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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Workshop on Geographical Analysis, Urban Modeling, Spatial statistics (GEO-AN-MOD 2009)

Using Causality Relationships for a Progressive Management of Hazardous Phenomena with Sensor Networks

Sensor networks prove extremely valuable in providing geo-information for any decision support system particularly those aiming to manage hazardous events. A thorough understanding and use of the semantics of this information allows for the identification and handling of impending hazardous events. An appropriate representation of the geo-information should boost this process. In this paper, we propose to encode causality relationships about natural phenomena and their effects in time and space with the concept of conceptual graphs. Using this encoding, we define the concepts of event and spatial propagation paths that enable the system to delimit the scope of sensed areas and use of sensing resources. These concepts also enable the system to set up priorities between the sensor network activities. These priorities are used to implement a progressive approach for the management of hazardous events.

Nafaa Jabeur, Hedi Haddad

Design and Development of an Intelligent Extension for Mapping Landslide Susceptibility Using Artificial Neural Network

Amongst the indirect and quantitative methods which have been propounded for assessing landslide susceptibility, artificial neural network and especially multilayer perceptron dominated research activities. It is due to its high power in solving nonlinear separable problems and the capability of generalization. This study deals with designing a model for systematic usage of multilayer perceptron network to solve existing challenges on choosing input patterns and target outputs of spatial data. This model accompanies with a modified Backpropagation (BP) as a learning algorithm. The designed model was applied to create an extension in ArcGIS® in order to reach an intelligent decision-making tool. The Landslide Susceptibility Map (LSM) was then generated for an expanded landscape in Mazandaran, Iran, using the extension while the landslide’s data and criteria maps were produced in small-scale. Statistical results of landslides which were happened in different domains of susceptibility showed the overall accuracy equivalent to 98.2% in hazard approximating.

Mohammad H. Vahidnia, Ali Asghar Alesheikh, Abbas Alimohammadi, Farhad Hosseinali

Integrating Fuzzy Logic and GIS Analysis to Assess Sediment Characterization within a Confined Harbour

Characterization of marine sediments in areas heavily impacted by human activities is a good example for situations where high complexity of physical and chemical processes can lead to an incomplete understanding of the configuration and distribution of pollutants material. These processes are often very complex for a direct prediction from a mathematical theory, making necessary that the process of identifying areas of contaminated sediment is mainly based on defined empirical models of concentrations distribution. In this paper an ontological fuzzy approach in GIS serves as a framework to define a specific scenario grounded on the abilities from an existing dataset. The final model is based on a large number of known concentrations (samples for characterization), which are considered sufficiently similar in terms of features. Therefore the model is working as guides (description of the model) for the identification of areas of same type.

Nicoletta Gazzea, Andrea Taramelli, Emiliana Valentini, Maria Elena Piccione

Integrated Geological, Geomorphological and Geostatistical Analysis to Study Macroseismic Effects of 1980 Irpinian Earthquake in Urban Areas (Southern Italy)

This paper focuses on using the integrated methodological, approach and analysis to study macroseismic damage effects in urban areas. A case study inherent seismic risk analysis of the old town centre of Potenza hilltop town has been discussed, with particular attention to the evaluation of possible local amplifying factors (stratigraphy and geomorphology) deduced from comparison with data studied with a geostatistical approach (kernel density, Moran Index, Getis & Ord index). Geostatistics have been applied to seismic damage scenario of 1980 Irpinian earthquake macroseismic data, offering a new point of view in seismic risk assessment.

Maria Danese, Maurizio Lazzari, Beniamino Murgante

Using GIS to Develop an Efficient Spatio-temporal Task Allocation Algorithm to Human Groups in an Entirely Dynamic Environment Case Study: Earthquake Rescue Teams

Using GIS, the present paper aims at modeling task allocation to human groups in a dynamic and spatio-temporal form. To do this, a novel method inspired by Market Based Procedure is proposed. Governing factors such as space, time, tiredness of the persons, importance, priority and the difficulty of the work and environmental dynamism, the functions referred to cost, reward and profit are considered in developing the model. By holding auctions and profits proposed by each of the bidders, the tasks are dedicated to those who yield the most profit to the group. On this basis, in a group consisting of several different tasks, it can be determined who, when and where should do what activity in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the group. The proposed model was evaluated in ArcGIS software by simulation of the tasks of two groups of life-detectors and rubble-removers of earthquake rescue teams. In this way, in addition to confirming the efficiency of the suggested model, a new and spatio-temporal method is presented for the management of earthquake rescue teams in a fully dynamic environment.

Ali Reza Vafaeinezhad, Ali Asghar Alesheikh, Majid Hamrah, Reza Nourjou, Rouzbeh Shad

A GIS-Based SW Prototype for Emergency Preparedness Management Applied to a Real Case Study

In the paper the development of a GIS-based software tool (EPM) supporting local civil protection authorities in Emergency Preparedness and Management is presented. Technological accidents and natural hazards may generate heavy damages for the context where they happen, especially when they are localized in urban areas. The software is developed by considering the need of collecting the appropriate available information sprawled within different geo-databases in hand of several entities when an emergency occurs. This information may support civil protection activities during the emergency to maintain and improve the level of safety and protection of people working within and living around the industry involved in the accident. The use of EPM has been tested on two case studies located in the same area in Lecco town, Italy.

Marco Scaioni, Mario Alba, Renato Rota, Simona Caragliano

Spatial Analysis of Humidity and Temperature of Iran

Regarding the paramount importance of temperature and humidity in the lives of all living organisms and even solid substances, this paper presents a quantitative spatial analysis of the variation of these two factors across the territory of Iran. Using spatial statistics concepts and methods, it provides the optimally constructed maps of temperature, humidity, and temperature-humidity-index. The corresponding standard deviation maps are also provided.

Amir Kavousi, Mohammad Reza Meshkani

An Evaluation of the Performance of the CHIMERE Model over Spain Using Meteorology from MM5 and WRF Models

The presence of high pollution levels in the atmosphere can produce damages to human health and ecosystems. Because of this reason, the prediction of air pollutant concentration is important to prevent any potential damage. Chemistry-transport models constitute a useful tool to quantify the presence of pollutants in the atmosphere. Input information, such as meteorology and emissions, has a strong influence on model results. Many research activities are focused on trying to reduce errors affecting input information. In this paper we have applied the CHIMERE photochemical model to simulate ozone, NO

2

and SO

2

in Spain for two sets of meteorological fields obtained with the MM5 and WRF meteorological models. An evaluation of the performance of the CHIMERE model for both meteorological data sets is presented. Very similar air pollutant concentrations were found for the three pollutants and for the two sets of meteorological information.

Marta G. Vivanco, Inmaculada Palomino, Fernando Martín, Magdalena Palacios, Oriol Jorba, Pedro Jiménez, José María Baldasano, Oier Azula

Parameter-Less GA Based Crop Parameter Assimilation with Satellite Image

Crop Assimilation Model (CAM) predicts the parameters of agrohydrological models with satellite images. CAM with double layers GA called CAM-DLGA, uses Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) agro-hydrological model and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to estimate inversely the model parameters. In CAM-DLGA, initially the GA parameters are required to set in advanced, and this replicates an evolutionary searching issue. In this paper, we are presenting a new methodology to use Parameter-Less GA (PLGA), so that the GA initial parameters will be generated and assigned automatically. Numerous experiments have been accomplished to analyze the performance of the proposed model. Additionally, the effectiveness of PLGA on the assimilation has been traced on both synthetic and real satellite data. The experimental study proved that the PLGA approach provides relatively better result on the assimilation.

