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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures, CAAD Futures 2015, held in São Paulo, Brazil, in July 2015. The 33 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 200 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on modeling, analyzing and simulating the city; sustainability and performance of the built space; automated and parametric design; building information modelling (BIM); fabrication and materiality; shape studies.



Modeling, Analyzing and Simulating the City


The Next City and Complex Adaptive Systems

Urban futures are typically conceptualized as starting anew; an urban future is usually represented as a quest for an ideal state, replacing the status quo with visionary statement about ‘better’ futures. Repeatedly, propositions reinvent the way we live, work and play. The major urban innovations for the changing cityscape from the last 100 years, however, have opportunistically taken advantage of unprecedented technical developments in infrastructure rather than be drawn from architectural inventions in their right, such as telecommunications, services, utilities, point-to-point rapid transit including the elevator. Howard’s Garden City therefore presaged the suburb, just as Le Corbusier et al. proposed the erasure of significant sections of inner city Barcelona and Paris to replace them with the newly contrived towers; the city reformed as the significantly more mobile and dense ‘Ville Radieuse’. More recently Masdar emerged from virgin sand and Milton Keynes from pristine pasture, serving as counterpoints to the paradigm of erasure and rebuild. Despite all these advances in technology and science, little has changed in the paradigm of urban form; the choices we have today are largely restricted to the suburban house or the apartment in the tower. Should the “next city” offer an alternative vision for the future, and what new design processes are required to realize the next city?

Justyna Karakiewicz, Mark Burry, Thomas Kvan

A Platform for Urban Analytics and Semantic Data Integration in City Planning

This paper presents a novel web-based platform that supports the analysis, integration, and visualization of large-scale and heterogeneous urban data, with application to city planning and decision-making. Motivated by the non-scalable character of conventional urban analytics methods, as well as by the interoperability challenges present in contemporary data silos, the illustrated system – coined SocialGlass – leverages the combined potential of diverse urban data sources. These include sensor and social media streams (Twitter, Instagram, Foursquare), publicly available municipal records, and resources from knowledge repositories. Through data science, semantic integration, and crowdsourcing techniques the platform enables the mapping of demographic information, human movement patterns, place popularity, traffic conditions, as well as citizens’ and visitors’ opinions and preferences about specific venues in a city. The paper further demonstrates an implemented prototype of the platform and its deployment in real-world use cases for monitoring, analyzing, and assessing city-scale events.

Achilleas Psyllidis, Alessandro Bozzon, Stefano Bocconi, Christiaan Titos Bolivar

Distributed and Heterogeneous Data Analysis for Smart Urban Planning

Over the past decade, ‘smart’ cities have capitalized on new technologies and insights to transform their systems, operations and services. The rationale behind the use of these technologies is that an evidence-based, analytical approach to decision-making will lead to more robust and sustainable outcomes. However, harvesting high-quality data from the dense network of sensors embedded in the urban infrastructure, and combining this data with social network data, poses many challenges. In this paper, we investigate the use of an intelligent middleware – Device Nimbus – to support data capture and analysis techniques to inform urban planning and design. We report results from a ‘Living Campus’ experiment at the University of Melbourne, Australia focused on a public learning space case study. Local perspectives, collected via crowd sourcing, are combined with distributed and heterogeneous environmental sensor data. Our analysis shows that Device Nimbus’ data integration and intelligent modules provide high-quality support for decision-making and planning.

Eduardo A. Oliveira, Michael Kirley, Tom Kvan, Justyna Karakiewicz, Carlos Vaz

Tangible Mixed Reality On-Site: Interactive Augmented Visualisations from Architectural Working Models in Urban Design

The consequences of architectural planning and design decisions made in the early design phases are hard to foresee. While professionals are used to reading plans and understanding architectural models, most laypeople are not familiar with their abstractions. This can lead to misinterpretations and misunderstandings between the different participants in the design process, especially in complex building situations, and decisions can be made or rejected that can have far-reaching consequences for the remainder of the project.

