the mobility of services in the OSGi framework. The mobile service management system we are proposing implements a bundle form which can perform in an OSGi framework as well as manage the mobile services. As a result, mobility in a ubiquitous computing environment will be supported more efficiently.

Seungkeun Lee, Intae Kim, Kiwook Rim, Jeonghyun Lee

A Ubiquitous Workflow Service Framework

In ubiquitous environments, all services head for context-awareness to provide appropriate services for a user’s situation. However, it is hard to implement all kinds of things related to context managements. In this paper we propose a ubiquitous workflow service framework, named uFlow, based on a structural context model and uWDL, which is a ubiquitous workflow description language. Service developers can easily describe context-aware services using the uFlow framework so long as they only select available services based on Web Services and describe context information as a transition condition of workflow services. In order to verify the effectiveness of the uFlow framework, we designed and implemented a service scenario described with uWDL, and demonstrated that the scenario provides users with appropriate services according to a user’s situation in ubiquitous computing environments.

Joohyun Han, Yongyun Cho, Eunhoe Kim, Jaeyoung Choi

Self Organizing Sensor Networks Using Intelligent Clustering

Minimization of the number of cluster heads in a wireless sensor network is a very important problem to reduce channel contention and to improve the efficiency of the algorithm when executed at the level of cluster-heads. This paper proposes a Self Organizing Sensor (SOS) network based on an intelligent clustering algorithm which does not require many user defined parameters and random selection to form clusters like in Algorithm for Cluster Establishment (ACE) [2]. The proposed SOS algorithm is compared with ACE and the empirical results clearly illustrate that the SOS algorithm can reduce the number of cluster heads.

Kwangcheol Shin, Ajith Abraham, Sang Yong Han

Searching and Selecting Web Services Using Case Based Reasoning

Web services are currently one of the main technologies employed to create a systematic and extensible framework for application development. This is done by means of allowing the interaction among the applications of an organization. However, due to the large number of web services that may exist nowadays, locating one or several web services to fulfill the functional requirements of a user, an organization or a business entity, is a complex and time consuming activity for application developers. It also reduces their productivity. One possible solution for this problem is the implementation of a semantic component, structured as a library and populated with cases represented by web services in such a way that it may extend the functionality of the existing web services directories. The semantic component must provide a mechanism for classifying and selecting web services based on their functionality and supporting the search of WSDL description files of selected web services in a non sequential order within the directories. This paper describes a model for searching and selecting web services in UDDI directories supported by case based reasoning. Advantages and limitations of the model are also described.

Olivia Graciela Fragoso Diaz, René Santaolaya Salgado, Ismael Solís Moreno, Guillermo Rodríguez Ortiz

Fuzzy Logic Based Propagation Limiting Method for Message Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Recent advances in micro sensors and wireless communications have enabled the wireless sensor networks. Also, a number of routing protocols have been proposed for the sensor networks. Especially, the directed diffusion is a data-centric and application-aware routing algorithm in which all communication is processed by the attribute-value pairs of the named data. In the directed diffusion, an interest message is propagated through all the nodes within the network. However, the propagation to all the nodes is inefficient in terms of energy consumption. To solve this problem, we propose a new data propagation method in which the data transmission area is limited according to a threshold value for reducing the energy consumption in the network. The fuzzy rule based system is exploited to determine the threshold value by considering the energy and density of all the deployed nodes.

Sang Hoon Chi, Tae Ho Cho

Content Delivery with Spatial Caching Scheme in Mobile Wireless Networks

Future wireless/mobile system will be served streaming service to support various applications. In this environment, users can access all the required information whenever and wherever they may be. In this paper, we proposed a new scheme that minimizes the network bandwidth consumption and the service blocking rate in mobile network. Our proposed scheme consists of location estimation and caching strategy. To estimate node’s current location, we use hexagonal cellular based plane and cascading dynamic address scheme which make mobile equipments, mobile router (MR) and mobile node (MN), calculate the distance from sender and estimate the existence possibility of the alternative route toward sender. The service blocking can be minimized by using caching strategy. In evaluation, we examined our proposed scheme in the view of the total network bandwidth consumption and the connecting probability as well as the impact of each cache capacity. From simulation results, we confirm that the proposed scheme offers substantially better performance.

Backhyun Kim, Iksoo Kim

Higher Education Web Information System Usage Analysis with a Data Webhouse

Usage analysis of a Web Information System is a valuable help to predict user needs, to assess system’s impact and to guide to its improvement. This is usually done analysing clickstreams, a low-level approach, with huge amounts of data that calls for data warehouse techniques. This paper presents a dimensional model to monitor user behaviour in Higher Education Web Information Systems and an architecture for the extraction, transformation and load process. These have been applied in the development of a data warehouse to monitor the use of SIGARRA, the University of Porto’s Higher Education Web Information System. The efficiency and effectiveness of this monitorization method were confirmed by the knowledge extracted from a 3 month period analysis. A brief description of the main results and recommendations are also described.

Carla Teixeira Lopes, Gabriel David

A User Management System for Federated Databases Using Web Services

A federated database system (FDBS) is a distributed system that consists of a number of autonomous and heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Administration of a FDBS is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of database management systems in the FDBS, heterogeneous platforms these DBMS are deployed on, and non-standard access protocols these systems provide. One of the important tasks in the management of FDBS is user management. In this paper we propose a new architecture for user management in FDBS, based on the “web services” middleware. The system includes a Central Controller for maintaining a directory of component databases, database access roles, and users. Each database component and the Central Controller are accessed via web services providers that are deployed on each component site. These web services are lightweight interfaces hiding the heterogeneity of different platforms. The system is highly scalable and portable. New DBMS can be easily added to the FDBS after the web services interfaces for the regarding DBMS are installed on the component sites.

Fuyu Liu, Erdogan Dogdu

A Dynamic Evaluation Framework for Mobile Applications

Due to the large variation in capabilities of mobile devices and the lack of true standards, it is hard to develop applications for the mobile environment that will behave similar on all devices and in different environments. This article introduces the concept of a Dynamic Evaluation Framework that uses several different implementations for one specific application. The performance of each implementation is evaluated at runtime ensuring that the optimal implementation is always used. We describe the architecture and discuss the feasibility of the framework. As part of the evaluation we have developed a simple chat application with a seamless connection that evaluates and selects the optimal connection in real time. The evaluation technique is based on Goal-Question-Metric. The test environment is a J2ME CLDC application that transfers data with Bluetooth and GPRS over the JXTA network.

Anders Magnus Andersen, Torab Torabi

SOAM: An Environment Adaptation Model for the Pervasive Semantic Web

Nowadays, there is a major interest in applying Web and Semantic Web techniques for the creation of pervasive computing scenarios, where devices and objects communicate using these technologies. The Web model has largely proved validity both in Internet-wide and intranet scenarios, but it is starting to be applied in personal area networks as a communication and knowledge reasoning system.

In this paper we present SOAM, an experimental model for the creation of pervasive smart objects that use Web and Semantic Web technologies in new ways – resulting in the novel concept of Pervasive Semantic Web – for enabling personal area semantic communication and reasoning processes in order to provide environment adaptation to user preferences.

Juan Ignacio Vazquez, Diego López de Ipiña, Iñigo Sedano

Implementing the MPEG-21 Adaptation Quality of Service in Dynamic Environments

MPEG-21 embeds the AQoS schema tool which describes and associates conceptually major utilities required during the adaptation process, for example, adaptation operators, constraints and qualities. Defining an AQoS model, i.e. possible adaptation operators, predictable constraints and qualities that will be included in an instance of AQoS which accompanies a media file, and consequently initialising its values is a complex process. In this paper, we present our conceptual model design for implementing the AQoS.

Marios C. Angelides, Anastasis A. Sofokleous, Christos N. Schizas

A Middleware Architecture Determining Application Context Using Shared Ontology

Context awareness is a key part of ubiquitous computing. Recent middleware supporting it have the architecture to provide a context model to represent context information. The middleware recognizes contexts by using sensed and inferred information, applies them appropriately. This implies that the middleware should be able to determine all contexts of applications running. But since context-aware applications will be applied to wider areas and their number increases, it has become difficult for the middleware to determine all contexts needed for various applications. To overcome this, we propose architecture providing context definition by application using shared ontology. The middleware makes and maintains the shared ontology base in a ubiquitous computing environment. Applications write the context decision rule describing their own context and register it to the middleware. Then the middleware generates context objects to make a context decision according to the registered rule. If the current situation satisfies the rule, the context object notifies context information to a relevant application. Our application-defined context is middleware-independent so that it can make ubiquitous computing applications more capable.

Kugsang Jeong, Deokjai Choi, Soo Hyung Kim, Gueesang Lee

Context-Aware Regulation of Context-Aware Mobile Services in Pervasive Computing Environments

This paper discusses concepts, the design and prototype implementation of a context-aware policy system that governs mobile services visibility and execution in pervasive computing environments. We view a pervasive environment as a collection of mobile users, mobile services, contexts, policies and roles. Applicable policies are selected depending on the context of users i.e., location, activity and the user’s role, and policies determine what services one can see and access in different contexts. Our approach provides a generic context-based regulated mobile services execution model, applicable to different pervasive domains (e.g., a Campus domain).

Evi Syukur, Seng Wai Loke

Designing and Implementing Physical Hypermedia Applications

In this paper we present a design approach and a software framework for building physical hypermedia applications, i.e. those mobile (Web) applications in which physical and digital objects are related and explored using the hypermedia paradigm. We show how we extended the popular MVC metaphor by incorporating the concept of located object, and we describe a framework implementation using Jakarta Struts. We first review the state of the art of this kind of software systems, stressing the need of a systematic design and implementation approach; we briefly present a light extension to the OOHDM design approach, incorporating physical objects and “walkable” links. We next present a Web application framework for deploying physical hypermedia software and show an example of use. We compare our approach with others in this field and finally we discuss some further work we are pursuing.

Cecilia Challiol, Gustavo Rossi, Silvia Gordillo, Valeria De Cristófolo

Replicated Ubiquitous Nets

In this paper we extend our basic model of Ubiquitous Nets, by adding a replication operator that creates new copies of the net firing the replicating transition. We prove that the location attribute and thus the mobility feature are not essential characteristics of the obtained model, since it is equivalent to the particular case of

Centralized Systems

, where all components are stationary and co-located in a single location. This allows us to restrict ourselves to Centralized Systems when studying the decidability of reachability and coverability properties. In this way, we prove that both reachability and coverability remain decidable. Finally, we introduce an alternative version that includes a garbage collection mechanism that allows us to remove empty nets from the state of the system. We show that in this case coverability remains decidable.

Fernando Rosa-Velardo, David de Frutos-Escrig, Olga Marroquín-Alonso

Design of a Shared Ontology Used for Translating Negotiation Primitives

In this paper we present the design of a shared ontology, with the objective to translate a variety of negotiation primitives. Our approach focuses on facilitating communication among agents during negotiation process execution. Traditional negotiation systems impose several restrictions on the type and format of negotiation primitives that can be exchanged among agents. In contrast, we propose the incorporation of an ontology-based solution to overcome heterogeneity and provide communication facilities for participation in negotiations based in open environments such as Internet. To evaluate our ontology we implemented a Web service-oriented negotiation system, and incorporated a translation module that uses the ontology as a vocabulary of negotiation primitives. The experimental results show that the incorporation of the ontology improves the continuity of the execution of negotiation processes, resulting in more agreements.