Shamim Akhter, Keigo Sakamoto, Yann Chemin, Kento Aida

Compactness and Flow Minimization Requirements in Reforestation Initiatives: An Integer Programming (IP) Formulation

Identifying optimal sites on raster maps is a complex problem when the sites are larger than the cell size. Optimal sites involves a trade-off between the intrinsic characteristics of individual cells and the spatial configuration of the cells. Although there are a number of techniques to solve the site allocation problem, those solutions do not consider spatial interactions between the cells forming the site. This paper presents an Integer Programming Formulation (IP) for allocating a predefined number of cells satisfying the following criteria: 1) minimize flow (water, sediment) reaching the outlet of a watershed, 2) maximize/minimize intrinsic characteristics of the cells, and 3) form a compact patch. Although the core structure of the IP formulation can be applied for different sorts of flow and intrinsic characteristics, it is targeted to a reforestation application. The proposed approach is applied to perform several experiments in two watersheds in South Dakota in the USA for searching a given number of best cells (1) minimizing sediment reaching the watershed outlet,(2) maximizing the environmental criteria, and (3) forming a compact patch. The results obtained with the IP formulation are in agreement with expert assessments of erosion levels, slopes and distances to the riverbeds.

Pablo Vanegas, Dirk Cattrysse, Jos Van Orshoven

Application of the Urban Green Assessment Model for the Korean Newtowns

In this study the Korean newtowns were appraised in terms of green use by dwellers using the assessment model of urban greens developed on the basis of accessibility to green space. The model was assumed through a survey on the dwellers of the two developed newtowns, which represent basically different spatial structures: Pyeongchon with a latticed urban form and Sanbon with a clustered one. The assumed model was applied to a newtown developed in 90s (Sanbon) and a newtown in process (Dongtan) in order to verify an improvement between the two newtowns with respect to the use of greens. According to the model application the green rate weighted by potential users increased by 7.56% points for Dongtan and 4.11% points for Sanbon. However, the increasing ratio of Sanbon’s one (25.90%) is greater than that of Dongtan’s one (23.42%). This confirms that the use of greens could be determined more influentially by their spatial form and arrangement than by their area. For this analysis a Binary Logit Model, SPSS 12.0, ArcGIS were used.

Sangkeun Eom, Seungil Lee

Modeling Un-authorized Land Use Sprawl with Integrated Remote Sensing-GIS Technique and Cellular Automata

We have used cellular automata integrated with GIS and remote sensing to analyze urban sprawl aiming at analyzing expansion of potential un-authorized land uses for residential, commercial and industrial based on spatial factor deriving from remote sensing high resolution data. The spatial factors considered are used as parameter to measure either land use in these expansion process develop as urban legal sprawl or sprawl with declined the development planned (un-authorized). Results of the study indicated that residential area is most probable risk to un-authorized land use sprawl, given set of spatial factors considering the vicinity of highway strip, land use segregation and leapfrog development.

Norzailawati Mohd. Noor, Mazlan Hashim

A Study on the Driving Forces of Urban Expansion Using Rough Sets

Urban expansion is the direct manifestation of urbanization and greatly affects economic growth and the decision making process for urban development policies. Therefore, extracting and analyzing the driving forces of urban expansion is an essential issue, especially for future land use planning and urban construction. This paper utilizes rough sets to analyze the driving forces of urban expansion in Guangdong Province, China. To test the validity of the driving force rules, the study area is split into two groups: the training set and the validation set. The driving force rules for urban expansion are extracted in the training set and then used to predict the urban expansion in the validation set. The overall prediction accuracy is 75.5%.

Yong Ge, Feng Cao

Assessing the Impact of Individual Attitude towards Otherness on the Structure of Urban Residential Space: A Multi-actor Model

One of the main challenges of today’s analytical geography is the back-linking of observed phenomena to individual actions, as not determined by individuals’ structural situation in a one-goal society but by their very choice of spatial goals, i.e. by what shall be called individuals’ actor-dimension. In this paper we present an actor-based model of urban residential mobility. Results show that public policies in urban development must take into account and act on this actor-dimension if they are not to obtain effects opposite to their aims.

André Ourednik

Incorporation of Morphological Properties of Buildings’ Descriptors Computed from GIS and LIDAR Data on an Urban Multi-agent Vector Based Geo-simulator

In this paper we present an application of GIS and airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data analysis for computation of morphological properties of buildings’ descriptors in the context of an urban morphogenesis geo-simulator. The morphological descriptors of buildings here studied are the mean height, total volume, number of faces, ground surface area, facades surface area, roof surface area, envelope surface area, type of roof, envelope surface area-to-ground surface area complexity, envelope surface area-to-total volume complexity and total volume-to-number of faces complexity. Considering the building’s morphology under analysis, its properties are extracted from a 2D GIS cadastral database and a normalized 2.5-D Urban Surface Model (n2.5-DUSM) with a resolution grid of 1 by 1 meter, constructed from a hybrid approach that uses GIS and LIDAR data, or a segmentation procedure for LIDAR data. The case study for application is the district of Chavannes, in Lausanne, where GIS and LIDAR data is available.

Cláudio Carneiro, Vitor Silva, François Golay

A Spatial Structural and Statistical Approach to Building Classification of Residential Function for City-Scale Impact Assessment Studies

In order to implement robust climate change adaption and mitigation strategies in cities fine spatial scale information on building stock is required. However, for many cities such information is rarely available. In response, we present a methodology that allows topographic building footprints to be classified to the level of residential spatial topological-building types and corresponding period of construction. The approach developed employs spatial structure and topology to first recognise residential spatial topological types of

Detached

,

Semi-Detached

or

Terrace

. Thereafter, morphological and spatial metrics are employed with multinomial logistic regression to assign buildings to particular periods of construction for use within city-scale impact assessment studies. Overall the system developed performs well for the classification of residential building exemplars for the city of Manchester UK, with an overall accuracy of 83.4%, although with less satisfactory results for the

Detached

period of construction (76.6%) but excellent accuracies for the

Semi-Detached

residential buildings (93.0%).

Dimitrios P. Triantakonstantis, Stuart L. Barr

Spatial Distribution of Social Benefit Given by Urban Attractions: A Test of UrAD Model

Important urban transformations can strongly alter the image of a city from different points of view, concerning aesthetical, functional, social and economic aspects. In this paper the model

UrAD

is tested and used for showing and evaluating the impact of the transformations in the city of Turin during the last years. The city appears a perfect opportunity for this kind of analysis because of its recent numerous and deep transformations, mainly on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2006. Then, we studied the consequent impact analysing the spatial distribution of the social benefit given by amenities and beauties improving the urban life quality of an ordinary citizen. The testing of the model consists of a comparison between the social benefit simulated by

UrAD

and the real estate value observed, both before and after the biggest urban transformations.

Luca D’Acci

Economic Evaluation and Statistical Methods for Detecting Hot Spots of Social and Housing Difficulties in Urban Policies

The paper shows a reasoning about how the new national policies on social housing can be implemented in connection with regional and local economic analyses. In this light the role of evaluation is examined, to show which kind of approach can be referred to each dimension, context and level. After a general introduction explaining the main aspects of the National Housing Plan, an example of integrate assessment of rent market and difficulty in housing access is shown, obtained by a scaling that profile some Italian metropolitan reality. All our examples are aiming to demonstrate that only an integrate, multilevel approach, supported by appropriate analysis can succeed in improving supply and quality of housing stock. After a general economic analysis the paper speaks about use statistical data to identify territorial zones (by the use of hot spots) characterized by the presence of urban poverty related to property ownership and the availability of residential services.