In this paper we describe the concept and prototypical implementation of a decision-support system for the early design and discussion stages of urban design projects that aims to address precisely this problem. The setup directly connects physical volumetric models and hand-drawn sketches with an interactive, mixed-reality visualization presented on a tablet or mobile phone, making it possible to see an interactive real-time view of an architectural design within the context of the actual site. In addition, the system is able to incorporate interactive simulations conducted on the model and presented in the AR-view.

Gerhard Schubert, David Schattel, Marcus Tönnis, Gudrun Klinker, Frank Petzold

Development of High-Definition Virtual Reality for Historical Architectural and Urban Digital Reconstruction: A Case Study of Azuchi Castle and Old Castle Town in 1581

This study shows fundamental data for constructing a high-definition VR application under the theme of a three-dimensional visualization to restore past architecture and cities. It is difficult for widespread architectural and urban objects to be rendered in real-time. Thus, in this study, techniques for improving the level of detail (LOD) and representation of natural objects were studied. A digital reconstruction project of Azuchi Castle and old castle town was targeted as a case study. Finally, a VR application with specifications of seven million polygons, texture of 1.87 billion pixels, and 1920 × 1080 screen resolution, was successfully developed that could run on a PC. For the developed VR applications, both qualitative evaluation by experts and quantitative evaluation by end users was performed.

Tomohiro Fukuda, Hirokazu Ban, Katsuhito Yagi, Junro Nishiie

Sustainability and Performance of the Built Space


Interrogating Interactive and Responsive Architecture: The Quest of a Technological Solution Looking for an Architectural Problem

Interactive Architecture and Responsive Architecture are provocative fields of investigation and have potentially disruptive and far reaching effects for architecture. However it can be argued that these fields haven’t been developed as a direct response to previously identified architectural demands. Instead, they have risen as consequence of new technology availability, with ad hoc discussions in the context of the built environment. In order to test this hypothesis, 229 publications were examined and narrowed down to 77 papers and 41 design projects, which were systematically analyzed. The primary objective of this investigation is to understand Interactive Architecture’s development with regard to justification. This understanding provides us with the basis to speculate on the possibly expanding introduction of extraneous technological solutions to the discipline of architecture. The research findings indicate a mismatch between theoretical discourse and projects being developed in those fields. They also describe the current state of Interactive Architecture research.

Sara Costa Maia, AnnaLisa Meyboom

A Model for Sustainable Site Layout Design of Social Housing with Pareto Genetic Algorithm: SSPM

Nowadays as the aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings becomes more apparent, a new architectural design approach is gaining momentum called sustainable architectural design. Sustainable architectural design process includes some regulations itself, which requires calculations, comparisons and consists of several possible conflicting objectives that need to be considered together. A successful green building design can be performed by the creation of alternative designs generated according to all the sustainability parameters and local regulations in conceptual design stage. As there are conflicting criteria’s according to LEED and BREAM sustainable site parameters, local regulations and local climate conditions, an efficient decision support system can be developed by the help of Pareto based non-dominated genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) which is used for several possibly conflicting objectives that need to be considered together. In this paper, a model which aims to produce site layout alternatives according to sustainability criteria for cooperative apartment house complexes, will be mentioned.

Yazgı Badem Aksoy, Gülen Çağdaş, Özgün Balaban

Algorithmic Design Tool for Integrating Renewable Energy Infrastructures in Buildings: Object Oriented Design for Energy Efficiency

We present a tool which empowers ‘green’ design freedom for architects by presenting ever expanding choices in components and materials and automatizing their configuration and placement. Several time- and resource- consuming initial design iterations are eliminated by optimizing the energetic efficiency of the building in the original draft phase. The smart, efficient, energy producing building of the future can thereby offer increased cost and energy efficiency, security and comfort, without any compromise in style and form - on the contrary, the proposed tool stands to open up a novel palette of creative ‘green’ architectural design elements, which would effectively be co-designed by architects. The proposed algorithmic CAD design tool allows direct integration of renewable sources in the architectural design phase, taking into account local meteorological and solar radiation conditions. Furthermore locally optimized evolution and modification of renewable components integrated into the building’s structure is possible, leveraging an increasingly wide range of possibilities in form, finish and renewable energy generation.