Joaquín Pérez, Maricela Bravo, Rodolfo Pazos, Gerardo Reyes, Juan Frausto, Víctor Sosa, Máximo López

A Web Page Ranking Method by Analyzing Hyperlink Structure and K-Elements

The tremendous growth of the web has created challenges for the search engine technology. In this paper we propose a method for information retrieval and web page ranking by analyzing hyperlink structure on the web graph and the weight of keywords. Hyperlink structure analysis measures page importance by calculating the page weight based on links. This method is not counting links from all pages equally, but by normalizing the number of links on a page. The weight of keywords is computed from the elements, keywords and anchors, which we call K-elements. A linear combination of the hyperlink structure and the weight of keywords is proposed and evaluated to rank web pages. In the evaluation, we take into consideration both the importance and relevance of a page.

Jun Lai, Ben Soh, Chai Fei

Efficient Scheduling by Incorporating Bin Packing with Limited and Weighted Round Robin for Bluetooth

In Bluetooth employing the conventional scheduling policies such as round robin, NULL packet is sent when the Master or Slave node does not have any data to send in its turn, and this causes a significant waste of resources. The Limited and Weighted Round Robin (LWRR) algorithm dynamically adjusts the resource allocation to each master-slave pair according to the queue status. In this paper we propose an improved LWRR (ILWRR) scheduling algorithm which effectively combines the LWRR and bin packing algorithm. Computer simulation reveals that slot utilization is increased up to about 50% compared to the round robin algorithm. The proposed ILWRR scheduling is effective for not only basic data transmission but also real-time multimedia data transmission.

Eung Ju Lee, Hee Yong Youn

ECA Rule Component for Timely Collaboration of Web-Based Distributed Business Systems

Timely collaboration among businesses is required to achieve their common business goals. In this paper an event-condition-action (ECA) rule component is proposed to support the timely collaboration of web-based distributed business systems. The proposed component provides high level rule programming and event-based immediate processing so that system administrators and programmers can easily maintain the timely collaboration independently to application logic. It uses HTTP protocol to be applied through firewalls and is implemented using basic trigger facilities of a commercial DBMS for practical purpose.

DongWoo Lee, Seonghoon Lee, Yongjin Lee

Dynamic Approach for Integrating Web Data Warehouses

This paper proposes a dynamic integration approach for a web data warehouse system. It starts with a conceptual design begins with specified requirements that allow the need for creating a logical integrated web data warehouse model. An object-oriented concept is utilized at the logical design level to fully capture and represent the semantics of underlying data sources and user’s requirements in a more flexible and meaningful manner. We also show the benefits of our proposed integrated web data warehouse solution by presenting a set of complex queries to access the integrated data for computing complex analytical results.

D. Xuan Le, J. Wenny Rahayu, Eric Pardede

Location Aware Business Process Deployment

Every action a business process performs must be explicitly anticipated, designed for and implemented by business professionals. Most of the current techniques specify business processes (BP) without incorporating all four Ws;

W

ho,

W

hen,

W

hat and

W

here. These processes when used especially in logistics or supply chain applications will result in a BP becoming even more complicated and harder to customize. The business process is dependent upon business rules (BR), its resources to achieve its objectives. To overcome some of these issues we propose a location aware business process deployment framework. Using this framework we can integrate location awareness into the existing business processes. In this paper our focus would be on how the companies can adopt for their traditional business processes to be mobile. We have developed a case study using location aware methodologies into existing process for development of a more efficient and effective enterprise application.

Saqib Ali, Torab Torabi, Hassan Ali

A Framework for Rapid Development of RFID Applications

Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology is considered to be the next step in the revolution in supply-chain management, retail, and beyond. To derive real benefit from RFID, a RFID application must implement functions to process the enormous event data generated quickly by RFID operations. For this reason, many RFID middleware systems have been developed. Although RFID middleware assists in the management of the flow of event data, developers will be forced to implement systems to derive from simple RFID events meaningful high-level events, which are more actionable knowledge that can be applied. Determining meaningful events requires a context, which typically comes from reference data. In this paper, we propose the contextual event framework (CEF) for rapid development of RFID applications. The solutions and techniques presented in this paper are based on our experience of RFID middleware of the Logistics Information Technology (LIT) project.

Youngbong Kim, Mikyeong Moon, Keunhyuk Yeom

Workshop on Ubiquitous Application and Security Service (UASS 2006)

A Flexible DRM System Considering Ubiquitous Environment

In this paper, we design and implement the Flexible DRM (Digital Right Management) system based on using subject-mode for flexible multimedia service considering ubiquitous environment. The proposed system is complementary to inflexibility of the users which is a weakness of the traditional contents distribution system. Specifically, because a single using-subject can be flexibly changed under the ubiquitous environment, we attempted to seek the way to support the interactive transaction where both creation and consumption are available. In addition, It supports the super-distribution of the contents under the various environments. Furthermore, we design and apply the license format which can be flexibly used in multimedia devices under the wire or wireless environment.

Jong Hyuk Park, Sangjin Lee, Byoung-Soo Koh

User Centric Intelligent IPMPS in Ubi-Home

In this paper, we design and implement the

intelligent IPMPS

(Intellectual Property Management and Protection System) in Ubi-Home. The proposed system supports flexible distribution platform for secure multimedia Service. In addition, we design user location recognition algorithm in order to provide intelligent services, and implement sensor network module using the algorithm to collaborate among devices in Ubi-Home. Furthermore, the proposed system provides multimedia service to authorized users who are using PC, STB, PDA, and Portable Device, etc. in Ubi-Home. Finally, Finally, we adopt the concept of domain authentication to improve the efficiency of license management for all device in Ubi-Home.

Jong Hyuk Park, Jungsuk Song, Sangjin Lee, Byoung-Soo Koh, In-Hwa Hong

The Design and Development of a Secure Keystroke System for u Business

In combination with the easy acquisition of hacking tools and new artificial intelligent computer viruses such as Bug Bear, Spy Ware, or Net Devil, it demands a new information security area for the keyboard input information. In this study, considering the limit of the prior technologies, a source security method of the keyboard input information, regardless of the type of the hacking tool, was developed. The method makes use of a newly developed keyboard security driver at the Kernel level departing from the Pattern Matching Heuristic Method which requires technologies corresponding to various hacking tools case by case basis. In order to verify the technology developed in this research, tests were carried out in comparison with the prior arts with collected hacking tool, which have contributed to the development of the suggested technology.

Hangbae Chang, Kyung-Kyu Kim, Hosin Lee, Jungduk Kim

Linkability of a Blind Signature Scheme and Its Improved Scheme

Blind signature allows a user to obtain signatures from an authority on any document, in such a way that the authority learns nothing about the message that is being signed. The

blindness

is an important property in blind signature scheme. In this work, we analyze security of the blind signature[1], and show that the scheme hasn’t blindness, in other words, the signer is able to link a valid message-signature pair obtained by some user. To overcome the above flaw, we propose an improved scheme and show that the security of the improved scheme is based on the Computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

Jianhong Zhang, Tao Wei, JianYu Zhang, Wei Zou

A Noble Structural Model for e-Learning Services in Ubiquitous Environment

As e-learning studying is activated, learners’ requirements are increased. It is important to note that the effective e-learning model augmented requirements of learner and new ubiquitous environment are artifacts of an era of u-learning. This paper has analyzed learners’ requirements and limitations in the existing e-learning system, and proposed the addition of contents conversion service and collaborative learning service to LMS based on SCORM standard proposal using ubiquitous network, next-generation sensor technology, etc. in order to construct effective and unbounded u-learning system in ubiquitous environment. Based on this structural model. we also propose XML-MCAS security method suitable for wireless environment for preventing the leakage of personal and contents information.

Minseong Ju, Seoksoo Kim, Yeong-Deok Kim, Sukhoon Kang

Backward Channel Protection Method for RFID Security Schemes Based on Tree-Walking Algorithms

Most RFID (Radio Fequency IDentification) Tag security schemes assumed that the backward channel from tags to a reader is safe from eavesdropping. However, eavesdroppers near a tag can overhear message from the tag illegally. This may cause some privacy issues because the backward channel eavesdropping means the expose of personal information related to the tags that each person has. In this paper, we propose a method to protect the backward channel from eavesdropping by illegal readers. The proposed scheme can overcome the problems of conventional schemes based on tree-walking algorithm. It is shown that the proposed method can provide the probability of eavesdropping in some standardized RFID tag system such as EPCglobal, ISO, uCode near to ’0’.

Wonjoon Choi, Byeong-hee Roh

Design of the Configurable Clothes Using Mobile Actuator-Sensor Network

This paper presents the design of reconfigurable clothes that can be shown on a fashion show with actuator and sensor network. These days, some kinds of clothes are often required to perform the multiple images by transforming the shapes of clothes. In this case, reconfigurable clothes – that is, clothes that can be reconfigured by an electronic device – can be very useful way. In this study, an embedded controller using wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed to change the shape of the clothes and also collect the information on the show-stage and clothes configuration. To perform reconfigurable clothes, remote operator based on WSN is mounted on a jacket or a trouser and control clothes. The structure of the controller, mounting method, networking method, and the configuration method are discussed in detail. To verify our design, a fashion-show example is provided. By real performance with fashion model wearing these reconfigurable clothes, the usefulness of this method and validness of a WSN application to reconfigurable clothes is verified.

Bo-Hee Lee, Kyu-Tae Seo, Jung-Shik Kong, Jin-Geol Kim

Hash-Based RFID Security Protocol Using Randomly Key-Changed Identification Procedure

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is considered to be a promising identification approach in ubiquitous sensing technology. The operation of RFID systems in advanced applications may pose security and privacy risks to both organizations and individuals. In this paper, using randomly Key-Changed Identification, we propose an eavesdropping-proof security protocol based on cryptographic one way hash functions for passive RFID tags. Compared with several existing methods, our proposed protocol shows some security improvements as well as gives a reasonable and compatible approach that could be easily employed in practical situations. Finally, an illustration is also given to show clearly the whole operating procedure of the proposed procedure. Key Words: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), Security Protocol, Hash Functions, Randomly Key-Changed Identification.

Jia Zhai, Chang Mok Park, Gi-Nam Wang

Counting-Based Distance Estimations and Localizations in Wireless Sensor Networks

We present two distributed algorithms for localizing sensor nodes of a wireless sensor network. Our algorithms determine locations of nodes based on the connectivity between nodes. The basic idea behind our algorithms is to estimate distances between nearby nodes by counting their common neighbors. We analyze the performance of our algorithms experimentally. The results of experiments show that our algorithms achieve performance improvements upon the existing algorithms.

Oh-Heum Kwon, Ha-Joo Song

Self Re-encryption Protocol Providing Strong Privacy for Low Cost RFID System

RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system will play a critical role providing widespread services in a ubiquitous environment. However, widespread use of RFID tags may create new threats to a consumer privacy such as information leakage and traceability. It is difficult to solve the problems because a tag has the limited computing power that lacks of supporting the general encryption. Although the scheme of [2] protects a consumer privacy using an external agent, a tag should perform exponential operation requiring high cost. We propose

Self Re-Encryption Protocol

(SREP) which provides strong privacy without help of any external agent. SREP is well suitable for low cost RFID systems since it only needs multiplication and exclusive-or operation.