Silvestro Montrone, Massimo Bilancia, Paola Perchinunno, Carmelo Maria Torre

An Urban Study of Crime and Health Using an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis Approach

Research into the impacts of crime on health is relevant to adopting effective social policy and encouraging partnerships between local health and crime prevention agencies. Although it is not difficult to support the notion of crime as a threat to public health, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact. Confounding effects of other influential variables (i.e. income, employment, housing) further complicate any analysis into the causal relationships between crime and health. An exploratory spatial data analysis approach was adopted in this study to examine the spatial relationships between crime, health, and quality of life indicators in Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Sheffield (UK). Quantitative methods of spatial data exploration and visualisation, and spatial autocorrelation analysis were used, based on aggregated secondary data drawn from census and crime databases. Statistical models of crime and health were specified, while taking into account the presence of spatial effects by applying spatial regression techniques.

Su-Yin Tan, Robert Haining

Geospatial Crime Scene Investigation – From Hotspot Analysis to Interactive 3D Visualization

This contribution presents an approach to combine geospatial crime scene analysis with three-dimensional geovisualization methods. Crime scene analysis carried out in this paper focuses on GIS-based hotspot identification of robbery scenes. Furthermore, methods are presented to extract those individual spatial properties of hotspot regions that might help to understand observed density patterns. Against this background in-depth analysis tries to reveal certain correlations between urban features and robbery offences. Therefore further analysis links robbery scenes to pedestrian frequencies and to certain urban facilities as, for instance, to schools, banks, clubs and many more. Spatio-temporal analysis of hotspot patterns finalises the presented set of spatial crime scene analysis. However, to facilitate an instant grasp of such complex spatial phenomena, respective results of crime scene analysis are visualized using a three-dimensional geovirtual environment. This combined approach contributes to an intuitive comprehension of complex geospatial information for decision makers in security agencies as well as for authorities related to urban planning.

Markus Wolff, Hartmut Asche

Agent-Based Distributed Component Services in Spatial Modeling

Agent technologies have been increasingly applied to spatial simulation and modeling

in silico

. Where multi-agent systems have been used for spatial simulation, agents have tended to be deployed as spatial objects in order to study emergent patterns from micro-level behaviors. Many of these applications only deploy a weak notion of agency. More recently, the concept has emerged in the spatial domain that agents can be deployed as services to assist in complex modeling tasks. Agent-based distributed component services bring a stronger notion of agency to spatial modeling and are particularly suited to achieving interoperability in heterogeneous computational environments. Two case studies are presented. In the first, agent-based services are deployed over a network for spatial data quality analysis. In the second, a variogram agent component is used to demonstrate how a collaborating multi-agent system can provide intelligent, autonomous services to carry out complex operations.

Allan J. Brimicombe, Yang Li, Abdullah Al-Zakwani, Chao Li

A Cellular Automata-Ready GIS Infrastructure for Geosimulation and Territorial Analysis

This paper presents an integrated GIS and cellular automata (CA) modelling and simulation environment. We hold that several concurrent facts offer the necessary critical mass to foster the development of robust and scalable general-purpose CA-modelling tools that go beyond demonstrative proof-of-concept status, allowing thus fully operational modelling and simulation of real-world territorial systems. Among these facts, we can mention the entering of the CA-based geosimulation modelling in its age of maturity, the growing computational capabilities of nowadays computers, the consolidation of general-purpose as well as specialised GIS-based geo-analysis methodologies and their availability as open-source libraries and applications. The environment hereby described is an example of a way to obtain such robust and general-purpose CA-modelling tool-box. Its main characteristics are (1) tight interoperability between GIS and CAs, (2) a sufficiently generalised and flexible underlying CA meta-model allowing for the implementation of a variety of types of CA models, (3) computationally efficiency and (4) user-friendliness. We furthermore present two test case applications to illustrate a standard operational modelling workflow within this simulation environment and to briefly illustrate its look-and-feel.

Ivan Blecic, Andrea Borruso, Arnaldo Cecchini, Antonio D’Argenio, Fabio Montagnino, Giuseppe A. Trunfio

An Integrated Methodology for Medieval Landscape Reconstruction: The Case Study of Monte Serico

Landscape Archaeology, in addition to classical disciplines such as geography, history, environment and human topics, improved the use and the integration of all new technological instruments by other documentary sources. Lidar is a new Remote Sensing technique recently adopted in archaeological research. Its main application is the study of any kind of archaeological feature causing a variation in surface elevation adopting 3D mapping with very high resolution and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to contribute to landscape reconstruction for two Medieval abandoned settlements in Basilicata Region (southern Italy) with an integrated approach taken from other technologies as remote sensing, data management and development of predictive models in GIS environment.

Maria Danese, Marilisa Biscione, Rossella Coluzzi, Rosa Lasaponara, Beniamino Murgante, Nicola Masini

Neural Network Based Cellular Automata Model for Dynamic Spatial Modeling in GIS

The emphasis on calibration method of neural network (NN) based cellular automata (CA) models has been limited to back propagation (BP) mostly and not much work has been done to study the effect of different NN training methods. In this article the dynamic annealing (DA) method for training NN has been compared with BP. Also the effect of various neighborhood sizes for CA has been analyzed in the context of dynamic spatial modeling for urban growth. The model has been implemented and verified for Thane city, Maharashtra state, India as this city has higher rate of urbanization compared to other cities in the state.

Yogesh Mahajan, Parvatham Venkatachalam

A Model-Based Scan Statistics for Detecting Geographical Clustering of Disease

The classical likelihood ratio spatial scan statistics has been widely used in spatial epidemiology for disease cluster detection. The question is whether the geographic incidence pattern is due to random fluctuations or the map reflects true underlying geographical variation due to etiologic risk factors. The hypothesis underlying the classic scan statistics assume that disease counts in different locations have independent Poisson distribution; unfortunately, outcomes in spatial units are often not independent of each other. Risk estimates of areas that are close to each other will tend to be positively correlated as they share a number of spatially varying characteristics. Ignoring the overdispersion caused by spatial autocorrelation leads to incorrect results. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a model-based approach adjusting for area-specific fixed-effects measuring potential effect modifiers, and for large-scale geographical variation of etiologic factors that vary continuously in space and are not expressly present within the model. We apply our methodology to the spatial distribution of lung cancer male mortality occurred in the province of Lecce, Italy, during the period 1992-2001.

Massimo Bilancia, Silvestro Montrone, Paola Perchinunno

New Prospects in Territorial Resource Management: The Semantic Web GIS

Traditional GIS and Web GIS solutions are showing considerable limitations in terms of IT technologies and knowledge management as well as in the ability to reconcile flexibility and interoperability. The Geospatial Semantic Web is a novel, fast-evolving territorial resource management application that uses advanced geographical data processing technologies based on semantic rules and specific geo-ontologies to overcome the rigid relational structures of traditional geographical databases. The work proposes a methodological reflection on the applicative potential of Semantic Web GIS (SWGIS) in territorial resource management and provides examples. A collaborative project between the SeMedia/3mediaLabs and SAIFET-Agrur research groups of the Polytechnic University of Marches (Italy) was devised to design a tool using a data management multiplatform desktop system based on Semantic Web initiative-defined standards in different scale test areas in the Como Lake area, Italy.