Florin C. Popescu

Pedestrian as Generator: Implementing a Stand-Alone Piezo Power Generating Device in the Urban Context

During the past decade the implementation of energy harvesting sensor technology, at micro scale, has occurred due to the rapid growth of low-powered device usage, such as mobile phones, laptops, and the development of LED lights significantly increasing in efficiency. Studies have demonstrated that the ability of this technology to harvest energy from the human body, such as footfalls, can be used in the generation of electricity. Piezoelectric sensor technology has been investigated for this purpose, due to its significant advancement in the efficiency and its application in a variety of designs. This research investigates how pedestrians can become generators of their own service, through the use of piezoelectric sensor technology, in the form of safety lighting. Proposed urban design scenarios explore the opportunity implementing a piezo power-generating device along high traffic pedestrians pathways in the City of Melbourne (Australia), evaluating real time and storage options, considering harvesting the energy during the day and using it at night time when needed.

Elena Vanz, Justyna Karakiewicz

Dynamic Façades and Computation: Towards an Inclusive Categorization of High Performance Kinetic Façade Systems

This chapter provides a panorama of the current state of computationally controlled dynamic facades through a literature review and a survey of contemporary projects. This was completed with an underlyings interest in understanding how innovative design solutions with the capacity to ‘react to’ and/or ‘interact with’ the varying states of climatic conditions have been developed. An analysis of these projects was conducted, and led to the identification of tendencies, which were subsequently synthesized and articulated. While most classifications are limited to describing the




needed to achieve morphological transformation, an important recommendation is to also consider


as a determining factor. For this reason, the culmination of the investigation presented here is a proposal for a classification structure of dynamic facades, developed according to the functional modus operandi of each structure in terms of




Rodrigo Velasco, Aaron Paul Brakke, Diego Chavarro

Automated and Parametric Design


The Future of the Architect’s Employment

To Which Extent Can Architectural Design Be Computerised?

This paper was motivated by Frey and Osborne’s [


] work about the probability of different occupations being computerised in the near future, titled “The Future of Employment”. In their study, the architect’s profession had a very low probability of being automated, which does not do justice to the past fifty years of research in the field of architectural design automation. After reviewing some concepts in economics and labor, and identifying three categories of tasks in regards to automation, we propose a new estimate, by looking independently at 30 architectural tasks. We also took into account the reported advances in the automation of these tasks through scientific research. We conclude that there is presently a change in skill requirements for architects, suggesting that we have to rethink architectural education, so architects will not need to compete against the computer in the near future.

Gabriela Celani, Maycon Sedrez, Daniel Lenz, Alessandra Macedo

Design Agency

Prototyping Multi-agent Systems in Architecture

This paper presents research on the prototyping of multi-agent systems for architectural design. It proposes a design exploration methodology at the intersection of architecture, engineering, and computer science. The motivation of the work includes exploring bottom up generative methods coupled with optimizing performance criteria including for geometric complexity and objective functions for environmental, structural and fabrication parameters. The paper presents the development of a research framework and initial experiments to provide design solutions, which simultaneously satisfy complexly coupled and often contradicting objectives. The prototypical experiments and initial algorithms are described through a set of different design cases and agents within this framework; for the generation of façade panels for light control; for emergent design of shell structures; for actual construction of reciprocal frames; and for robotic fabrication. Initial results include multi-agent derived efficiencies for environmental and fabrication criteria and discussion of future steps for inclusion of human and structural factors.

David Jason Gerber, Evangelos Pantazis, Leandro Soriano Marcolino

ModRule: A User-Centric Mass Housing Design Platform

This paper presents a novel platform, ModRule, designed and developed to promote and facilitate collaboration between architects and future occupants during the design stage of mass housing buildings. Architects set the design-framework and parameters of the system, which allows the users to set their space requirements, budgets, etc., and define their desired way of living. The system utilizes gamification methodologies as a reference to promote incentives and user-friendliness for the layperson who has little or no architectural background. This enhanced integration of a both bottom-up approach (user-centric/player) with a top-down approach (architect-centric/game-maker) will greatly influence how architects design high rise living. By bridging the gap between the architect and the user, this development aims to instill a greater sense of belonging to people, as well as providing architects with a better understanding of how to give people more control over their living spaces. The paper also presents an evaluation of a design process that employed ModRule.