Jeong Su Park, Su Mi Lee, Eun Young Choi, Dong Hoon Lee

Authentication for Single/Multi Domain in Ubiquitous Computing Using Attribute Certification

The Ubiquitous computer environment is thing which invisible computer that is not shown linked mutually through network so that user may use computer always is been pervasive. Intend computing environment that can use easily as user wants and it is the smart environment that user provides context awareness that is wanting computing environment. This Ubiquitous computing contains much specially weak side in security. Masquerade attack of that crawl that is quoted to user or server among device that is around user by that discrete various computing devices exist everywhere among them become possible. Hereupon, in this paper, proposed method that has following characteristic. Present authentication model through transfer or device. Suggest two method that realize authentication through device in case of moved to method (MD: Multi Domain) and user ownself space (SD: Single Domain) that realize authentication through device in case of moved user’s direct path who device differs.

Deok-Gyu Lee, Seo-Il Kang, Dae-Hee Seo, Im-Yeong Lee

Improving the CGA-OMIPv6 Protocol for Low-Power Mobile Nodes

In order to enhance the route optimization mode, the OMIPv6 and CGA-OMIPv6 protocols have been proposed. They use public key methods to minimize the amount of signaling messages and handover latency. However, since the public key operations are computationally expensive, it is so difficult for the protocols to support low-power mobile nodes. In this paper, we propose an enhanced OMIPv6 protocol. By employing the home agent as a security proxy, the proposed protocol improves the CGA-OMIPv6 protocol to support low-power mobile nodes. As a result, the proposed protocol significantly reduces the computational cost of the mobile node into just two HMAC and two hash operations. Furthermore, it achieves good scalability and manageability through the bind between the home agent’s address and public key.

Ilsun You

Tracking Illegal System Access in a Ubiquitous Environment – Proposal for ATS, a Traceback System Using STOP

In a ubiquitous environment, the boundaries of network topology can change irregularly. In this paper, an Agent-based Traceback System (ATS) is proposed to track attacks that utilize systems within an area of the network topology that has been marked for management purposes. Some of the information exchanged within the proposed system utilizes the previously verified STOP [1]. The additional information provided by utilizing the ATS proposed in this paper will greatly enhance the reliability of the traceback process. In addition, the proposed system is flexible enough to be applied to resource management systems as well.

Gwanghoon Kim, Soyeon Hwang, Deokgyu Lee

Real-Time Intrusion Detection in Ubiquitous Networks with a String-Based Approach

In this paper we introduce the detection details and experimental results of our proposed Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System (SUIDS). SUIDS is designed for ubiquitous computing environments like a smart home/office. It adopts a novel auditing mechanism and flexible system architecture to meet the special requirements of ubiquitous networks. Specifically, the paper shows how a string-based method is used in a user profile to represent the user’s short-term behavior in due course; and how an appropriate string length and threshold value are determined in order to balance the system’s false alarm rate and detection effectiveness. As a result, SUIDS achieve real-time intrusion detection in ubiquitous networks with a lightweight and adaptable detection model.

Bo Zhou, Qi Shi, Madjid Merabti

A Security Model for Home Networks with Authority Delegation

In this paper, we propose a security model that deal with the authentication and authorization problems for home networks. First, we examine existing researches for home network security and summarize their shortcomings, such as bottleneck, single point of failure, and inconvenience of configuration. Then, we introduce a new security model making up the previous works’ defects. In the proposed model, we classify the services into three groups based on their security sensitivity level, and provide different security mechanism to each security level service to make a difference among the protection levels of each service (i.e. to provide more secure mechanisms to more important services.) In addition to this, we distribute the computational cost for security function to each service device while centralize the policy configuration function to central device by using authority delegation scheme. Finally, we describe how the security and convenience are enforced by using our security model. Proposed security protocols in our model are based on the SPKI/SDSI (Simple Public Key Infrastructure / Simple Distributed Security Infrastructure.) and a lightweight protocol similar to SPKI.

Jin-Bum Hwang, Jong-Wook Han

An Efficient Key Distribution for Ubiquitous Environment in Ad-Hoc Network Using Broadcast Encryption

Broadcast encryption schemes are applied to transmit digital information of multimedia, software, Pay-TV etc. in public network. Important thing is that only user who is permitted before only must be able to get digital information in broadcast encryption schemes. If broadcast message transfers, users who authority is get digital information to use private key given in the advance by oneself. Thus, user acquires message or session key to use key that broadcaster transmits, broadcaster need process that generation and distribution key in these process. Also, user secession new when join efficient key renewal need. In this paper, introduce about efficient key generation and distribution, key renewal method. Take advantage of two technique of proposal system. One is method that server creates key forecasting user without user’s agreement, and another is method that server and user agree each other and create key. Advantage of two proposal system because uses a secret key broadcast message decryption do can and renewal is available effectively using one information whatever key renewal later.

Deok-Gyu Lee, Jang-Su Park, Im-Yeong Lee, Yong-Seok Park, Jung-Chul Ahn

Distributed Certificate Authority Under the GRID-Location Aided Routing Protocol

Ad hoc network is the network which can be considered without a pre-constructed infrastructure, and a mobile node can join the network freely. However, the participation of the mobile nodes to the ad hoc network brings up much burden of re-computation for new routes, because it leads to losing the connection frequently. Therefore, it needs authentication against the mobile nodes. To make that possible, we have two methods: single Certificate Authority(CA) and distributed CA. In the case of single CA method, the wireless network can be collapsed owing to expose the CA, but still the distributed CA method is a little safer than previous one because it needs attacks toward a lot of CAs to collapse the network. We can consider secret sharing scheme as the method that constructs the distributed CA system, but it is weak when the network size is too large. In this paper, we suggest hierarchical structure for the authentication method, and show the results of simulation.

JiHyung Lim, DaeHun Nyang, Jeonil Kang, KyungHee Lee, Hyotaek Lim

An Efficient Hierarchical Group Key Management Protocol for a Ubiquitous Computing Environment

We propose a new centralized hierarchical group key management protocol for a ubiquitous computing environment. The proposed scheme only uses XOR and hash operations during group key updates. Moreover, the order of the total message size sent during key updates is

O

(log

n

), where

n

is the size of the group. As a result, our scheme is very practical, scalable, and well suited for low-power mobile devices. We have also proved the security of our proposed protocol.

Sangjin Kim, Taewook Ahn, Heekuck Oh

Efficient User Authentication and Key Agreement in Ubiquitous Computing

In ubiquitous computing, many computers serve each person at any time and any place. These computers could be thin servers and only have low computation and communication capacity. In this paper, we propose a novel user authentication and key agreement scheme suitable for ubiquitous computing environments. The main merits include: (1) there are many security domains which have their own security controllers, and each security domain can be formed dynamically; (2) a user only has to register in a security controller once, and can use all permitted services in this environment; (3) a user can freely choose his own password to protect his secret token; (4) the computation and communication cost is very low; (5) servers and users can authenticate each other; (6) it generates a session key agreed by the server and the user; (7) our proposed scheme is a nonce-based scheme which does not have a serious time-synchronization problem.

Wen-Shenq Juang

Single Sign-On and Key Establishment for Ubiquitous Smart Environments

In a smart environment, users often need to access multiple service providers. Multiple authentications and key establishments are required as these resources may reside in different security domains. Therefore we are in quest of a solution that combines multiple logins and key exchanges into one single process. Motivated by this need, we propose a scheme for single sign-on and key establishment (SSOKE) for ubiquitous smart environments. We examine the computational model and design considerations for smart environments, and address them in our scheme construction. Security and privacy considerations of our proposal are also provided.

Yuen-Yan Chan, Sebastian Fleissner, Joseph K. Liu, Jin Li

A Light Weight Authentication Protocol for Digital Home Networks

We study user authentication protocols that allow user to remotely access and control home appliances through home gateway. In particular, we explore the S/Key user authentication scheme, a widely known one-time password system. Earlier studies show that S/Key is vulnerable to server spoofing, replay, and off-line dictionary attacks. Several researchers have proposed various solutions to prevent such attacks. However, we show that these enhancements are still vulnerable to another security attacks and propose a scheme that defends such attacks.

Ilsun You, Eun-Sun Jung

Smart Home Microcontroller: Telephone Interfacing

In this paper, we present the results of the effort to design and produce a smart home system,

PhoneTech

.

PhoneTech

has been designed and built utilizing the telephone network to enable users to remotely control an array of automated home electronic devices by entering a series of commands through phone. The aim of

PhoneTech

is to provide the users with a better home life experience without overpowering them with complex technologies while keeping the home life as normal as possible.

Chee-Seng Leong, Bok-Min Goi

SPAD: A Session Pattern Anomaly Detector for Pre-alerting Intrusions in Home Network

In order to prevent the intrusion in network-based information systems effectively, it is necessary to detect the early sign in advance of intrusion. This sort of pre-alerting approach may be classified as an active prevention, since detecting the various forms of hackers’ intrusion trials to know the vulnerability of systems is not missed and early cross-checked. The existing network-based anomaly detection algorithms that cope with port-scanning and the network vulnerability scans have some weakness in

slow scans

and

coordinated scans

. Therefore, a new concept of pre-alerting algorithm is especially attractive to detect effectively the various forms of abnormal accesses for the trial of intrusion regardless of the intrusion methods. In this paper, we propose a

session pattern anomaly detector

(SPAD) which detects the abnormal service patterns by comparing them with the ordinary normal service patterns.

Soo-Jin Park, Young-Shin Park, Yong-Rak Choi, Sukhoon Kang

Home Gateway with Automated Real-Time Intrusion Detection for Secure Home Networks

Home networks will be widely established in residential areas. Intrusion detection is an important function in the home gateway because various networks try to access to home networks. We propose the home gateway with the automated real time intrusion detection adjustable in home network environment using the clustering methodology and the correlation. Our proposed model showed the reasonable misclassification rates.

Hayoung Oh, Jiyoung Lim, Kijoon Chae, Jungchan Nah

The Performance Analysis of UWB System for the HD Multimedia Communication in a Home Network

In this paper, we propose the UWB system as a wireless HD multimedia transmission technology in a home network. We examine the piconet of UWB system and analyze the performance by using the development kit in a real office and empty space environments.

Chul-Yong Uhm, Su-Nam Kim, Kyeong-Hoon Jung, Dong-Wook Kang, Ki-Doo Kim

Extraction of Implicit Context Information in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

The evolution of low-cost, networked sensors, often directly internet-enabled, is bringing truly ubiquitous smart environments into daily life. The more ubiquitous middleware platform is intelligent, the greater context information flood problem has been caused. Hence, there have been increasing demands for efficient methods of discovering desirable knowledge from a large collection of context data. But unfortunately, current ubiquitous middleware platforms do not employ appropriate data mining techniques to meet such growing demands. Therefore, this paper aims to propose a new design of ubiquitous middleware platform that enhances context awareness in evolving pervasive environments. We achieve this goal first by incorporating a mining module into our previously suggested middleware platform CALM (Component-based Autonomic Layered Middleware) and then by instantiating the module with an efficient mining algorithm.

Juryon Paik, Hee Yong Youn, Ung Mo Kim

Convergence of Context-Awareness and Augmented Reality for Ubiquitous Services and Immersive Interactions

Computing paradigm is moving toward context-aware and ubiquitous computing in which devices, software agents, and services are all expected to seamlessly integrate and cooperate in support of human objectives. Augmented reality (AR) can naturally complement ubiquitous computing by providing an intuitive and collaborative interface to a three-dimensional information space embedded within physical reality. This paper presents a framework and its applications for the convergence of context-awareness and augmented reality, which can support a rich set of ubiquitous services and immersive interactions. The framework provides a common data model for different types of context information from external sensors, applications and users. It also offers the software framework to acquire, interpret and disseminate context information. Further, it utilizes augmented reality for providing immersive interactions by embedding virtual models onto physical models, which realizes bi-augmentation between physical and virtual spaces.