Ernesto Marcheggiani, Michele Nucci, Andrea Galli

Analysing the Role of Accessibility in Contemporary Urban Development

Accessibility is an important spatial characteristic and a significant link between transportation and land-use. Accordingly, accessibility plays in important role in urban and regional planning, spatial policy development, and urban land-use modelling. Accessibility is usually estimated by means of infrastructure based measures, which describes the performance of the road network. The aim of the current research project has been to analyse the relationship between accessibility and contemporary urban development to support urban land-use modelling efforts. Traditionally, accessibility analysis has been performed using network analysis software, but in order to create spatially continuous accessibility surfaces we have used a raster based approach to accessibility analysis. We have applied two different kinds of destinations for the accessibility calculations. Besides the towns and city centres, which are the usual choice of destination points, we decided also to calculate an accessibility surface for motorway junctions, due the fact that they are crucial for many location decisions. The results of the analysis indicate that the usual way of handling accessibility in land-use modelling is insufficient, and significant improvement can be obtained by incorporating ‘real’ accessibility in urban land-use models.

Henning Sten Hansen

An Indoor Crowd Simulation Using a 2D-3D Hybrid Data Model

Recent LBS-related technologies tend to extend to indoor spaces using localization sensors such as RFID. In order to implement real time evacuation applications, at least two problems must be resolved in advance; first, proper indoor data models and implementation methods that can accommodate evacuees positioning and routing computations should be available, second, evacuation simulations also need to be performed using the same indoor databases for consistent integration. However, none of these have been suggested explicitly as of now. Although some 3D modeling studies have dealt with topological structures, they are mainly focused on outer building volumes and it is difficult to incorporate such theoretical topology into indoor spaces due to complexity and computational limitations. In this study, we suggest an alternative method to build a 3D indoor model with less cost. It is a 2D-3D hybrid data model that combines the 2D topology constructed from CAD floor plans and the 3D visualization functionality. We show the process to build the proposed model in a spatial DBMS and visualize in 2D and 3D. Also, we illustrate a test CA(cellular automata)-based 3D crowd simulation using our model.

Chulmin Jun, Hyeyoung Kim

Measuring Effectiveness of Pedestrian Facilities Using a Pedestrian Simulation Model

Transport planners are increasingly focusing on pedestrian facilities in order to enhance public transportation usage and thereby develop sustainable transport systems. Despite becoming a key policy requirement, no tool is yet available to measure the effectiveness of pedestrian facilities, particularly in terms of their interaction with pedestrian movements. In this study, we have developed a pedestrian simulation model based on cellular automata (CA) techniques. This model has sufficient flexibility to measure the effectiveness of pedestrian facilities in terms of a level of service index based on their interaction with pedestrian movements. We investigated the model’s ability to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of fence in a subway station, with the goal of reducing conflicting pedestrian movements in some highly congested areas.

Seunjae Lee, Seunjun Lee, Shinhae Lee

Impact of the Norm on Optimal Locations

Our research sets in the field of

k

-facilities location-allocation problems. More precisely, we developed an approach, that aims to assess the sensitivity of centers to different metrics used to locate them, according to various spatial distributions of demands. We start by a concise state of the art. Then, we justify our approach with several examples on real or simulated data. Two mathematical formalisms of the 1–facility problem and the sensitivity estimation are provided. We finally propose different ways to assess the influence of points of demand on the centers, including exploratory spatial data analysis and random simulations on consequent samples.

Marc Ciligot-Travain, Didier Josselin

Designing Road Maintenance Data Model Using Dynamic Segmentation Technique

Road maintenance management covers a wide spectrum of activities including road construction, rehabilitation and maintenance programs, etc. Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can immensely assist the decision makers in these applications. Arc-node data models represent roads as linear features with associated attributes. The attributes are linked to arcs with similar length and location without attention to the applications at hand. In addition, these models do not provide the efficient way to present more detailed information of roads. Because Arc-node structure defines the linear feature as an arc and it is not possible to present road data varying in different parts of arc. Therefore, road maintenance data models which are only on the basis of Arc-node structure result in inefficient analysis and even the results which are not consistent with reality. In order to improve the flexibility of such Arc-node presentation in GIS-T, this paper scientifically examines Dynamic Segmentation (DS), that it is an efficient means to manage the heterogeneous attributes along the arcs. Moreover, this research proposed the road maintenance data model using DS technique. The data model in this work was successfully implemented in the Iranian road network. The result on real data illustrated the merits of the present approach.

Mohammad Reza Jelokhani-Niaraki, Ali Asghar Alesheikh, Abbas Alimohammadi, Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki

GeoSOM Suite: A Tool for Spatial Clustering

The large amount of spatial data available today demands the use of data mining tools for its analysis. One of the most used data mining techniques is clustering. Several methods for spatial clustering exist, but many consider space as just another variable. We present in this paper a tool particularly suited for spatial clustering: the GeoSOM suite. This tool implements the GeoSOM algorithm, which is based on Self-Organizing Maps. This paper describes this tool, and shows that it is adequate for exploring spatial data.

Roberto Henriques, Fernando Bação, Victor Lobo

Handling Spatial-Correlated Attribute Values in a Rough Set

Rough set theory has been widely used in spatial analysis. However these applications take little account of the spatial characteristics of spatial data, especially spatial dependencies and correlations. This paper proposes a new method to consider spatially correlated information in rough sets theory. This method divides the attributes of geographical objects into two categories, namely spatial correlated attributes and non-spatial correlated attributes. These two types of attributes are handled separately and the results from both types of attributes are then combined to generate the decision rule. An example is given to illustrate how the new method handles spatially correlated information in rough set theory.

Hexiang Bai, Yong Ge

Rough Qualitative Spatial Reasoning Based on Rough Topology

In order to derive information based on captured data, some analysis methods are implemented. These methods reduce our need to have all the related data. One of the most important devices to extract information from incomplete data is the reasoning method. Spatial reasoning is one of fields of reasoning whose implementation relies on spatial objects. An ordinary method of qualitative reasoning suffers from not considering fuzziness and vagueness. In order to extract qualitative information from uncertain spatial objects, this paper proposes a new method based on rough set theory. Based on rough topological relationships, reasoning rules were developed. Application of paper is to do with land cover areas as rough objects.

Anahid Bassiri, Mohammad R. Malek, Ali A. Alesheikh

An Integrative Approach to Geospatial Data Fusion

Geodata are used in different branches of industry or academic fields, e.g. landscape planning, environmental protection, traffic, urbanism, economy, tourism et cetera. Depending on the objectives and applications, geodata will have to meet certain requirements in order to be utilised, e.g. concerning geometry and/or semantics. A frequent problem of geo information processing is to identify suitable datasets. The geometric requirements are often met, while this is not the case with semantic requirements. Sometimes geo datasets have similar geometric properties but different semantics. Generally, the acquisition of fresh geodata meeting the requirements defined is not an option. Instead, data mining concepts, as such as data fusion, provide an effective solution to this problem. The fundamental concept of data fusion is the extraction of the best-fit geometry data as well as the most suitable semantic data from existing datasets. The extracted data features are subsequently amalgamated into a newly created dataset. Data fusion can be applied to linear and polygonal data. This work introduces algorithms allowing for the joining of linear structures. The method discussed is based on the comparison of coordinates. The fusion process has been automated and implemented in the DataMerge software tool using the PERL scripting language and thus is not bound to any specific GIS software.