Tian Tian Lo, Marc Aurel Schnabel, Yan Gao

Structural Design Based on Performance Applied to Development of a Lattice Wind Tower

This paper studies the process of parametric and algorithmic design, integrating structural analysis and design for the generation of complex geometric structures. This methodology is based on the Performative Model, where the shape is generated using performance criteria. In the approach, the development of complex structures is only possible by reversing the process of thinking to generate the form with established parameters for geometry, material and loading aspects. Thus, the structural engineer no longer only participates in the evaluation phase but also appears in the early stages, creating a process of exploration and production of common knowledge among architects and engineers. To research performance-based design, the development of a conceptual lattice for a wind tower is proposed. Thus, a system is made to generate geometries using Rhinoceros software, the Grasshopper plugin, and the VB programming language, integrated with stress analysis through the Scan & Solve plugin.

Marina Borges, Ricardo H. Fakury

Parametric Modeling of Bamboo Pole Joints

This paper describes the development of a parametric modeling system that enables the design of customized bamboo pole joints, where the geometry of each bamboo piece becomes the main design constraint. Rules of design are identified in traditional bamboo-jointing practice through the analysis of a bamboo catalogue. This knowledge informs the constructive principles of the system. Output data of the system successfully formulates the design of a customized bamboo jointing system. The effort of this paper suggests that further development of an application or software to facilitate the design of parametric bamboo joints is a feasible project that could help bamboo to have a solid presence in modern building industry. Lastly, the paper hints that transference of parametric technology is a promising domain that could potentially be applied to streamline the use of other natural materials.

Olivia Espinosa Trujillo, Tsung-Hsien Wang

Assisted Construction of Non-standard Wooden Walls and Envelope Structures by Parametric Modeling

We introduce a parametric modeling method in the field of computer-aided architectural conception, which aims to produce non-standard wooden walls and envelopes with CNC machinery. This method explores the application of polygonal cellular structures (as patterns) on facade and envelope interventions for new and old projects. We innovate by bringing the 3D production environment complexity into the conception model to improve the production of manifold woodworking items by CNC (Computer Numerical Control) 3D fabrication. A recent experimentation, tests the entire workflow from parametric modeling to production of two full-scale prototypes. The results prove the range of inputs offered by the method to be functional, though it needs various improvements in order to optimize parametric modeling and digital fabrication procedures. Future research will focus on treating a wider range of joints via parametric modeling and deal with joint creation regardless wall deformation to expand the morphological approach of non-standard wooden walls design.

Oscar Gámez, Jean-Claude Bignon, Gilles Duchanois

Building Information Modelling (BIM)


A BIM-Compatible Schema for Architectural Programming Information

Architectural programming, although a key part of AECFM processes, has not been well integrated into Building Information Modeling (BIM). Having access to architectural programming information throughout the lifecycle of a building can add value to design evaluation, facility management, renovation and extension. There is not currently a comprehensive and standard data model to store architectural programming information. Our research is producing a universal format for an architectural program of requirements (UFPOR) that can connect the architectural programming information to the IFC BIM schema. The result is a data model for architectural programming that is inherently interoperable with BIM standard schema. A graphical user interface facilitates data creation and manipulation. The schema and effectiveness of the bridging fields has been tested by entering the content of three two different architectural programming documents into the UFPOR database.