Jae Yeol Lee, Gue Won Rhee, Hyun Kim, Kang-Woo Lee, Young-Ho Suh, Kwangsoo Kim

An Adaptive Fault Tolerance System for Ubiquitous Computing Environments: AFTS

This paper presents the design of the AFTS(An Adaptive Fault Tolerance System), which is running on situation-aware middleware. Situation-aware middleware provides standardized communication protocols to inter-operate an application with others under dynamically changing situations. Since the application needs of middleware services and computing environment (resources) keep changing as the application change, it is difficult to analyze: whether it is possible that all Quality of Service (QoS) requirements are met, and what QoS requirements have tradeoff relationships. In this paper, we propose a QoS resource error detection-recovery model called “AFTS” for situation-aware middleware. An adaptive Video On Demand (VOD) system is used as an illustrative example of the AFTS model and its resource error detection-recovery.

Eung Nam Ko

Design and Implementation of Middleware for Context-Aware Service Discovery in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

The purpose of service discovery techniques is to minimize the cost of detecting services and provide users with convenience, even though various devices and services exist. For more dynamic and useful service discovery, middleware for context-aware service discovery is required. In this paper, a middleware system is designed and implemented, based on the agent platform for context-aware service discovery. When a service is detected, context information relating to the user and environment is used. As a policy-based system, our middleware does not only use context information, but also use predefined policy. In other words, user preference can be considered. Also, it has authentication module, so users having authority can only access the middleware. Near the conclusion of this paper, a hospital scenario is composed and implemented, by applying the proposed middleware solution.

Kyu Min Lee, Hyung-Jun Kim, Ho-Jin Shin, Dong-Ryeol Shin

A Dynamic Channel Allocation Mechanism in Cellular Mobile Networks for Ubiquitous Environments Based on Time Constraints

The new real-time applications like multimedia and real-time services in a wireless network for ubiquitous environments will be dramatically increased. However, many real-time services of mobile hosts in a cell cannot be continued because of insufficiency of useful channels. Conventional channel assignment approaches didn’t properly consider the problem to serve real-time applications in a cell. This paper proposes a new real-time channel assignment algorithm based on time constraint analysis of channel requests. The proposed algorithm dynamically borrows available channels from neighboring cells. It also supports a smooth handoff which continuously serves real-time applications of the mobile hosts.

SeongHoon Lee, DongWoo Lee, Donghee Shim, Dongyoung Cho, Wankwon Lee

Workshop on Embedded System for Ubiquitous Computing (ESUC 2006)

Performance Analysis of Task Schedulers in Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

In wireless sensor networks, power is a critical resource in battery powered sensor nodes. In this respect, as it is important to efficiently utilize the limited battery power, it would be desirable to make such nodes as energy efficient as possible. Many researchers who develop operating systems of wireless sensor networks have been trying to find a way to enhance energy efficiency of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present an overview of sensor node operating systems and some of its functionalities, and then present a performance analysis of task schedulers and task-related kernel routines of existing sensor node operating systems. The results of performance analysis show some advantages and disadvantages of the existing operating systems, and based on these information, we present some possible improvements for increasing the efficiency of sensor node operating systems.

Sangho Yi, Hong Min, Junyoung Heo, Boncheol Gu, Yookun Cho, Jiman Hong, Jinwon Kim, Kwangyong Lee, Seungmin Park

Wireless Sensor Networks: A Scalable Time Synchronization

This paper presents a novel Chained-RIpple Time Synchronization (CRIT) protocol that is scalable, flexible, and high-precise in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). CRIT adopts hierarchical and multi-hop time synchronization architecture with contributing energy-saving effects in WSN. The algorithm works in two phases. In the first phase, a horizontal structure between Missionary Nodes (MN) is established in the network by Piggy-Back Neighbor Time Synchronization (PBNT) algorithm. In the second phase, a vertical structure between a MN and Sensor Nodes (SN) is set up in each sensor group (SG) by Distributed Depth First Search (DDFS) algorithm. By applying these two phases repeatedly, all nodes in WSN efficiently synchronize to each other. For the purpose of performance evaluation, we first study the error sources of CRIT. In addition, we simulate CRIT in terms of synchronization errors of two phases using network simulator.

Kee-Young Shin, Jin Won Kim, Ilgon Park, Pyeong Soo Mah

A New Cluster Head Selection Scheme for Long Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor network (WSN) consisting of a large number of small sensors can be an effective tool for gathering information in a variety of environments. Since sensor nodes operate on batteries, energy efficiency is a key issue in designing the network. In the existing clustering-based routing protocols for the WSN including the LEACH scheme, the cluster-heads are usually selected at random, which may cause unbalanced energy consumption and thus short network lifetime. In this paper we identify that position of cluster-head is an important factor with respect to the network lifetime. Based on this observation, we propose a scheme which selects the cluster-heads not randomly but considering the relative position and residual energy of the alive nodes in the network. Computer simulation reveals that the proposed scheme extends the lifetime of the network employing the LEACH scheme for about 50%.

Hyung Su Lee, Kyung Tae Kim, Hee Yong Youn

Two-Dimensional Priority Scheduling Scheme for Open Real-Time Systems

This paper focuses on the scheduling of the tasks with hard, soft and non-real-time timing constraints in open real-time systems. It describes a

Two-Dimensional Priority Scheduling

(TDPS) scheme which not only sets task priority, but also specifies scheduling policy priority. The execution order of a task is determined by both the task priority and its scheduling policy priority. TDPS also supports separating the scheduling mechanism from the scheduling policy. We also enhance TDPS scheme by introducing the CPU utilization bound to each scheduling policy to simplify the schedulability analysis. TDPS scheme can be used to implement different real time systems with different goals (such as hard, soft or hybrid real-time systems) by adjusting the CPU utilization bound of every scheduling policy in runtime. The paper shows through evaluation that TDPS is more open and efficient than the past open real-time scheduling schemes.

Pengliu Tan, Hai Jin, Minghu Zhang

An Enhanced Dynamic Voltage Scaling Scheme for Energy-Efficient Embedded Real-Time Control Systems

Real-Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling (RT-DVS) has been one of the most important techniques for energy savings in battery-powered embedded systems. However, pure RT-DVS approaches rarely take into account the actual performance requirements of the target applications. With the primary goal of further reducing energy consumption while satisfying Quality of Control (QoC) requirements in real-time control systems, an enhanced dynamic voltage scaling (EDVS) scheme is suggested. Following the direct feedback scheduling methodology, EDVS exploits a QoC-aware adaptive resource allocation mechanism. It enables flexible timing constraints on control tasks, which facilitates further energy saving over pure RT-DVS. Simulation experiments argue that EDVS is highly cost-effective and can save much more energy over the optimal pure RT-DVS scheme, while providing comparable QoC.

Feng Xia, Youxian Sun

Adaptive Load Balancing Mechanism for Server Cluster

Server cluster provides high availability, scalability, and reliability by gathering server nodes into a group. Client requests need to be distributed to each server node fairly to maximize the performance of server cluster. In this paper, we propose an adaptive and efficient load balancing algorithm for the server cluster. The proposed algorithm computes the load of server nodes with the usages of computer resources and their weights. These weights are determined dynamically based on the statistics of the usages. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can prevent the bottleneck of server cluster efficiently compared with existing algorithms. This guarantees its adaptability even though there are changes to the characteristic of service.

Geunyoung Park, Boncheol Gu, Junyoung Heo, Sangho Yi, Jungkyu Han, Jaemin Park, Hong Min, Xuefeng Piao, Yookun Cho, Chang Won Park, Ha Joong Chung, Bongkyu Lee, Sangjun Lee

Design and Performance Analysis of a Message Scheduling Scheme for WLAN-Based Cluster Computing

This paper proposes and analyzes the performance of a task scheduling scheme that couples network schedule for master-slave style parallel computing cluster built on top of wireless local area networks. When a transmission fails, the proposed scheme selects another data and destination that can replace the subtask scheduled on the unreachable node with minimal cost, rather than hopelessly retransmits on the bad channel. Simulation results performed via ns-2 event scheduler, show that the proposed scheme minimizes the task migration, improves the computation time by maximally 35.4 %, increases the probability of successful retransmission, and finally survives the network failure as long as at least one node is reachable at each instance of time.

Junghoon Lee, Mikyung Kang, Euiyoung Kang, Gyungleen Park, Hanil Kim, Cheolmin Kim, Seongbaeg Kim, Jiman Hong

A Method for Efficient Malicious Code Detection Based on Conceptual Similarity

Nowadays, a lot of techniques have been applied for the detection of malicious behavior. However, the current techniques taken into practice are facing with the challenge of much variations of the original malicious behavior, and it is impossible to respond the new forms of behavior appropriately and timely. With the questions above, we suggest a new method here to improve the current situation. Basically, we use conceptual graph to define malicious behavior, and then we are able to compare the similarity relations of the malicious behavior by testing the formalized values which generated by the predefined graphs in the code. In this paper, we show how to make a conceptual graph and propose an efficient method for similarity measure to discern the malicious behavior. As a result of our experiment, we can get more efficient detection rate. It can be used in detecting malicious codes in the script based programming environment of many kinds of embedded systems or telematics systems.

Sungsuk Kim, Chang Choi, Junho Choi, Pankoo Kim, Hanil Kim

A Minimized Test Pattern Generation Method for Ground Bounce Effect and Delay Fault Detection

An efficient board-level interconnect test algorithm is proposed considering both the ground bounce effect and the delay faults detection. The proposed algorithm is capable of IEEE 1149.1 interconnect test, negative ground bounce effect prevention, and also detects delay faults as well. The number of final test pattern set is not much different with the previous method, even our method enables to detect the delay faults in addition to the abilities the previous method guarantees.

MoonJoon Kim, JeongMin Lee, WonGi Hong, Hoon Chang

Efficient Exponentiation in GF(p m ) Using the Frobenius Map

The problem of exponentiation over a finite field is to compute

A

e

for a field element

A

and a positive integer

e

. This problem has many useful applications in cryptography and information security. In this paper, we present an efficient exponentiation algorithm in optimal extension field (OEF)

GF

(

p

m

), which uses the fact that the Frobenius map, i.e., the

p

-th powering operation is very efficient in OEFs. Our analysis shows that the new algorithm is twice as fast as the conventional square-and-multiply exponentiation. One of the important applications of our new algorithm is random generation of a base point for elliptic curve cryptography, which is an attractive public-key mechanism for resource-constrained devices. We present a further optimized exponentiation algorithm for this application. Our experimental results show that the new technique accelerates the generation process by factors of 1.62–6.55 over various practical elliptic curves.

Mun-Kyu Lee, Howon Kim, Dowon Hong, Kyoil Chung

A Dual-Channel MAC Protocol Using Directional Antennas in Location Aware Ad Hoc Networks

Ad hoc MAC protocols using directional antennas can be used to improve the network capacity by improving spatial reuse. But, directional MAC protocols have the problem of deafness and have a poor throughput performance. The dual-channel MAC protocol with an omnidirectional antenna has been proposed to mitigate deafness. In this paper, we propose a dual-channel MAC protocol using the omnidirectional antenna for control channel and directional antennas for data channel. In the proposed MAC protocol, the omnidirectional antenna used in control channel mitigates deafness and directional antennas used in data channel improve spatial reuse. The throughput performance of the proposed MAC protocol is confirmed by computer simulations using Qualnet ver. 3.8 simulator.