Silvija Stankutė, Hartmut Asche

Designing Data Warehouses for Geographic OLAP Querying by Using MDA

Data aggregation in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a desirable feature, spatial data are integrated in OLAP engines for this purpose. However, the development and operation of those systems is still a complex task due to methodologies followed. There are some ad hoc solutions that deal only with isolated aspects and do not provide developer and analyst with an intuitive, integrated and standard framework for designing all relevant parts. To overcome these problems, we have defined a model driven approach to accomplish Geographic Data Warehouse (GDW) development. Then, we have defined a data model required to implement and query spatial data. Its modeling is defined and implemented by using an extension of UML metamodel and it is also formalized by using OCL language. In addition, the proposal has been verified against a example scenario with sample data sets. For this purpose, we have accomplished a developing tool based on Eclipse platform and MDA standard. The great advantage of this solution is that developers can directly include spatial data at conceptual level, while decision makers can also conceptually make geographic queries without being aware of logical details.

Octavio Glorio, Juan Trujillo

Turning Point Clouds into 3d Models: The Aqueduct of Segovia

This article presents digital three-dimensional models that reproduce the original structure of the aqueduct of Segovia (Spain) using laserscanning approaches, as well as orthophotos, which thoroughly document dimensional and textural characteristics of this emblematic monument, declared UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition to analyzing the accuracy and validity of laserscanning technique in the conservation and preservation of Cultural Heritage, a methodology of data capture, processing and photogrammetry representation is analysed.

Juan Mancera-Taboada, Pablo Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Diego González-Aguilera

Design and Implementation of a GSM Based Automatic Vehicle Location System

Recent advancements in wireless communication systems along with the growth of computational power of mobile devices have considerably reduced the difference between desktop and mobile computing environments. One of these applications is Automatic Vehicle Location System (AVLS) by which one can track vehicles in real time mode. This paper reviews the design and implementation of an AVLS with a new architecture which is a client-server one. It also discusses its software which supports GPS and runs on Windows Mobile based PDAs. While the software is a powerful one, it has a user friendly graphical interface. Different programming languages are used to develop the software. All of data are transferred back and forth between users and the server through GSM technology. The server uses GSM mobile, a relatively cheap media for communication, to provide a connection to PDAs. A toolbar for ArcGIS9.2 is developed to collect and analyze these data.

Ali Mousavi, Mohammad A. Rajabi, Mohammad Akbari

Temporal Relationships between Rough Time Intervals

Time is a basic measure used to quantify the motions of objects, to compare the durations of events, and to sequence events. Temporal behaviors of spatial objects have occupied geoinformatic’s minds and this motivation can be seen in temporal GIS (Geospatial Information System) and navigation. This article focuses on a mathematical abstraction for calculating periods of time. Uncertainty in temporal intervals is considered and temporal relationships are defined based on rough set theory as a powerful device to handle the indeterminate time interval.

Anahid Bassiri, Mohammad R. Malek, Ali A. Alesheikh, Pouria Amirian

Inverse Transformation for Several Pseudo-cylindrical Map Projections Using Jacobian Matrix

The normal practice in ‘mathematical cartography’ is transforming the graticule of meridians and parallels of a sphere onto a plane. The conversion from geographical to plane coordinates is called forward transformation. The inverse transformation, which yields geographical coordinates captured from paper maps, is a more recent development, due to the need for transformation between different map projections especially in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Deriving the invers equations is sometimes not easy for the projections that have complicated forward functions including parametric variables. This paper describes an iteration algorithm using jacobian matrix for the inverse transformation of the pseudo-cylindrical map projections with non-linear forward projection equations. The method has been tested for ten pseudocylindrical world map projection.

Cengizhan Ipbuker

Workshop on Wireless and Ad Hoc Networking (WAD 2009)

A Cluster-Based Mobility Model for Intelligent Nodes

The study of mobile Ad-hoc networks depends on understanding protocols from simulations, before being applied in a real world setting. To produce a real-world environment within which an ad hoc network can be formed among a set of nodes, there is a need for the development of a realistic, generic and comprehensive mobility model instead of random-based models. Previously, realistic mobility models such as Obstacle Mobility and Pathway Mobility Models have been proposed. In these models, there are pathways and obstacles that constrain the node movements and their signals, but they have not paid attention to movement pattern of the nodes in the pathways. In this paper, a new mobility model is proposed. It includes not only a realistic environment with obstacles and pathways but also intelligent nodes like the human beings who learn how to move in these pathways. Proposed mobility model consider variant type of the mobile node with different specification. This paper shows that various MANET environments and mobile nodes can be modeled based on this work.

Morteza Romoozi, Hamideh Babaei, Mahmood Fathy, Mojtaba Romoozi

A Scalability Analysis of TDMA-Based Ad Hoc MAC Protocols

This paper proposes a novel method to perform quantitative analysis of message complexity. It applies this method to compare message complexity of TDMA-based ad hoc MAC protocols. Since the network resource of ad hoc networks is limited due to the wireless communication channel, the scalability issue is a major research topic in developing ad-hoc algorithms.

Simulation demonstrates the TDMA-based MAC protocol has the lowest message complexity and Z-MAC has the highest message complexity of the TDMA-based ad-hoc MAC protocols. Based on these results, this research can be further developed to distinguish the relationship between the message exchanges and improve performance for the collision-free time schedule.

Sang-Chul Kim, Chong-Woo Woo

Noun and Keyword Detection of Korean in Ubiquitous Environment

In a language, noun and keyword extraction is a key element in a ubiquitous environment. When it comes to processing Korean language information, however, there are still a lot of problems with noun and keyword extraction. This paper proposes an effective noun extraction method that considers noun emergence features. The proposed method can be effectively used in areas like information retrieval where large volumes of documents and data need to be processed in a fast manner. In this paper, a category-based keyword construction method is also presented that uses an unsupervised learning technique to ensure high volumes of queries are automatically classified. Our experimental results show that the proposed method outperformed both the supervised learning-based X

2

method known to excel in keyword extraction and the DF method, in terms of classification precision.

Seong-Yoon Shin, Oh-Hyung Kang, Sang-Joon Park, Jong-Chan Lee, Seong-Bae Pyo, Yang-Won Rhee

Phased Scene Change Detection in Ubiquitous Environments

In a ubiquitous environment, video transfer is very important. In particular, transferring of selected video clips obtained through scene change detection is more important than transferring an entire video. In this paper, inter-frame difference values are first computed through combining the

χ

2

histogram with the color histogram, as well as normalization. Next, key frames for a cluster are determined through distance clustering and K-mean clustering. Lastly, key frames for a group are determined through a likelihood ratio. According to our experiments, the proposed method surpassed other methods in its ability to detect scene changes due to the use of three steps: difference value calculation, clustering, and key frame extraction.

Seong-Yoon Shin, Ji-Hyun Lee, Sang-Joon Park, Jong-Chan Lee, Seong-Bae Pyo, Yang-Won Rhee

A File Carving Algorithm for Digital Forensics

The File-Carving algorithm when doing file rehabilitation, the part is which important. “Carving” is the term most often used to indicate the act of recovering a file from unstructured digital forensic images. Until present time the file caring algorithm which becomes known the file is continuous, n case it knows Header and Footer information the file carving which is accurate becomes accomplished. The present paper the hazard which amends the problem point where the original broad way rehabilitation does not become a file and it amends a problem point design.

Deok-Gyu Park, Sang-Joon Park, Jong-Chan Lee, Si-Young No, Seong-Yoon Shin

Data Discovery and Related Factors of Documents on the Web and the Network

On the Web and network environments, fast and precise data transmission is the most essential part, and many additional elements should be supported for this. Data discovery is one of the elements. This paper focuses on data discovery strategies, especially on the main factors related to the discovery strategies for Markup data, which takes considerable amount of Web and network data. For the evaluation, we declared the factors and simulated the factors on our data discovery system to show how much they effect for the performance.