Ehsan Barekati, Mark J. Clayton, Wei Yan

A Framework for Speech-Oriented CAD and BIM Systems

This article discusses the development of a Speech Oriented Graphics Interface embedded in CAD and BIM software. The aim is to provide the means to work with complex 3D BIM models with minimal touch operations. We can cite the growing need for tools and user interfaces to assist designers in handling complex models, minimizing the risk of producing changes accidentally. In this area, the integration of a graphical database in BIM applications can be seen as an advantage over traditional CAD applications. However, we can note a difficulty in this integration, due to the need to maintain the constant levels of mental concentration required in order to effectively manage a larger inter-connected graphical database. Specifically in this area, voice interfaces can help by avoiding the need of “touch” to work with the 3D models, looking for improving its robustness and consistency. In addition, SR is used in order to reduce cognitive stress among the users, trying eliminating the need to memorize and remember commands, names and locations in GUI interfaces.

José Luis Menegotto

Development of BIM Performance Measurement System for Architectural Design Firms

Despite the effort of Korean government to vitalize BIM adoption in AEC industry, the domestic adoption of BIM is still in its initial step. Particular in design field where medium and small firms being the majority, shows lower level of BIM adoption. The primary reason for this can be considered as lacking of necessities caused by uncertain benefits of BIM. Therefore, it is time to develop the objectives, quantifiable and qualitative measurement system of BIM performances. The purpose of this study is to suggest the BIM Performance Measurement System for architectural design firms. In achieving this, the authors have developed Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and validated its appropriateness by questionnaire survey with experts and performing statistical analysis. This development can be contributed to the voluntary BIM adoption by visualizing the detailed benefit of BIM and to the improvement of enterprise competitiveness by facilitating management of design process and estimating future outcome.

Jihye Shin, Jungsik Choi, Inhan Kim

Facilitating Fire and Smoke Simulation Using Building Information Modeling

CFAST is a two-zone model which simulates fire growth and smoke transport. Manually modeling a building using CFAST user interface is a time consuming and error-prone process. In addition, the limitations in CFAST structure impede data transfer between CFAST and BIM (Building Information Modeling). In this research, we identified major limitations of CFAST, proposed solutions to the limitations, and developed a system for data interchange between BIM and CFAST. This greatly facilitated fire and smoke simulation. We further developed a visualization module to visualize the simulation results to overcome the problems when using SmokeView, an application developed by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A pilot test is conducted using this system. The simulation process was done in just a few minutes. This is expected to help architects to design buildings safer from building fires, and help students in learning building safety and fire related building codes.

Chengde Wu, Saied Zarrinmehr, Mohammad Rahmani Asl, Mark J. Clayton

A Semantic Web Approach for Built Heritage Representation

In a built heritage process, meant as a structured system of activities aimed at the investigation, preservation, and management of architectural heritage, any task accomplished by the several actors involved in it is deeply influenced by the way the knowledge is represented and shared. In the current heritage practice, knowledge representation and management have shown several limitations due to the difficulty of dealing with large amount of extremely heterogeneous data. On this basis, this research aims at extending semantic web approaches and technologies to architectural heritage knowledge management in order to provide an integrated and multidisciplinary representation of the artifact and of the knowledge necessary to support any decision or any intervention and management activity. To this purpose, an ontology-based system, representing the knowledge related to the artifact and its contexts, has been developed through the formalization of domain-specific entities and relationships between them.

Stefano Cursi, Davide Simeone, Ilaria Toldo

Fabrication and Materiality


Migratory Movements of Homo Faber: Mapping Fab Labs in Latin America

The present paper is a mapping study of digital fabrication laboratories in Latin America. It presents and discusses results from a survey with 31 universities’ fab labs, studios and independent initiatives in Latin America. The objective of this study is fourfold: firstly, to draw the cultural, social and economic context of implementation of digital fabrication laboratories in the region; secondly, to synthesize relevant data from correlations between organizational structures, facilities and technologies, activities, types of prototypes, uses and areas of application; thirdly, to draw a network of people and institutions, recovering connections and the genealogy of these fab labs; and fourthly, to present some fab labs that are intertwined with local questions. The results obtained indicate a complex “homo faber” network of initiatives that embraces academic investigations, architectural developments, industry applications, artistic propositions and actions in social processes.