DoHyung Han, JeongWoo Jwa, HanIl Kim

A Power-Efficient Design Employing an Extreme Condition Detector for Embedded Systems

In this paper, a power-efficient scheme for embedded systems with wireless communication applications is proposed to reduce the power consumption of the overall system. Any transmission related module is required to be on only when the transmission is active and reliable to reduce power dissipation. The proposed method is based on the use of the extreme channel condition detector that is designed to detect the extremely bad channel condition. Under such a condition, carrying user information over the air link is completely impossible. The considerable power reduction is achieved by turning off several modules within the embedded system related to the information transmission like LCD, image encoder, voice encoder, and power amplifier under this condition. Moreover, a simple extreme channel condition detector is also proposed in this paper. The design example on the selected platform shows that the proposed scheme is very efficient in power saving for the embedded system.

Hyukjun Oh, Heejune Ahn, Jiman Hong

An Efficient Delay Metric on RC Interconnects Under Saturated Ramp Inputs

This paper presents a simple and fast delay metric RC-class interconnects under step and saturated ramp inputs. The proposed RC delay metric under step input, called MECM(Modified ECM), provides a reasonable accuracy without using circuit moments. The next RC delay metric under saturated ramp inputs, called FDM(Fast Delay Metric), can estimate delay times at an arbitrary node using a simple closed-form expression and is extended from MECM easily. As compared with similar techniques proposed in previous researches, it is shown that the FDM technique involves much lower computational complexity for a similar accuracy. As the number of circuit nodes increases, there will be a significant difference in estimation times of RC delay between the previous techniques based on two circuit moments and the FDM which do not depend on circuit moments.

Ki-Young Kim, Seung-Yong Kim, Seok-Yoon Kim

Low Power Microprocessor Design for Embedded Systems

Continuing advances in VLSI technology render a billion-transistor SOC device inevitable in the near future. However, along with this opportunity the excessive amount of power that billions of transistors will consume will be the most important challenge to the design of the future chips. Many techniques have been developed in order to reduce the power consumption of microprocessors. Unfortunately, this often comes at the expense of performance. In this paper, we describe a number of techniques which are currently used when designing low power, high performance microprocessors. These include fabrication process, circuit technology, and microprocessor architecture. Since most techniques result in complex tradeoffs, we will show how decisions regarding the selection of a low power design approach require careful consideration.

Seong-Won Lee, Neungsoo Park, Jean-Luc Gaudiot

History Length Adjustable gshare Predictor for High-Performance Embedded Processor

As modern microprocessros and embedded processors employ deeper pipelines and issue multiple instructions per cycle, accurate branch predictors become an essential part of processor architectures. In this paper, we introduce a history length adjustable

gshare

predictor for the high-performance embedded processors and show its low-level implementation. Compared to the previous

gshare

predictor, history length adjustable

gshare

predictor selectively utilizes the branch history, resulting in substantial improvement in branch prediction accuracy.

Jong Wook Kwak, Seong Tae Jhang, Chu Shik Jhon

Workshop on Information Engineering and Applications in Ubiquitous Computing Environments (IEAUCE 2006)

Security Engineering Methodology Based on Problem Solving Theory

This paper answers the difficult problems that organizations face in business environments when they try to solve information security issues by suggesting the integrated methodology for security engineering. Contributions of this paper are summarized as following. The first is the provision of requirements of security engineering methodology based on the model of ill-structured problem solving. The second is the framework which integrates various methods and tools of security engineering. The third is a suggestion of the process model and components which support an entire lifecycle of security management.

Sangkyun Kim, Hong Joo Lee

Design and Implementation of an Ontology Algorithm for Web Documents Classification

Traditional methods of documents classification need characteristic abstraction and classifier training. The work of collecting trainable text terms is laborious and time-consuming. Additionally, it is difficult to abstract the characteristics from Chinese documents. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposes an ontology-based approach to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of web documents classification and retrieval. Firstly, the approach establishes an ontology model based on Hownet[6] kownledge base and its method. Then, it creates ontologies for each subclass of the classification system. It uses RDFS to convert Hownet into ontology and to define the relations among ontologies. The web documents classification is performed automatically using the ontology relevance calculating algorithm. Comparing with the method of KNN[2], the results of our experiments indicate that the accuracy of ontology-based approach is close to KNN, its algorithms is more robust than KNN, and its recalling rate is better than KNN.

Guiyi Wei, Jun Yu, Yun Ling, Jun Liu

Automatic Test Approach of Web Application for Security (AutoInspect)

We present an automatic test approach to improve the security of web application, which detects vulnerable spots based on black box test through three phases of craw, test, and report. The test process considers a blind point for security through the development life cycle, the faults of web application and server setup in a various point of attackers, etc. The test approach is applied to the web applications in industry, analyzed, and compared with the existing test tool.

Kyung Cheol Choi, Gun Ho Lee

A Scenario-Based User-Oriented Integrated Architecture for Supporting Interoperability Among Heterogeneous Home Network Middlewares

There exist many home network middlewares such as Havi, Jini, LonWorks, UPnP, and SLP for the purpose of the information appliance control. As home networks evolve, new middlewares specialized for diverse information appliances will appear continuously. In this paper, we examine an integrated architecture for supporting interoperability among heterogeneous home network middlewares and present a scenario-based user-oriented integrated architecture for home automation, which controls and interoperates information appliances by integrating heterogeneous home network middlewares with an ability of reflecting flexible properties of home network middlewares.

Min Chan Kim, Sung Jo Kim

Session Key Agreement Protocol for End-to-End Security in MANET

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructure-less network, consisting of wireless nodes without access points or base stations. Since mobile nodes in MANET move very easily and freely, MANET is appropriate for ubiquitous environment. But, from a security viewpoint, MANET is a very weak network since various security attacks against it such as eavesdropping or DoS (Denial-of-Service) attack can be more easily performed than against the wired network. In this paper, we design a key agreement protocol for end-to-end security between source node and destination node without any security infrastructure. Diffie-Hellman key agreement mechanism is combined with a concept of CGA (Cryptographically Generated Address) mechanism to provide source authentication service. Based on the IPv6’s IP auto-configuration, how to generate IPv6 address from the Diffie-Hellman key pair is explained, and a mechanism to generate session key for both authenticating nodes and protecting messages exchanged between them is suggested. We also evaluate the performance of our mechanism using NS2 (Network Simulator).

Jeong-Mi Lim, Chang-Seop Park

Process-Oriented DFM System for Ubiquitous Devices

As advanced multimedia and communication technologies such as DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) and bluetooth technologies are commercialized, the life cycle of ubiquitous devices is getting shorter and shorter. In this market environment, reducing the product development lead time with high quality is one of the most important key success factors to accomplish both product design and technology leadership. Product manufacturability evaluation activities in earlier design stage can contribute to the reduction of redundant and repetitive works, specifically, the number of design changes during mass production phase. To facilitate the manufacturability evaluation activities, inter-departmental collaboration processes and channels for sharing design knowledge need to be established. In this paper, we suggest a collaboration process for manufacturability evaluation using checklist devised for ubiquitous devices. Also, we have implemented a web-based collaborative DFM (Design for Manufacturability) system to share both design knowledge and evaluation results in real-time.

Yongsik Kim, Taesoo Lim, Dongsoo Kim, Cheol Jung, Honggee Jin

A Study on the Application of BPM Systems for Implementation of RosettaNet Based e-Logistics

With the progress of globalization, supply chains of enterprises have expanded to cover the whole world, and in such environment, enterprises have placed various efforts to enhance the efficiency of their supply chains. For efficient management of supply chains, a number of enterprises have implemented VMI processes and have started to employ TPL as a way of strategic outsourcing. There also have been recent efforts to connect VMI processes with TPL via IT technologies to enhance competitiveness. In such e-Logistics programs, international e-commerce standards such as RosettaNet can be used as a means to intensify the control of logistics and inventory information, but still has limitations in that causal relationship between PIPs are not fully described to execute VMI processes with TPL. This study intends to overcome such limitations by implementing a content based document routing function that connect the RosettaNet B2B system to the BPM system. Furthermore, to monitor the PIP instance’s causal relationship, a multi-PIP monitoring system has been developed, which in turn will facilitate the management and control of higher level BPM processes. The results of this study are already being applied to e-Logistics programs of a Korean company, and runs successfully in production mode.

Yong Gu Ji, Chiwoo Park, Minsoo Kim

Information Security Management System for SMB in Ubiquitous Computing

In this study, an information security management system is developed through theoretical and literary approach aiming at efficient and sys-tematic information security of Korean small and medium size businesses, considering the restrictions of the literature review on the information security management systems and the inherent characteristics of the small and medium size businesses. The management system was divided into the 3 areas of the supporting environment of the information security, establishment of the information security infrastructure, and management of the information security. Through verification by statistical methods(reliability analysis, feasibility study) based on the questionnaire for the specialists, the overall information security management system is structures with the 3 areas, 8 management items, and 18 detailed items of the management system. On the basis of this study, it is expected that small and medium size businesses will be able to establish information security management systems in accordance with the information security policy incorporating the existing informatization strategies and management strategies, information security systems which will enhance existing information management, and concrete plans for follow up management.

Hangbae Chang, Jungduk Kim, Sungjun Lim

A Study on the Development of Usability Evaluation Framework (Focusing on Digital TV)

Recently, with the materialization of ubiquitous computing environment, families have begun using the latest electronic products. However, new technology is that there are increasing numbers of products which, while equipped with these advanced functions, fail to have those functions properly utilized because of the difficulties in operating them. Accordingly, one can suggest that having easy operation functions is an important factor for becoming a best seller.

In this paper, an evaluation was carried out on the usability of Digital TV, which can be said to be a representative electronic product used at homes. To have a rational usability evaluation, an evaluation framework was developed by examining and analyzing existing researches and consumer characteristics. By using the results, a usability evaluation was carried out on 100 consumers concerning Digital TVs being sold in Korea, in order to verify its validity.

Hong Joo Lee, Choon Seong Leem, Sangkyun Kim

Workshop on Component Based Software Engineering and Software Process Model (CBSE 2006)

Designing Aspectual Architecture Views in Aspect-Oriented Software Development

Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) is an area that is becoming important in software engineering. Currently it is focused on how to deal with aspects from the early phases of the software development process, in order to reduce the complexity produced by these aspects in these first phases. Software Architecture (SA) is one of the first steps in the software development process; the SA design requires a support framework to represent, identify, and manage aspects. In this paper, a method to represent and design SA is presented. The proposed method allows: (a) the detection and separation of the architectural aspects and concerns, and (b) the building of the architectural design of the modular and component-connector-aspect views.

Rogelio Limón Cordero, Isidro Ramos Salavert, José Torres-Jiménez

Process and Techniques to Generate Components in MDA/CB-PIM for Automation

Component-Based Development (CBD) is an effective approach to develop software effectively and economically through reuse of software components. Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is a new software development paradigm where software is generated by a series of model transformations. By combing essential features of CBD and MDA, both the benefits of software reusability and development automation can be achieved in a single framework. In this paper, we propose a Component-based P Platform Independent Model (CB-PIM) and a UML profile for specifying component-based design in MDA framework. We suggest mapping rules to transform CB-PIM into Platform Specific Models (PSM). Once components are specified with our profile at the level of PIM, they can be automatically transformed into PSM and eventually source code implementation.