Hyun-Joo Moon, Sae-Hun Yeom, Jongmyung Choi, Chae-Woo Yoo

Thorough Analysis of IEEE 802.11 EDCA in Ring Topology Scenarios with Hidden and Exposed Nodes

In this paper the authors present a simulation study of five different ring networks with hidden and exposed nodes in which the IEEE 802.11 EDCA function is used as the MAC protocol. The presented analysis is crucial for understanding how the theoretically simple ring topology can be degraded by the presence of hidden and exposed nodes. Configurations with equal and mixed priorities are considered. Additionally, the usefulness of the four-way handshake mechanism is argued. Furthermore, the achieved results are compared with the results obtained for several star and line topology networks. Finally, the authors signalize the need for a better MAC protocol.

Katarzyna Kosek, Marek Natkaniec, Luca Vollero

Issues for Applying Instant Messaging to Smart Home Systems

In this paper, we argue that instant messaging is suitable for smart home systems. We classify smart home services into three groups - standalone, simple co-work, and workflow -, identify requirements, and show why instant messaging is suitable for these services. Furthermore, we address three issues for applying instant messaging to smart home services: architecture, user interface, and message protocol. We adopt a combination of the peer-to-peer architecture for the internet-wide services and the centralized client-server architecture in the house. We propose an interpreter-based GUI for user interface of clients, and XML format for the communication message on the top of XMPP.

Jongmyung Choi, Sangjoon Park, Hoon Ko, Hyun-Joo Moon, Jongchan Lee

The Scheme of Handover Performance Improvement in WiBro

Demands for a mobile communication and a high quality service such as video streaming or VoIP have been increasing in recent years. The Wireless Broadband Internet (WIBRO)system, which is specified by ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute) and other companies in Korea as well as IEEE 802.16e standard. The feature of this system is that the backbone networks are potentially deployed by IPv6 based technologies due to the All-IP trend. Therefore, it is important to support efficient mobility management protocol on IP layer as well as data link layer based on WiBro system. In this paper, we propose the scheme that different process according to the traffic characteristic. The performance analysis and the numerical results presented in this paper show that our proposal has superior performance.

Wongil Park

Workshop on PULSES V- Logical, Scientific and Computational Aspects of Pulse Phenomena in Transitions (PULSES 2009)

Study of the Correlation between the Concrete Wall Thickness Measurement Results by Ultrasonic Pulse Echo and the PTF Model for Assymetrical Functions

This paper presents an interpretation of the results of the Pulse-echo methods (Radar Impact-Echo, Ultrasonic Impulse-echo) and simulation of wave propagation for testing concrete specimens with metal ducts given in [1-15], in terms of the invariance properties of PTF (Practical Test Function) model for asymmetrical pulses presented and developed in [20] and [26].

The interpreted results include various aspects of the pulse echo method (previously published by Krause, Maierhofer, Wiggenhauser, Bärmann, Langenberg, Frielinghaus, Krautkramer, Neisecke, Wollbold, Schickert) as: radar: propagation, reflection and scattering of electromagnetic pulses; impact echo: propagation, reflection and scattering of elastic waves after mechanical impact; ultrasonic pulse echo: propagation and dispersion of sound waves after indication with ultrasonic transducers.

The interpretation of the above results with the help of the PTF model for asymmetrical functions revealed the compatibility between the first and second order therms representation of a sharp pulse-defined as a practical test function- and some of the experimental results.

As a possible application, is mentioned phase detection by multiplying the alternating input signal with an assymetrical function and integration of the resulting function for more robust results than the one presented in [27].

The second part of the paper presents the a heuristic algorithm for generating asymmetrical practical test functions (that could be used to describe impact echo phenomena for the elastic waves in various materials, including concrete) using MATLAB procedures some possibilities for obtaining asymmetrical pulses as related to this middle of the working interval using the derivative of such symmetrical pulse for certain diferential equations corresponding to second order systems (with unity-step input and for an input represented by a gaussian pulse).

Lucian Pusca

Detection Weak Period Signal Using Chaotic Oscillator

Some weak cycle singular signals are very important for condition monitoring, fault forecast and medicine diagnosis. However, the weak singular signals are often inundate into strong noises. A novel engineering method is proposed for detecting weak cycle signal in the strong signal by determining chaotic threshold of the Duffing-Holmes oscillator. First, a rough threshold value is calculated by local Lyapunov exponents with a step size 0.1. Second, the exact threshold value is calculated by the Duffing-Holmes system in terms of the law of the golden section. The advantage of the method will show not only lower computation cost, but also the weak cycle signal can be rigorously extracted from strong noise.

Qizhong Liu, Wanqing Song

Energy Metrics and Sustainability

Early human civilizations developed along water corridors. With increasing dependency of human activities on energy, sustainability of future civilizations would be largely linked to sustainability of energy resources and systems. The tie between energy and socio-environmental sustainability, though obvious remains nebulous mostly because, neither energy nor sustainability are clearly defined. While thermodynamic definition of energy is relatively clear, its nature (as linked to human activities and sustainable development) is not well understood. This paper is an attempt to present a metric for the components and attributes of energy resources and technologies as interfaced with human civilization. A fuzzy logic model is used to scale energy systems based on their valued attributes (such as storability, transformability, quality, transportability, availability, environmental value and resource sustainability). The model is used to predict future energy corridors and their association with economical growth and sustainability. It is shown that green energy systems should be developed not in isolation but integrated in intelligent “synergetic” systems to meet the energy demands of future human civilizations.

Mory Ghomshei, Francesco Villecco

The Ultrasonic Measurement for Object Vibration

This paper provides a kind of ultrasonic measurement for object vibration. Through the use of LabVIEW and ultrasonic sensors, the whole system would be simple and cost would be much lower. And then some key problems have been solved, such as the nearby wavelet produced by the ultrasonic sensor, the background noise and also the dead zone for measurement. So the measurement would be more accuracy. As a result test, it recorded a curve produced by a kind of damp vibration which shows that the system can meet the demand for application.

Li-Ping Zhang, Qiu Yu

The Generalized Wavelets Based on Meyer Wavelet

Starting with investigating the Meyer scaling function, the original Meyer bases are extended to the generalized Meyer wavelet by introducing a time-shift factor into Meyer scaling coefficient functions in this paper. These new wavelets not only inherit many basic properties of the classical Meyer wavelets, such as orthonomality, time-frequency localization and so on, but also improve some performances of the Meyer wavelets. In addition, the symmetry of the generalized Meyer wavelets is also discussed in the paper, and a series of generalized scaling coefficients are given for practical applications.

Xudong Teng, Xiao Yuan

Reconstructing Microwave Near-Field Image Based on the Discrepancy of Radial Distribution of Dielectric Constant

Based on the difference of dielectric properties between normal breast tissues and malignant tumors, microwave scatter-sounding method is used to detect the breast then get the projection reconstruction data. With the characteristics of radial distribution of the data, dielectric property of the detected space is reconstructed. In this paper, not only the microwave near-field imaging model is discussed in detail, but also the reconstruction result. The effectiveness of this method has been approved by the reconstruction result of some typical detected spaces.

Zhifu Tao, Qifeng Pan, Meng Yao, Ming Li

Fractals Based on Harmonic Wavelets

In this paper a simple algorithm based on harmonic wavelets is given for the generation of self similar functions. Due to their self similarity property and scale dependence, harmonic wavelets might offer a good approximation of fractals by a very few instances of the wavelet series and a more direct interpretation of the scale invariance for deterministic localized fractals.