David M. Sperling, Pablo C. Herrera, Rodrigo Scheeren

A New Machinecraft

A Critical Evaluation of Architectural Robots

This paper intends to develop an understanding of the new role robotics occupy in the architectural process, from the early stage of conceptualization to the final stage of its materialization. This issue will be addressed on two levels of discourse. While the first level discusses the theoretical-philosophical framework behind the architectural integration of robots, the second investigates the resulting methodological implications on an applied research project. A critical evaluation of the use and the self-development of robots or robotic devices by architects is being aspired to. The attempt to redefine the status of the machine in general, and specifically of the robot, seeks to illustrate the robot as an active design agent.

Cristina Nan

Formal Descriptions of Material Manipulations

An Exploration with Cuts and Shadows

Shape computation in design is never purely limited to visual aspects and ideally includes material aspects as well. The physicality of designing introduces a wide range of variables for designers to tackle within the design process. We present a simple design exercise realised in four stages where we physically manipulate perforated cardboard sheets as a case to make material variables explicit in the computation. The emphasis is on representing sensory aspects rather than easily quantifiable properties more suitable for simulations. Our explorations demonstrate the use of visual rules to represent actions, variables and form as well as how to control the variables to create new results, both desired and surprising, in materially informed ways.

Benay Gürsoy, Iestyn Jowers, Mine Özkar

Super-Details: Integrated Patterns from 3D Printing Processes to Performance-Based Design

Performance-based architecture has predominately been influenced by computational advances in simulating complex organizations. The advent of 3D printing, however, has introduced a new approach to generate complex forms, which is redirecting focus from shape-centric design to material design, namely, innovative structures and properties generated by the process itself. This article investigated the multiscale approach potential to design using extrusion-based 3D printing techniques that offer novel geometric organizations that conform to desired performance. It was found that 3D printed toolpaths adapted to extrusion-based systems render an anisotropic behavior to the architectural object that is best optimized by designing tessellated surfaces as the primary structural shape from which small-scale periodic surfaces can be embedded within a larger geometric system.

François Leblanc

Architecture Meets Gaming and Robotics: Creating Interactive Prototypes and Digital Simulations for Architects

This paper presents an approach to producing an interactive physical kinetic prototype and its digital simulation for architects using a series of proposed methods. Conventional architectural CAD applications alone are not always sufficient for illustrating ideas for adaptable and responsive architecture that can conditionally change its states over time. The use of technologies from game design and robotics has a potential to extend the role of architects beyond merely providing static formal design solutions to various spatial problems. The paper introduces methods for rapid prototyping and real-time interaction between physical kinetic prototypes and a digital application environment for simulation using readily available commodity hardware, such as Arduino microcontrollers, 9 g servo motors, Kinect sensors, and Unity 3D game engine software with its computational physics. The paper also presents case studies using the approach and discusses possible applications and assessment of this approach.

Taro Narahara

Shape Studies


Design Patterns from Empirical Studies in Computer-Aided Design

This paper presents the results from studying the effect of the use of computational tools on designers’ behavior in terms of using design patterns in the conceptual development stage of designing. The results are based on a protocol study in which architectural designers were asked to complete two architectural design tasks with similar complexity, one in a parametric design environment and one in a geometric modeling environment. To explore the development of design patterns during the design process, the technique of 2nd order Markov model was used. The results suggest that there were more design patterns adopted in the parametric design environment than in the geometric modeling environment. Also, there are more design patterns related to structure in the parametric design environment than in the geometric modeling environment.

Rongrong Yu, John Gero

Shape Grammars for Architectural Design: The Need for Reframing

Although many shape grammars and corresponding implementations have been proposed, shape grammars are not widely adopted by architectural designers. In this paper, we therefore look for the barriers of implementing and using shape grammars for architectural design. We do this by outlining several implementation strategies of shape grammars, we briefly point to our own graph-based design grammar system, and we analyse the resulting overview using theories on how designers think and act upon incoming information. Based on this analysis, we develop and suggest how design grammars might best be implemented and used for architectural design relying on the information technologies available at this particular moment of time.