Hyun Gi Min, Soo Dong Kim

An Ontology Definition Framework for Model Driven Development

Ontologies are increasingly adopted to facilitate the model driven software development (MDSD). The issue of intertransformations among various ontologies is quickly growing prominent. Some explain that variation of ontology definition should be accepted as a must. We would agree with the point that the definition of ontology for the MDSD should be further standardized with tools. In this paper, the ontology definition for the MDSD is systematically analyzed from the philosophical and human cognitional views. Based on a few metaconcepts, ontology creation and evaluation modes are proposed. By providing general precise and consistent semantics for development elements, this framework will considerably improve the development of models of automation oriented development MDSD processes. Experimental applications on intertransformations and unifications of semantics of existing modeling languages are very encouraging.

Yucong Duan, Xiaolan Fu, Qingwu Hu, Yuqing Gu

An AHP-Based Evaluation Model for Service Composition

In this paper we present the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)-based composition evaluation model (ASCEM) for service composition, which provides quantitative and global evaluation for selecting composition plans. Quantitative factors and global computing formula are defined also. Thus ASCEM enables dynamic service composition. ASCEM features in following. Firstly, AHP enable a more objective weight-allocating for evaluation factors and the hierarchical model provides more scalability. Secondly, the evaluation parameters include not only the quality properties but also the properties of reasonability and granularity for business processes. Thirdly, this model gives a quantitative and global result. A file-workflow process example is taken to illustrate how to use ASCEM and the results prove that the model is feasible and correct.

Xiaoqin Xie, Kaiyun Chen

Construction of Quality Test and Certification System for Package Software

Package software should have the feature that purchasers can discriminate a product suitable for them among a number of software, which belong to the similar kind of product. Purchasers’ ability to choose a package software depends on that they can judge whether a package software has the relevant standard conforming through objective quality test process and method or not. For building this system, there are the standards that can be applicable to pack-age software, such as <ISO/IEC 14598-5 : Quality Evaluation Process for Evaluator> and <ISO/IEC 12119 : Information Technology – software package – Quality Requirements & Test>. This study built the system that purchasers can effectively select a pack-age software suitable for their needs, building quality test and certification process for package software and developing Test Metric and application method.

Ha-Yong Lee, Hae-Sool Yang, Suk-Hyung Hwang

Design of an On-Line Intrusion Forecast System with a Weather Forecasting Model

Information protection for information systems is the major concern for most of the institutes, but there are a limited number of activities for the prevention of intrusion. Though each institute establishes and operates information protection solutions such as information security control systems, counter-measures against intrusions are generally applied only after intrusions have taken place in most cases. Delayed counter-measures lead to delays in damage recovery as well as failure of timely actions to mitigate the damages. In this paper, we propose the design of an online intrusion forecast system using a weather forecasting model, allowing administrators to minimize the effects of damages in advance through an online intrusion prediction of the probable vulnerability and risks. Both the information from the sensors of information security control systems and the profiles of the information system assets are used to analyze vulnerabilities and to predict intrusion routes and the scope of damages.

YoonJung Chung, InJung Kim, Chulsoo Lee, Eul Gyu Im, Dongho Won

Goal Programming Approach to Compose the Web Service Quality of Service

As business environments are changed and become complex, a more efficient and effective process management are needed. More and more enterprises and organizations are recently trying to build flexible and integrated information systems with web services in order to satisfy the changing needs of customers. The web Service can currently be recognized as a new alternative for integrating the scattered information assets within an enterprise or an organization. Due to the increasing number of Web Service applications and the service suppliers, however, the customers are confronted with the problem of selecting the most suitable Web Service. In this paper the new methodology for marshaling the composite Web Service satisfying Web Service QoS goals is suggested. This provides a theoretical basis from which a goal programming model is identified by which the web service QoS can be quantified.

Daerae Cho, Changmin Kim, MoonWon Choo, Suk-Ho Kang, Wookey Lee

Healthcare Home Service System Based on Distributed Object Group Framework

This paper suggests a healthcare home service system based on the Distributed Object Group Framework (DOGF) for ubiquitous healthcare in home environment. This system consists of 3 layers. The lower layer includes the physical sensors and devices for healthcare, as a physical layer. The middle layer is the DOGF layer. This framework supports the object grouping service and the real-time service to execute the healthcare application. Here, object group means the unit of logical grouped objects or healthcare sensors/devices for a healthcare service. We define these grouped objects as an application group, also sensors/devices as a sensor group. And this layer includes interfaces between application group at the upper layer and sensor group at the physical layer. The upper layer implements healthcare applications based on lower layers. With healthcare applications, we implemented the location tracking service, the health information service, and the titrating environment service. Our system can provide healthcare application services using the healthcare information from the physical healthcare sensors/devices, and also can be monitored and controlled the execution results of these services via remote desktops or PDAs.

Chang-Sun Shin, Chung-Sub Lee, Su-Chong Joo

A Learning Attitude Evaluation System for Learning Concentration on Distance Education

Due to the needs of the Internet applications, variety of distance education methods on Internet are provided. As the result, various multimedia contents for education have been developing. One problem of the distance education on the is to lead the students to concentrate to learning for improving good attitude. But it is quite difficult to evaluate the students’ behaviors and participating sincerity on the distance lectures. In this paper, we propose an evaluation method of the learning attitude and a practical system in a Web-flash based distance education environment. In the proposed system, students of distance education are evaluated by tracking their behaviors, and thus their sincerity can be estimated as well.

Byungdo Choi, Chonggun Kim

A Calculation Method for Direction Based Handover Rate in Cell Based Mobile Networks

WiBro(Wireless Broadband) is an emerging technology for portable Internet to support high speed rate. The communication infrastructure is the cellular system and is designed to maintain communication connectivity of mobile terminal at speeds of up to 60 km/h. The WiBro provides handover to support seamless communication. When the signal strength, coming from neighbor BS, is stronger than the threshold, the handover procedure is initiated. But, it can’t be predicted whether the MS will really go out of the current cell or not.

If the moving direction and speed of MSs are considered, it is possible to discriminate unnecessary efforts for handover connections. In this paper, we propose an efficient direction and speed based handover connection control schemes for increasing the utilization of channels and reduce a probability of new connection blocking rate. Some results of computer simulation are evaluated to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Mary Wu, Chonggun Kim

The Classification of the Software Quality by Employing the Tolerence Class

When we decide the software quality on the basis of the software measurement, the transitive property which is a requirement for an equivalence relation is not always satisfied. Therefore, we propose a scheme for classifing the software quality that employs a tolerance relation instead of an equivalence relation. Given the experimental data set, the proposed scheme generates the tolerant classes for elements in the experiment data set, and generates the tolerant ranges for classfing the software quality by clustering the means of the tolerance classes. Through the experiment, we showed that the proposed scheme could product very useful and valid results. That is, it has no problems that we use as the criteria for classifing the software quality the tolerant ranges generated by the proposed scheme.

Wan-Kyoo Choi, Sung-Joo Lee, Il-Yong Chung, Yong-Geun Bae

Components Searching System Using Component Identifiers and Request Specifics

This paper defines agreement relation between use-cases of UML and component request specifics by classifying and specifying non-standardized shaped specifics of each procedure step in order to search appropriate component that operates required role from user in the request analyzing step. Using the agreement relation defined in this paper between request specifics and component specifics can automatically search appropriate component by calling request specifics file without user’s direct inquiry information. To improve trade off between Recall and Precision has abstracted by using component glossary which has a Lexical Chain addition. A plan has been presented that decrease development term and cost and also maximizes reusability, the strength of component system, by applying candidate component which was extracted at the beginning of system development.

Jea-Youn Park, Gui-Jung Kim, Young-Jae Song

Software Architecture Generation on UML

The on going underlying work aims to provide a robust and straight forward basis to the UML for modeling and analysis. In the context of architecture driven software development approaches, UML has become the most useful specification language for the systems. In this paper, we are concerned about the SAGU(Software Architecture Generation on UML) methodology to guide the reflexive development of architectures from the software requirements. In particular, we are detailing the first step of this methodology and the definition of the goals model whose constituents are the fundamental basis for the overall process defined in SAGU proving its suitability for obtaining traceable architectural models.

Haeng-Kon Kim

Distributed Programming Developing Tool Based on Distributed Object Group Framework

We are to suggest the GUIs of Distributed Programming Developing Tool(DPD-Tool) based on the Distributed Object Group Framework (DOGF). The 3 GUIs we implemented are the user interfaces between the DOGF and distributed program developers. In this paper, we explain first of all the DOGF and distributed programming tool we developed before. And then, for convenient development of distributed applications, we design and implemented 3 GUI environments such as the object group administrator, server program developers, and client program developers, by interactions among 3 GUIs. Finally using above environments, we showed the procedures for developing distributed applications and the result of execution of a distributed application implemented as an example under 3 GUI environments supported by DPD-Tool.

Chang-Won Jeong, Dong-Seok Kim, Geon-Yeob Lee, Su-Chong Joo

A Study on Automatic Code Generation Tool from Design Patterns Based on the XMI

Recently there have been researches on component reuse for software development productivity and quality improvement, especially on distributed development environment to improve productivity of team development. However, there is a short of schemes to develop and share design components effectively. Therefore, this paper presents a tool that generates a code with compatibility for design pattern to maximize reusability of design component. Presented tool constructs a library that stores explanation information of pattern and structure information of abstract type. Pattern structure information go through the process of instantiation which makes them fit for specific application. Instantiated structure information is generated as a XMI code through code generation template. XMI is supported as a transformed format from most case tools, so it is sure for compatibility.

Young-Jun Seo, Young-Jae Song

Design of Opportunity Tree for Organization’s Process Strategy Decision-Making Based on SPICE Assessment Experience

With growing interest in Software Process Improvement (SPI), many companies are introducing international process models and standards. For efficient process improvement, work performance should be enhanced in line with organization’s vision by identifying areas for improvement and risks with process assessment standards such as SPICE or CMMI and then mapping them in the software development environment.. SPICE(Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination ISO/IEC 15504) is most widely used process assessment model in the SPI work today.

This paper expands the number of routes for improvement in the existing OTF model from 8 to 24 and the number of processes in SEF model from 40 of the TR version to 51 of the IS version. This paper proposes OTEM (Opportunity Tree Enterprise Model) which can provide optimal strategies for the organization’s vision by using Balanced Scorecard method to determine optimal strategies to the expanded routes for improvement.

Ki Won Song, Haeng Kon Kim, Kyung Whan Lee

SUALPPA Scheme: Enhanced Solution for User Authentication in the GSM System

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM phones are used by over the billion people across more than 200 countries. In spite of the tremendous market growth, however, there are major security drawbacks in the GSM system. In this paper, we introduce the secure user authentication scheme to solve the problem: user authentication and location privacy. Also the proposed scheme provides partial anonymity, because of the usage of temporary identity and the new mechanism that the only authenticated VLR can use the MS’s IMSI. Besides, we introduce the modified scheme to reduce user authentication procedure without changing of the architecture of the original GSM system.

Mi-Og Park, Dea-Woo Park

Design of Mobile Video Player Based on the WIPI Platform

The mobile video player that supports software decoders has a different structure from the video player that plays videos based on a hardware decoder. Therefore, this paper elucidates the design a mobile video player consisting of a network manager, displayer, event processor, data structure processor, and controller based on research regarding hardware restriction, a software development platform, and streaming implementation method, all of which were applied before implementing the video player at the WIPI platform. The mobile video player implemented based on the designs investigated during this research can be used as a tool to test function and the possibility of normal operation of a software decoder that targets an encoded visual, and also can be used as a tool to develop an improved software decoder. The design of a mobile video player in this paper follows from basic research on the construction of a mobile video total system based on the WIPI platform in the future.