Carlo Cattani

Modelling Hodgkin-Huxley Neurons Interaction

This paper deals with the analysis of a nonlinear dynamical system which models the axons interaction. A system with a source made by a sequence of high pulses (spike train) is analyzed. It is shown that on short range interval close to the initial time there is a chaotic behavior in the phase space, even if the solution asymptotically tends to a constant value.

Gianni Mattioli, Massimo Scalia

Workshop on High-Performance Computing and Information Visualization (HPCIV 2009)

Fourth Order Approximation with Complexity Reduction Approach for the Solution of Time Domain Maxwell Equations in Free Space

Propagation of electromagnetic fields from an antenna in a free space can always be modelled by time domain Maxwell equations. The equations have been used since their creation by Maxwell. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used since 1966 to model the propagation of electromagnetic fields. Previously, we have developed a new version of FDTD method called HSLO-FDTD. The method has shown to solve a 1D free space wave propagation problem 67% faster than the conventional FDTD. The parallel version of the method is then extended to solve 2D free space wave propagation problem. It is found that the method is 85.2% faster than the parallel FDTD method. In this paper, we further extend the method using the combination of fourth order approximation with the complexity reduction approach. The method shows to be faster than the conventional FDTD to simulate the 2D free space wave propagation problem.

Mohammad Khatim Hasan, Mohamed Othman, Zulkifly Abbas, Jumat Sulaiman, Fatimah Ahmad

Nine Point-EDGSOR Iterative Method for the Finite Element Solution of 2D Poisson Equations

In previous studies, the 4 Point-Explicit Decoupled Group (EDG) iterative method without or with a weighted parameter,

ω

has been shown to be much faster as compared to the existing four point block iterative method. Due to the effectiveness of this method, the primary goal of this paper is to illustrate the advantage of the 9 Point-EDG

SOR

in solving two-dimensional Poisson equations by using the half-sweep triangle finite element approximation equation based on the Galerkin scheme. In fact, formulations of the 4, 6, and 9 Point-EDG

SOR

iterative methods are also presented. Results of numerical experiments are recorded to show the effectiveness of the 9 Point-EDG

SOR

method as compared to the 4, and 6 Point-EDG

SOR

methods.

Jumat Sulaiman, Mohamed Othman, Mohammad Khatim Hasan

An Online and Predictive Method for Grid Scheduling Based on Data Mining and Rough Set

Since Grid is a distributed and heterogeneous environment, scheduling and resource management are important in Grid. One of the fundamental problems in Grid is designing a suitable method for management of resources. Many approaches have been proposed to increase performance of scheduling process, but each method has special conditions and they act well only in some special conditions. Moreover for resources scheduling, most of them use GIS’s data that maybe is encountered with old data. In this paper, we use an online approach for finding resources with less time spending for resource discovery rather than other proposed methods; and then by using Rough Set and Decision Tree data mining technique, in order to classification of Grid nodes, scheduler will select proper nodes for desired job based on job’s condition. This approach also has a fair treat in dealing with The Least Deadline jobs. The obtained results show this approach is one of the promising methods for resource selecting in scheduling phase with high accuracy and performance.

Asgarali Bouyer, Mohammadbagher Karimi, Mnsour Jalali

A Survey of Cloud Platforms and Their Future

It is predicted that most computing and data storage will be done by cloud computing in the future. Tendency to use cloud services and changes in IT world to become service-based will be inevitable in future. This leading change toward cloud computing will be a great movement in IT dependent industries. One of the main parts of this variation is the usage of cloud platforms. This method will affect software engineering events in software production process. Cloud platform let developers write programs which can both run in cloud space and use available services provided in cloud space. In this paper, a survey on cloud platforms, their arrangements, foundation and infrastructure services and their main capabilities used in some leading software companies is presented.

Milad Pastaki Rad, Ali Sajedi Badashian, Gelare Meydanipour, Morteza Ashurzad Delcheh, Mahdi Alipour, Hamidreza Afzali

Workshop on Sensor Network and its Applications (SNA 2009)

An Efficient Clustering Protocol with Reduced Energy and Latency for Wireless Sensor Networks

The applications in wireless networks deem data gathering as an essential process that intends to increase the lifetime of the network by utilizing energy efficient techniques. Correspondingly, the energy efficiency and network lifetime in wireless sensor network can be enhanced by implementing an efficient technique, Clustering. This paper intends to minimize the energy and latency through efficient clustering protocol (ECP) architecture. In wireless micro-sensor networks, ECP architecture aims at achieving low energy dissipation and latency provided that application specific quality is not sacrificed. The ECP utilizes (i) randomized, adaptive, self - configuring cluster formation (ii) localized control for data transfers and (iii) application - specific data processing, for instance data aggregation or compression to achieve the goal. The cluster formation algorithm produces good clusters as the result by allowing each node to make autonomous decisions. The simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm also reduces overhead to the protocol by reducing the energy and latency for cluster formation.

A. Allirani, M. Suganthi

Dynamic Threshold Control-Based Adaptive Message Filtering in Mobile Sensor Networks

The communication traffic for continuous data aggregation and location update is the main reason of short-lived mobile sensor networks because the energy consumption of sensor nodes is caused by the transmission of messages. For effective communication traffic management in mobile sensor networks, this paper proposes an dynamic threshold control-based adaptive message filtering method which utilizes diverse node parameters reflecting characteristics of mobile nodes, such as mobility and battery availability. In the proposed filtering method, each sensor node in a sensor filed filters out messages based on its distance threshold. In order to adjust the distance threshold by the condition of each node adaptively and dynamically, fuzzy logic is applied to the proposed filtering method. Empirical results approve that the proposed filtering method achieves more improved performance than existing filtering methods.

Sung Ho Jang, Yong Beom Ma, Jong Sik Lee

Design of a Reliable Traffic Control System on City Area Based on a Wireless Network

This paper designs and analyzes the performance of a reliable communication scheme for the traffic control system, which has a grid topology, based on WirelessHart, a newly developed wireless process control protocol. Besides the main communication schedule, additional schedule is defined with a different channel hopping sequence to make a node take an alternative route in the same slot when the channel on the primary path is not clear. Using the split-merge function augmented to the original WirelessHart node operation, the transmission success ratio can be significantly improved on the rectangular path without extending the control loop. The performance evaluation result measured by simulation using a discrete event scheduler demonstrates that the proposed scheme improves the transmission success ratio for 4 × 4 grid by up to 29 % and each split-merge operation can recover almost all channel errors, especially for long hop transmission.

Junghoon Lee, In-Hye Shin, Cheol Min Kim

Design of a Cache Management Scheme for Gateways on the Vehicular Telematics Network

This paper proposes and measures the performance of a cache management scheme for vehicular telematics network so as to provide an advanced route recommendation service, concentrating on gateways which relay information between a specific server and vehicles. As an enhanced version of pure FAR (Furthest Away Replacement), the proposed scheme 1) replaces Euclidean distance by network distance in estimating the distance to a data item, 2) binds each cache item to a link in the target road network, 3) introduces a directional weight to consider the directional tendency of current traffic flow, and finally 4) schedules the cache requests according to their angular locations to efficiently deal with the multiple pending requests. Simulation results, conducted using the real-life trajectory data obtained from a tracking system currently in operation, show that the proposed scheme can improve the cache hit ratio by up to 9.2 %, compared with FAR as well as that the proposed angle-based scheduling scheme can further improve the cache hit ratio by up to 2.3 %.