Pieter Pauwels, Tiemen Strobbe, Sara Eloy, Ronald De Meyer

From Idea to Shape, from Algorithm to Design: A Framework for the Generation of Contemporary Facades

Nowadays, there is a growing interest in buildings’ envelops presenting complex geometries and patterns. This interest is related with the use of new design tools, such as Generative Design, which promotes a greater design exploration. In this paper we discuss and illustrate a structured and systematic computational framework for the generation of facade designs. This framework includes (1) a classification of facades into different categories that we consider computationally relevant, and (2) an identification and implementation of a set of algorithms and strategies that address the needs of the different designs.

Inês Caetano, Luís Santos, António Leitão

Pattern, Cognition and Spatial Information Processing

Representations of the Spatial Layout of Architectural Design with Spatial-Semantic Analytics

In this paper, we review and extend the idea of Alexander’s “pattern language”, especially from the viewpoints of complexity theories, information systems, and human-computer interaction, to explore spatial cognition-based design representations for “intelligent and adaptive/interactive environment” in architecture and urban planning. We propose a theoretic framework of design patterns “with spatial information processing”, and attempt to incorporate state-of-the-art computational methods of information visualization/visual analytics into the conventional CAAD approaches. Focused on the spatial-semantic analytics, together with abstract syntactic pattern representation, by using “spatial-semantic aware” graph grammar formalization, i.e., Spatial Graph Grammars (SGG), the relevant models, algorithms and tool are proposed. We testify our theoretic framework and computational tool



a Visual Environment of Graph Grammar Induction Engineering

) by using actual architectural design works (spatial layout exemplars of a small office building and the three house projects by Frank Lloyd Wright) as study cases, so as to demonstrate our proposed approach for practical applications. The results are discussed and further research is suggested.

Kai Liao, Bauke de Vries, Jun Kong, Kang Zhang

The Geometry of Chuck Hoberman

As the Basis for the Development of Dynamic Experimental Structures

The cognitive-theoretical foundation referring to teach drawing as a way of thinking, as well as the construction of the environment by means of drawing using transforming geometries and the formal and para-formal computational process, creating unusual geometries through generative design processes and methodologies, can be seen as some of the main possibilities in exploring dynamic experimental structures for an Adaptive Architecture. This article presents the development of a model for articulated facades, inspired by Hoberman’s Tessellates, and his Adaptive Building Initiative (ABI) project to develop facades models that respond in real time to environmental changes. In addition, we describe an experiment based on the retractable structures, inspired by Hoberman’s work and experimentations. Solutions for responsive facades can offer more flexible architectural solutions providing better use of natural light and contributing to saving energy. Using Rhinoceros and the Grasshopper for modeling and test the responsiveness, the parametric model was created to simulate geometric panels of hexagonal grids that would open and close in reaction to translational motion effects, regulating the amount of light that reaches the building.

Márcia Anaf, Harris Nogueira de Camargo Ana Lúcia

Material Computability of Indeterminate Plaster Behavior

In this study, we revisit the concepts of abstraction and materialization with regards to the theoretical framework of new materialism. Underlining the changing relationship between design through abstraction (DtA) and design through materialization (DtM) in design history, we propose an integration of the two towards achieving design emergence. Additional to a theoretical framework, we provide a showcase through material experiments of plaster and abstractions in the form of shape computation. We discuss results as parameters for future digital implementations and potentials for design practice and education.

Aslı Aydın, Mine Özkar

A Design Tool for Generic Multipurpose Chair Design

Product classes share the same basic abstract layout, despite their great diversity. The present paper intends to (de)code the variety of types embedded in the class of multipurpose chairs. The contribution of this research is the development of a generative design tool, to be used at the conceptual chair design stage. A framework of five stages is proposed: (1) sample definition, considering chairs with a large diversity of types; (2) analysis of the syntax and semantics of the class through ontological classification; (3) development of a generic shape grammar, innovatively applied to product design; (4) implementation of a digital tool, that provides an interface to manipulate the chair components visualized in a 3D digital model; and (5) user evaluation of the program, in order to draw conclusions on the usability and usefulness of the tool and to collect inputs for further developments.

Sara Garcia, Luís Romão


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