Hye-Min Noh, Sa-Kyun Jeong, Cheol-Jung Yoo, Ok-Bae Chang, Eun-Mi Kim, Jong-Ryeol Choi

Discovering Patterns Based on Fuzzy Logic Theory

This study investigates the formulation of fuzzy logic as integrated component of the proposed model in data mining in order to classify the dataset prior to the implementation of data mining tools such summarization, association rule discovery, and prediction. The novel contribution of this paper is the fuzzification of the dataset prior to pattern discovery. The model is compared to the classical clustering, regression model, and neural network using the Internet usage database available at the UCI Knowledge Discovery on Databases (KDD) archive. Our test is anchored on parameters like relevant measure, processing performance, discovered rules or patterns and practical use of the findings. The proposed model indicates adequate performance in clustering, higher clustering accuracy and efficient pattern discovery compared with the other models.

Bobby D. Gerardo, Jaewan Lee, Su-Chong Joo

Metrics Design for Software Process Assessment Based on ISO/IEC 15504

In the current marketplace, there are maturity models, standards methodologies and guideline that can help an organization improve the way it does business. Software process assessment models, ISO/IEC 15504 and CMMI provide a tool to assess your organization’s software development capability. Experienced assessors make these assessments. However these models don’t supply systematic metrics for software process assessment. Therefore the assessors have used their subjective estimations for quantitative measurement in their software process assessment. This paper defines the basic metrics and presents the standard metrics in categories of process defined by ISO/IEC 15504 to assess software process quantitatively and objectively. In addition, presents an essential guideline to identify your organization’s condition by suggesting a process maturity assessment metrics to apply the standard metrics to your organizations.

Sun-Myung Hwang, Hee-Gyun Yeom

A Quantitative Evaluation Model Using the ISO/IEC 9126 Quality Model in the Component Based Development Process

Recently, software quality evaluation based on ISO/IEC 9126 and ISO/IEC 14598 has been widely accepted in various areas. However, these standards for software quality do not provide practical guidelines to apply the quality model and the evaluation process of software products. Thus, we present a quantitative evaluation model using the ISO/IEC 9126 quality model in the Component Based Development (CBD) process. Particularly, our evaluation model adopts a quantitative quality model which uses the weights of quality characteristics obtained through carefully selected questionnaires for stakeholder and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP). Moreover, we have also examined the proposed evaluation model with applying the checklists for the artifacts of the CBD to a small-scale software project. As a result, we believe that the proposed model will be helpful for acquiring the high quality software.

Kilsup Lee, Sung Jong Lee

Component Specification Model for the Web Services

In our research we have created a model for automatically converting components created in different languages to web services. The components that are developed in various languages are deployed dynamically (just in time) in the web servers by using custom built deployers. Using this model the users can access the components that reside in the server using open internet standards, without having to worry about the language and platform restrictions. We then present the Interoperable Component Specification Model(ICSM) for the Web services environment

.

Haeng-Kon Kim, Eun-Ju Park

A Data-Driven Approach to Constructing an Ontological Concept Hierarchy Based on the Formal Concept Analysis

An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a domain. An important benefit of using an ontology during software development is that it enables the developer to reuse and share application domain knowledge using a common vocabulary across heterogeneous software platforms and programming languages. One of the most important components of ontologies is concept hierarchy, which models the information on the domain of interest in terms of concepts and subsumption relationships between them. However, it is extremely difficult and time-consuming for human experts to discover concepts and construct concept hierarchies from the domain.

In this paper we introduce Formal Concept Analysis(FCA) as the basis for a practical and well founded methodological approach to the construction of concept hierarchy. We present a semi-automatic tool,

FCAwizard

, to support the concept hierarchy construction. Based on the

FCAwizard

, we are now exploring a data-driven approach to construct medical ontologies from some medical data contained in clinical documents. We discuss the basic ideas of our work and its current state as well as the problems encountered and future directions.

Suk-Hyung Hwang, Hong-Gee Kim, Myeng-Ki Kim, Sung-Hee Choi, Hae-Sool Yang

Web-Document Filtering Using Concept Graph

This paper introduces a retrieval method based on conceptual graph. A hyperlink information is essential to construct conceptual graph. The information is very useful as it provides summary and further linkage to construct conceptual graph that has been provided by human. It also has a property which shows review, relation, hierarchy, generality, and visibility. Using this property, we extracted the keywords of web documents and made up of the conceptual graph among the keywords sampled from web pages. This paper extracts the keywords of web pages using anchor text one out of hyperlink information and makes hyperlink of web pages abstract as the link relation between keywords of each web page. I suggest this useful retrieval method providing querying word extension or domain knowledge by conceptual graph of keywords.

Malrey Lee, Eun-Kwan Kang, Thomas M. Gatton

Development of Integrated DAO Pattern Applying Iterator Pattern

EJB, providing specification for development and deployment of component based application, permits distributed development as a central element of J2EE environment that automatically manages transaction management, persistence, and concurrency control, which are the most complicated components in an enterprise environment. In this paper, we aim to resolve DAOs transaction logic complexity and performance reduction of components in the EJB based legacy system. Therefore, this paper describes the design and implementation of IDAO that applies iterator pattern. IDAO achieves an effect that reduces the complexity of transaction logic, system overload by database connection, and reduction of performance through container managed transactions.

Seong-Man Choi, Cheol-Jung Yoo, Ok-Bae Chang

A Coupling Metric Applying the Characteristics of Components

A high coupling between components makes it difficult to build the modulation of software and the reuse of components, and to manage the system due to the ripple effect by software change impact. Thus, a coupling metric is required to measure the coupling between components in order to design software effectively. In this paper, we propose an approach to improving the existing component-based coupling metrics by considering the dependency about the structured relationships and the method call types between classes. In addition, we prove the theoretical soundness of the proposed metric by the axioms of briand et al. and suggest the accuracy and practicality of the proposed metric through a comparison with the conventional metrics.

Misook Choi, Seojeong Lee

Software Process Improvement Environment

Today, in accordance with the bigger complexity of the system, the security concerns of a system have increased rapidly. One of the main concerns of the high security information system is the security evaluation to define the security function. Security evaluation of information security system is broadly used with respect to Common Criteria (CC) as ISO standards (ISO/IEC 15408:1999). The standardization of process assessment results is a key point for solving the problems. This paper suggests XML-based approach to introduce the establishment of compatible environments for process improvement on the Web. In this paper, we focus on creating SPIE (Software Process Improvement Environments) for wide acceptance of process improvement on the Web. SPIE DTD was defined to satisfy assessment output requirements in the ISO/IEC 15504. SPIE provides interoperability between applications that exchange process assessment results in machine-understandable XML format on the Web.

Haeng-Kon Kim, Hae-Sool Yang

A Design Technique of CBD Meta-model Based on Graph Theory

There are several component reference models for component development. However, there is few integrated and generic reference model among reference models. That results in the problem of interoperability among component designs. In this paper, we propose an integrated component meta-model to support consistency and interoperability between component designs. Also we validate a proposed meta-model through graph theory. We expect that new meta-model will be added and extended because proposed meta-model is represented with UML’s class diagram.

Eun Sook Cho, So Yeon Min, Chul Jin Kim

Description Technique for Component Composition Focusing on Black-Box View

As component-based software is developed by integrating components that are implemented independently, expressing the usage protocols of each component is essential. However, there is no known proper way to describe them comprehensibly from the point of component user or developer. Black-box (exter-nal) point of view of component composition sees component-based development from the user’s or the system assembler’s point of view. But a description technique necessary to specify the dynamic constraint explicitly is necessary to define the external view more precisely. The key contribution of this paper is to present a technique for describing the structure of components in black-box view using UML 2.0. First, we present the relevant UML notations for describing the black-box point of view and then provide diagrams showing their usage. We further illustrate how this leads to a component based software specification of the structure of composition focusing on the black-box view.

J. H. Lee, Dan Lee

XML Security Model for Secure Information Exchange in E-Commerce

The most important technology in the electronic commerce based on Internet is to guarantee the security of trading information exchange. Many technologies are proposed as a standard to support this security problem. One of them is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language). This is used in various applications as the document standard for electronic commerce system. The XML security has become very important topic.

In this paper an XML security model for web services based electronic commerce system to guarantee the secure exchange of trading information is proposed. To accomplish the security of XML, the differences of XML signature, XML encryption and XML key management scheme respect to the conventional system should be provided. The new architecture is proposed based on unique characteristics of XML. Especially the method to integrate the process management system need to the electronic commerce is proposed.

Kwang Moon Cho

Design and Implementation of B2Bi Collaboration Workflow Tool Based on J2EE

In this paper, the business process was easily modeled by distin-guishing between the business process and work logic. Based on this model, B2B

i

collaboration Workflow modeling tool, which facilitates collaboration, was designed and implemented. The collaboration workflow modeling tool consists of 3 components; business process modeling tool, execution engine and monitoring tool. First, a business process modeling tool is used to build a process map that reflects the business logic of an application in a quick and accurate manner. Second, an execution engine provides a real-time execution environment for business process instance. Third, a monitoring tool provides a real-time monitoring function for the business process that is in operation at the time. In addition to this, it supports flexibility and expandability based on XML and J2EE for the linkage with the legacy system that was used previously, and suggests a solution for a new corporate strategy and operation.

Chang-Mog Lee

Traffic-Predicting A Routing Algorithm Using Time Series Models

A routing algorithm is proposed that analyzes network traffic conditions using time series prediction models and determines the best-effort routing path. To predict network traffic, time series models are developed under the stationary assumption, which is evaluated using the Auto Correlation Function (ACF) and Partial Auto Correlation Function (PACF). Traffic congestion is assumed when the predicted result is larger than the permitted bandwidth. Although the proposed routing algorithm requires additional processing time to predict the number of packets, the packet transmission time is reduced by 5~10% and the amount of packet loss is also reduced by about 3% in comparison to the OSPF routing algorithm. With the proposed routing algorithm, the predicted network traffic allows the routing path to be modified to avoid traffic congestion. Consequently, the traffic predicting and load balancing by modifying the paths avoids path congestion and increases the network performance.

Sangjoon Jung, Mary Wu, Youngsuk Jung, Chonggun Kim

A Study on Software Architecture Evaluation

This paper presents an approach to evaluate software architecture. Our approach is divided into three main areas of activities : the work involved in preparation, execution, and completion of the evaluation. Through performing these activities, architectural evaluation can be systematically performed centering around architectural design decisions that have profound impacts on the achievement of quality attributes.

Gu-Beom Jeong, Guk-Boh Kim

RFID-Based ALE Application Framework Using Context-Based Security Service

We propose an RFID-based ALE Application Framework (AAF) providing context-aware security services, which could dynamically adapt security policies. From the proposed framework, we can construct RFID application fast and efficiently through general, reusable, and extensible API due to the software reusability. The proposed model consists of an adaptive security level algorithm based on MAUT and Simple Heuristics. The security level algorithm could adopt diverse security services according to the contextual information in the network environment. Therefore, the proposed model is expected to provide more flexible security management in the heterogeneous network environments.