Junghoon Lee, In-Hye Shin, Gyung-Leen Park, Ik-Chan Kim, Yoon-Jung Rhee

An Efficient Topology Control and Dynamic Interval Scheduling Scheme for 6LoWPAN

This paper introduces a novel interval scheduling and efficient topology control scheme in wireless sensor networks for long-term periodical monitoring applications. Due to the unreliable nature of wireless communication, it is essential to design a new management system and efficient scheduling algorithm for such networks, as to achieve network energy efficiency, reliability, and timeliness. In this paper, we introduce the concept of dynamic interval scheduling algorithm that optimizes the data delivery ratio and communication energy consumption. And also we propose an efficient scheme of sensor network management on 6LoWPAN by considering the property of the event-driven WSN.

Sun-Min Hwang, Eui-Nam Huh

Relationship Based Privacy Management for Ubiquitous Society

The growing concern of users for their personal information has made it critical to implant effective technologies for privacy and data privacy management. Most of the previous studies focus on Role Based Access Control model, and another approach is setting user preference separately rather than considering them together. However, the former one would lead inconvenience for users and the later one may result in conflicts or unconscious data disclosure after users setting their preferences. This paper proposes a privacy system using graph data structure to manage privacy data, limiting disclosure of data, guaranteeing high flexibility and facilitating the management of data. An important advantage of our approach is that it not only supports privacy-aware role based access control, but also permits users to clarify their privacy preferences. A full detailed view of a proper conversion from role-based privacy management to personal privacy preference management is provided.

Yuan Tian, Biao Song, Eui-Nam Huh

Real-Time Monitoring of Ubiquitous Wearable ECG Sensor Node for Healthcare Application

Wireless technologies and sensors network give new possibilities for monitoring of vital parameters with wearable biomedical sensors and allow patients the freedom to be mobile and still be under continuously monitoring and thereby provide better healthcare services. In this paper, a new concept for wireless and ubiquitous wearable belt-type ECG sensor node transmitting signal via an ultra low power consumption wireless data communications unit to personal computer using Zigbee-compatible wireless sensor node. ECG signal is detected using ECG receiver sensor node. An ECG Monitoring Program is implemented at the end user. The measured ECG signals carry a lot of clinical information for a cardiologist especially the R-peak detection in ECG. Variable threshold method is used to detect the R-peak which is more accurate and efficient compare to fixed threshold value. For evaluate the performance analysis, R-peak detection using MIT-BIH databases and long term real-time ECG is performed in this research.

Do-Un Jeong, Hsein-Ping Kew

Authentication Analysis Based on Certificate for Proxy Mobile IPv6 Environment

In PMIPv6, it is possible to support mobility for IPv6 nodes without software stack to exchange the signaling messages to control its movement. EAP-TLS supports for certificate-based mutual authentication, utilizing the protected ciphersuite negotiation, mutual authentication and key management capabilities of the TLS protocol. In this paper, we describe a certificate-based public key authentication mechanism for Proxy Mobile IPv6 environments. The certificate-based authentication mechanism is based on EAP-TLS that supports the mutual authentication during its ciphersuit negotiation. The proposed certificate-based authentication mechanism that involves initial authentication and handoff authentication is analyzed by BAN logic.

Seong-Soo Park, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Tai-Myoung Chung

Workshop on Collective Evolutionary Systems (IWCES 2009)

A Triangular Formation Strategy for Collective Behaviors of Robot Swarm

This paper presents, a novel decentralized control strategy, named Triangular Formation Algorithm (TFA), for a swarm of simple robots. The TFA is a local interaction strategy which basically makes three neighboring robots to form a regular triangular lattice. This strategy requires minimal conditions for robots and it can be easily realized with real robots. The TFA is executed by every member of the swarm asynchronously. For swarm obstacle avoidance, a simplified artificial physical model is introduced to work with the TFA. Simulation results showed that the global behaviors of swarm such as aggregation, flocking and obstacle avoidance in an unknown environment can be achieved using the TFA and obstacle avoidance mechanism.

Xiang Li, M. Fikret Ercan, Yu Fai Fung

P2P Incentive Mechanism for File Sharing and Cooperation

P2P (Peer-to-Peer) network allows peers to distribute and obtain a file to be shared cooperatively. However, some peers only download files without cooperation. Peers also share low quality files or unpopular files. These selfish behavior of peers is referred to “free riding”. The free riding of peer may decrease the participation of other peers or the system performance. In this paper, we propose an incentive mechanism, called P2PIncentive, which provides the correct use of incentive mechanism by using trust peers, computes contribution values referring behavior of peers and rewards peers. The proposed mechanism assigns bandwidth and TTL (Time-To-Live) to a peer according to the contribution and differentiates the use of service. A case study on simulations shows the service differentiation according to the behavior of peers, the correct use of incentive mechanism and the advantages by use of trust peers. To prove the stability of proposed mechanism, we also show the disadvantage that a peer receives from the incorrect use of incentive mechanism.

Junghwa Shin, Taehoon Kim, Sungwoo Tak

Modeling Agents’ Knowledge in Collective Evolutionary Systems

Collective evolutionary systems have drawn considerable attention in recent times. One reason for this is the advances in the second generation of web development and design. This has led to the emergence of web-based communities and applications such as social-networking sites and blogs. The collective behavior of the system depends heavily on the performance and the reasoning aspects of the agents. Although logics of knowledge has been extensively studied, its application to domains in collective systems has not been illustrated before. In this paper we analyze some significant evolutionary domains characterized by collective and evolutionary aspects, such as partial observability, distribution, sharing, coordination, and mobility. We show how knowledge in these domains can effectively be modeled using ELMA (

e

pistemic

l

ogic for

m

obile

a

gents), which is an extension of an existing epistemic logic with the notion of space and containment, that entails the concepts of group and collaboration. The need and features of appropriate reasoning and planning mechanisms for collective evolutionary environment are also discussed.

Rajdeep Niyogi, Alfredo Milani

Collective Evolutionary Indexing of Multimedia Objects

The evolution of multimedia technology and the Internet boost the multimedia sharing and searching activities among social networks. The requirements of semantic multimedia retrieval goes far beyond those provided by the text-based search engines technology. Here, we present an collaborative approach that enables the semantic search of the multimedia objects by the collective discovery and meaningful indexing of their semantic concepts. Through the successive use of our model, semantic concepts can be discovered and incorporated by analyzing the users’ search queries, relevance feedback and selection patterns. Eventually, through the growth and evolution of the index hierarchy, the semantic index can be dynamically constructed, validated, and naturally built-up towards the expectation of the social network.

C. H. C. Leung, W. S. Chan, J. Liu

A Hybrid Approach for Selecting Optimal COTS Products

This paper develops a hybrid approach for selecting the optimal Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software product among alternatives for each module in the development of modular software systems. We draw on multiple methodologies such as quality models (ISO/IEC 9126), analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematical programming (FMP) for developing fuzzy multiobjective optimization models for selecting the optimal COTS software products. The objective functions of the models are to maximize the weighted quality and minimize the cost subject to the limitation of the incompatibility among COTS products. The software system consists of several programs, where a specific function of each program can call upon a series of modules. Each module in a software system has different levels of importance that depends on access frequency. For this reason, this study assign different weights to the modules according to their access frequencies using AHP.

Pankaj Gupta, Mukesh Kumar Mehlawat, Garima Mittal, Shilpi Verma

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