Jungkyu Kwon, Mokdong Chung

A Study on the Standard of Software Quality Testing

There are increasing desire for software quality, in the customer and user. In general, software product quality has significant influence on developers, users of the software product. A software quality model is a very useful instrument for software quality requirement as well as software quality evaluation. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG 6 is studying for software quality testing model. ISO/IEC 9126 provides a software product quality testing model. Many testing center use the ISO/IEC 9126 quality model for software testing. In these days, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG 6 is developing ISO/IEC 25000 SQuaRE (Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation) series of international standards. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG 6 studied to start to develop a new Quality model(25010) as a revision of ISO/IEC 9126-1 Quality Model. Also, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG 6 is studying to revise 9126-2, 9126-3, 9126-4, as a part of the SQuaRE series of International Standards(IS) ISO/IEC 25022, 25023, 25024. The purpose of this paper is to study on the International Standards for software quality testing. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG 6 is studying for SQuaRE project in these days. SQuaRE project includes International Standards on software quality model and software quality measures, as well as on software quality requirements and software quality evaluation. SQuaRE replaces the current ISO/IEC 9126 series and the 14598 series. In this paper, we survey the SQuaRE project detailed for software quality testing.

Hye-Jung Jung, Won-Tae Jung, Hae-Sool Yang

Scene Change Detection Using the Weighted Chi-Test and Automatic Threshold Decision Algorithm

This paper presents a method for detecting scene changes in video sequences, in which the

χ

2

-test is slightly modified by imposing weights according to NTSC standard. To automatically determine threshold values for scene change detection, the proposed method utilizes the frame differences that are obtained by the weighted

χ

2

-test. In the first step, the mean of the difference values is calculated, and then, we subtract the mean difference value from each difference value. In the next steps, the same process is performed on the difference values, mean-subtracted frame differences, until the stopping criterion is satisfied. Finally, the threshold value for scene change detection is determined by the proposed automatic threshold decision algorithm. The proposed method is tested on various video sources and, in the experimental results, it is shown that the proposed method is reliably detects scene changes.

Kyong-Cheol Ko, Oh-Hyung Kang, Chang-Woo Lee, Ki-Hong Park, Yang-Won Rhee

Design Opportunity Tree for Schedule Management and Evaluation by COQUALMO

Project planning is often the most difficult part of project management. Relationship of jobs, risk items and human resources have been used successfully for schedule and project progress. There are many defects that cause the schedule and progress management problems during software development. This paper designs the opportunity tree framework that remove and manage the schedule and quality problems as well. For the similar projects, we can estimate defects and prepare to solve them by using domain expert knowledge and the opportunity tree framework, which can greatly improve the software process.

Eun Ser Lee, Sang Ho Lee

CTL Model Checking for Boolean Program

Nowadays, there are some subtle errors in a software system. So verification technique is very important. The one of important verification technique is model checking technique. Model checking is a technique to verify behavior of system with desired property. There are many researches about software model checking. As a result, predicate abstraction techniques are proposed and many tools for C or Java are developed. In general, there are two types of properties: The first is the safety properties. And other one is liveness properties. Most software model checking tools can only verify safety properties. In this paper, we describe CTL model checking algorithm based on Boolean program and describe model checking tool for Simple Java program which used in Lego robot to verify liveness property. Our model checking tool can check not only safety property but also liveness property and we describes case study verifying safety property and liveness property of LEGO robot.

Taehoon Lee, Gihwon Kwon, Hyuksoo Han

General Tracks

Grid Service Implementation of Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrieval over Land from MODIS

To derive the actual land surface information quantitatively, the atmospheric effects should be correctly removed. Atmospheric effects dependent on aerosol particles, clouds and other atmosphere conditions. Aerosol parameters can be retrieved from the remotely sensed data. The retrieved aerosol characters can also be applied to environmental monitoring. To retrieval the aerosol optical thickness over land, many methods have been developed. The most popular one is the dark dense vegetation method. But it is confined to vegetation fields. The SYNTAM method can be used to retrieval aerosol optical thickness over land from MODIS data, no matter whether the land is dark or bright. In this paper, the SYNTAM method is applied to MODIS data for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness over China. The retrieval process is complicated. And the EMS memory required is too large for a personal computing to run successfully. To solve this problem, the Grid environment is used. Our experiments were performed on the High-Throughput Spatial Information Processing Prototype System based on Grid platform in Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The aerosol optical thickness retrieval process is described in this paper. And the detail data query, data pre-processing, job monitoring and post-processing is discussed. Moreover, test results are also reported in this paper.

Yincui Hu, Yong Xue, Guoyin Cai, Chaolin Wu, Jianping Guo, Ying Luo, Wei Wan, Lei Zheng

Revocation Scheme for PMI Based Upon the Tracing of Certificates Chains

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI) can respectively be used to support authentication and authorization in distributed scenarios. The validation of certificate chains is a critical issue in both infrastructures, because it requires several costly processes, such as certificate path discovery, validation of each certificate, and so on. The problem becomes even worst in devices with limited resources (battery, memory, computational capacity, etc.) as mobile devices. In this paper we present an architecture that reduces the communication and computational overhead of certificate status checking in a complete certificate chain. The proposed tracing of the certificates chains is based on a cascade certificate revocation policy.

M. Francisca Hinarejos, Jordi Forné

Nailfold Capillary Microscopy High-Resolution Image Analysis Framework for Connective Tissue Disease Diagnosis Using Grid Computing Technology

Nailfold capillary microscopy examination has been used since late 1950s as a non-invasive in-vivo technique for diagnosing and monitoring connective tissue disease in adults. Disorders such as Primary Raynaud’s phenomenon, progressive systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis were detected in more than 80% of adult patients, by analyzing such high resolution images. Internet computing and grid technologies promise to change the way we tackle complex problems. Grid computing environments are characterized by interconnecting a number of heterogeneous hosts in geographically distributed domains. They enable large-scale aggregation and sharing of computational, data and other resources across institutional boundaries. In this paper, we discuss and develop a framework for nailfold capillary microscope image acquisition and analysis, using computational power provided by grid platforms. In this way, not only useful medical information can be extracted from large amount of history anamneses in an efficient way, with the use of a number of adequate techniques and methods in high performance computing, but also to diagnose abnormal nailfold capillary in far shorter time, to diagnose patient’s disease in real-time basis. Based on the results of the classification, analysis of history anamneses are done to discover updated health information possibly hidden in patients’ medical records.

Kuan-Ching Li, Chiou-Nan Chen, Chia-Hsien Wen, Ching-Wen Yang, Joung-Liang Lan

EFH: An Edge-Based Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 in IEEE 802.11b WLAN

Mobile IPv6 has been designed to manage movements of mobile nodes among wireless IPv6 networks. Nevertheless, a mobile node cannot receive IP packets on its new point of attachment until the handover completes. Therefore, a number of extensions of Mobile IPv6 such as FMIPv6 and HMIPv6 have been proposed to reduce the handover latency and the number of lost packets. In this paper, a new mechanism based on information of

edge APs

is proposed for fast handover. The proposed mechanism provides the faster acquisition of neighboring subnet information than that of FMIPv6. In addition the information of the subnets is used more flexibly to determine L2 handover or L3 handover. Moreover, the proposed mechanism can reduce amount of traffic and the handover latency in comparison with the FMIPv6 during the handover. This research focuses on Fast Handover for MIPv6 which is an extension of Mobile IPv6 that allows the use of L2 triggers to anticipate the handover. The results of the handover latency are calculated with the L2 properties of IEEE 802.11b. In particular, we take into account the L2 handover and the L3 handover for two fast handover scenarios of the wireless networks.

Sangdong Jang, Wu Woan Kim

An Extendible Hashing Based Recovery Method in a Shared-Nothing Spatial Database Cluster

In this paper, a recovery method using extendible hashing in a shared-nothing spatial database cluster is proposed. The purpose is to increase the recovery performance and to decrease overhead of the system. In the case of failure, the recovery method in a database cluster restores the database using replicated data from neighbor node. When detect a failure, neighbor node writes the cluster log, and it must be transferred to a failure node. However, in neighbor node, one transaction makes several logs, and increase transferring log size. Also, this increases the recovery time and overhead of the internal network. The proposed method defines a novel cluster log that is composed of update type and a pointer to a record through RID or primary key. This is managed by extendible hashing in main memory. The last transaction replaces the cluster log. Through sending of last updated data, the number of cluster logs and transaction count in failure node are decreased. As a result, the method in this paper increased the availability of the database cluster.

Yong-Il Jang, Ho-Seok Kim, Soon-Young Park, Jae-Dong Lee, Hae-Young Bae

A Quantitative Justification to Partial Replication of Web Contents

Traditionally the alternatives for Web content storage have been full replication and full distribution. More recently partial replication has been proposed as an hybrid strategy. This paper shows a quantitative justification to advantages achieved by using this approach in terms of storage capacity usage and reliability. Our analytical study proves that partial replication offers much higher storage capacity than full replication and that its reliability is much higher than full distribution reaching to levels equivalent to those provided by full replication.

Jose Daniel Garcia, Jesus Carretero, Felix Garcia, Javier Fernandez, Alejandro Calderon, David E. Singh

Content Distribution Strategy Using Web-Cached Multicast Technique

In this paper, we propose content distribution strategy to evenly disperse traffic over network and to reduce the required bandwidth for transmitting content data by merging the adjacent multicasts depending upon the number of proxies

n

that have requested the same one. In our technique, streaming for the identical content is fragmented as long as the grouping interval for batching multicast and can be stored among proxies in order of the requests. A client might have to download data on two channels simultaneously, one from server through multicast and the other from proxies through unicast or multicast. According to the popularity of content, the grouping interval of multicast can be dynamically expanded up to

n

times and so it can be reduced server’s workload and network traffic. We adopt the cache replacement strategy as LFU (Least-Frequently-Used) for popular content, LRU (Least-Recently-Used) for unpopular content, and the method for replacing the first block of content last to reduce end-to-end latency. We perform simulations to compare its performance with that of conventional multicast. From simulation results, we achieve that the proposed content distribution strategy offers significantly better performance.

Backhyun Kim, Iksoo Kim

Load Distribution Strategies in Cluster-Based Transcoding Servers for Mobile Clients

The recent advance in wireless network technologies has enabled the streaming media service on the mobile devices such as PDAs and cellular phones. Since the wireless network has low bandwidth channels and mobile devices are actually composed of limited hardware specifications, the transcoding technology is needed to adapt streaming media to the given mobile devices. When large scale mobile clients demand the streaming service, load distribution strategies among transcoding servers highly impact on the total number of QoS streams. In this paper, the resource weighted load distribution strategy is proposed for the fair load balancing and the more scalable performance in cluster-based transcoding servers. Our proposed strategy is based on the weight of resources consumed for transcoding to classified client grades and the maximum number of QoS streams actually measured in transcoding servers. The proposed policy is implemented on cluster-based transcoding system. In experiments, we evaluate its fair load distribution and scalable performance according to the increase of transcoding servers.

Dongmahn Seo, Joahyoung Lee, Yoon Kim, Changyeol Choi, Hwangkyu Choi, Inbum Jung

Safety of Recovery Protocol Preserving MW Session Guarantee in Mobile Systems

In this paper checkpointing and rollback-recovery protocol rVsMW for mobile systems is presented. The protocol preserves Monotonic Writes session guarantee required by clients, despite failures of servers. The costs of rollback-recovery are minimized, by exploiting semantics of operations and properties of MW guarantee. The proof of safety property of rVsMW is included.

Jerzy Brzeziński, Anna Kobusińska

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen